Erdenet is the second-largest city in Mongolia and the capital of the aimag of Orkhon. Known as Bayan-Öndör sum. Located in the northern part of the country, it lies in a valley between the Selenge and Orkhon rivers about 150 miles northwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital; the road length between Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet is about 230 mi. Erdenet, one of the youngest settlements in Mongolia, was founded in 1974 in an area where large deposits of copper had been discovered in the 1950s. A single-track railway line with a length of 75 mi linking Erdenet to the Trans-Mongolian Railway was inaugurated in 1977. In the middle of the 1980s, more than 50% of the inhabitants were Russians working as engineers or miners. After the fall of Soviet Communism in 1990, most Russians left Erdenet. Today, about 10% of the population is Russian; the city hosts the fourth largest copper mine in the world. The Erdenet Mining Corporation is a joint Mongolian-Russian venture, accounts for a majority of Mongolia's hard currency income.
Erdenet mines 22.23 million tons of ore per year, producing 126,700 tons of copper and 1,954 tons of molybdenum. The mine accounts for 7 % of tax revenue. About 8,000 people are employed in the mine. Erdenet is linked to Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, to the towns of Darkhan and Bulgan by a paved road and is accessible by bus several times each day; the distance to the capital where the nearest airport is situated amounts to 230 miles and travel by car takes about eight hours. Train connections between Erdenet and Ulaanbaatar are less comfortable as there is only one train per day covering the distance in 11 hours. Tourists are allowed to visit the mine by appointment, it is in the eastern part of about 6 km from the centre. Another important economic factor of Erdenet is the carpet factory about 2 km from the center to the east, founded in 1981; every year, about 2,000 metric tons of wool are processed in the factory where about 1,100 people are employed. The Mining Museum, in the Culture Palace on the central town square.
The Aimag Museum was founded in 1983. The Fraternity Monument dating from 1984 is on a hill offering a scenic view of the whole city in the northeastern part of Erdenet. A new temple with a large Buddha statue was built recently in the eastern part of Erdenet. An amusement park was laid out in the east of the center. Amarbayasgalant Monastery is a Buddhist monastery about 60 km northeast of Erdenet, it was founded between 1727 and 1737 destroyed by order of Khorloogiin Choibalsan in 1937 and reconstructed after 1975 using financial aid provided by the UNESCO. Erdenet has a subarctic climate. Erdenet is twinned with: Erdenet Mining Corporation
Republican People's Party (Turkey)
The Republican People's Party is a Kemalist and social-democratic political party in Turkey. It is the oldest political party in the country, is the main opposition in the Grand National Assembly; the CHP describes itself as "a modern social democratic party, faithful to the founding principles and values of the Republic of Turkey". The party is cited as "the founding party of modern Turkey", its logo consists of the Six Arrows, which represent the foundational principles of Kemalism: republicanism, statism, populism and reformism. The political party was established during the Sivas Congress in 1919 as a union of resistance groups against the Greek invasion of Anatolia; the union represented Turkish people as a unified front during the Turkish War of Independence. On 9 September 1923, the "People's Party" declared itself to be a political organization and on 29 October 1923, announced the establishment of the Turkish Republic. On 10 November 1924, the People's Party renamed itself the "Republican People's Party" as Turkey moved into a one-party period.
During the one-party period, the CHP became the major political organisation of a one-party state. However, CHP faced two opposition parties during this period, both established upon the request of CHP leader and founder of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in efforts to kick-start a multi-party democracy in Turkey; the first one was the Progressive Republican Party established in 1924 by famous generals such as Kazım Karabekir and Ali Fuat Cebesoy, who both served during the Turkish War of Independence, the second was the Liberal Republican Party founded by Ali Fethi Okyar in 1930. Both parties, were banned within a few months of their establishment by the state for veering too to Islamism; this experience was followed by the founding of the National Development Party by Nuri Demirağ in 1945. The current structure of the party was established within the transition to the multi-party period. After World War II, the leader of the CHP, İsmet İnönü, introduced democratic elections to Turkish society.
There was widespread dissatisfaction with the CHP in the four years after its victory at the first multi-party general election. The party lost the following elections in 1950, Celâl Bayar replaced İnönü as president. During the interim "multi-party periods" in between the military coups of 1960, 1971, 1980, the CHP was regarded as being social-democratic, civic nationalist and secularist/laicist; the CHP, along with all other political parties of the time, was suspended for a brief period by the military junta of 1980. An inheritor party which still participates in Turkish democratic life as a separate party was established in 1984 by the name of the Democratic Left Party, created by the former leader of the CHP, Bülent Ecevit; the CHP was re-established with its original name on 9 September 1992, with the participation of a majority of its members from the pre-1980 period. The Republican People's Party is a centre-left political party with traditional ties to the middle and upper-middle classes such as white-collar workers, retired generals, government bureaucrats, college students, left-leaning intellectuals and labour unions such as DİSK.
The loose relationship between CHP and some trade unions, business chambers and most non-governmental organisations has alienated many voters. The distance between the party administration and many leftist grassroots left oriented Kurdish voters, contributed to the party's shift away from the political left. Despite heavy criticism from liberal and libertarian socialist interest groups, the CHP still holds a significant position in the Socialist International and is an associate member of the Party of European Socialists; the CHP urged the Socialist International to accept the Republican Turkish Party of Northern Cyprus as an observer member. At the 2007 general election, CHP ran in alliance with the Democratic Left Party; the CHP suffered a heavy defeat. The CHP, DSP, YTP combined received 21.77% of the votes in the 2002. The party finished first only in the three provinces of Edirne, Tekirdağ, Kırklareli, as well as two provinces on the Aegean coast which were İzmir and Muğla. With these results, 112 candidates were elected to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey from the CHP electoral sheet, compared to 178 in 2002.
The CHP increased its vote share from 20.9% to 23.1% in the 2009 local elections. The party gained considerable ground by winning over Antalya, Zonguldak, Tekirdağ, Aydın, despite losing Trabzon municipality. In 20 provinces of Turkey, the party received less than 3% of the votes. At the general elections held in June 2011, the CHP was able to increase its number and percentage of voters to 11,155,972 and 25.98% respectively. At the 2014 local elections, the CHP's total votes went down to 10,835,876 yet it received 26.34% of the overall vote. CHP-backed candidate Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu was able to get only 38.44% of the votes during the presidential election five months later. In the June 2015 general elections where the ruling AKP lost its parliamentary majority for the first time, the party received 11,518,139 votes, or 24.95%. A coalition government was not formed and snap elections were held in November 2015, where the CHP received 12,111,812 votes, or 25.32%. During the Turkish War of Independence, 1919–1923, the parliament in Ankara was composed of different types of deputies.
To have harmony among his followers, Mustafa Kemal and his colleagues formed Müdafaa-ı Hukuk grubu. The opposition to Mustafa Kemal or to the commis
Lesbos is an island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. It has an area of 1,633 km2 with 320 kilometres of coastline, making it the third largest island in Greece, it is separated from Turkey by the narrow Mytilini Strait and in late Palaeolithic/Mesolithic times was joined to the Anatolian mainland before the end of the last glacial period. Lesbos is the name of a regional unit of the North Aegean region, within which Lesbos island is one of five governing islands; the others are Chios, Ikaria and Samos. The North Aegean region governs nine inhabited islands: Lesbos, Psara, Ikaria, Fournoi Korseon, Agios Efstratios and Samos; the capital of the North Aegean Region is Mytilene. The population of Lesbos is 86,000, a third of whom live in its capital, Mytilene, in the southeastern part of the island; the remaining population is distributed in small villages. The largest are Plomari, the Gera Villages, Agiassos and Molyvos. According to Greek writers, Mytilene was founded in the 11th century BC by the family Penthilidae, who arrived from Thessaly and ruled the city-state until a popular revolt led by Pittacus of Mytilene ended their rule.
In fact the archaeological and linguistic record may indicate a late Iron Age arrival of Greek settlers although references in Late Bronze Age Hittite archives indicate a Greek presence then. The name Mytilene. According to Homer's Iliad, Lesbos was part of the kingdom of Priam, based in Anatolia. Much work remains to be done to determine just when. In the Middle Ages, it was under Byzantine and Genoese rule. Lesbos was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1462; the Ottomans ruled the island until the First Balkan War in 1912, when it became part of the Kingdom of Greece. The name is from Ancient Greek: Λέσβος Lésbos "forested" or "woody" a Hittite borrowing, as the original Hittite name for the island was Lazpa. An older name for the island, maintained in Aeolic Greek was Ἴσσα Íssa. Lesbos lies in the far east of the Aegean sea, facing the Turkish coast from the east; the shape of the island is triangular, but it is intruded by the gulfs of Kalloni, with an entry on the southern coast, of Gera, in the southeast.
The island is forested and mountainous with two large peaks, Mt. Lepetymnos at 968 m and Mt. Olympus at 967 m, dominating its northern and central sections; the island's volcanic origin is manifested in the two gulfs. Lesbos is verdant, aptly named Emerald Island, with a greater variety of flora than expected for the island's size. Eleven million olive trees cover 40% of the island together with other fruit trees. Forests of mediterranean pines, chestnut trees and some oaks occupy 20%, the remainder is scrub, grassland or urban; the island has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. The mean annual temperature is 18 °C, the mean annual rainfall is 750 mm, its exceptional sunshine makes it one of the sunniest islands in the Aegean Sea. Snow and low temperatures are rare; the entire territory of Lesbos is "Lesvos Geopark", a member of the European Geoparks Network and Global Geoparks Network on account of its outstanding geological heritage, educational programs and projects, promotion of geotourism.
This geopark was enlarged from former "Lesvos Petrified Forest Geopark". Lesbos contains one of the few known petrified forests called Petrified forest of Lesbos and it has been declared a Protected Natural Monument. Fossilised plants have been found in many localities on the western part of the island; the fossilised forest was formed during the Late Oligocene to Lower–Middle Miocene, by the intense volcanic activity in the area. Neogene volcanic rocks dominate the central and western part of the island, comprising andesites and rhyolites, pyroclastics and volcanic ash; the products of the volcanic activity covered the vegetation of the area and the fossilization process took place during favourable conditions. The fossilized plants are silicified remnants of a sub-tropical forest that existed on the north-west part of the island 20–15 million years ago. According to Classical Greek mythology, Lesbos was the patron god of the island. Macareus of Rhodes was reputedly the first king whose many daughters bequeathed their names to some of the present larger towns.
In Classical myth his sister, was killed to have him made king. The place names with female origins are claimed by some to be much earlier settlements named after local goddesses, who were replaced by gods. Homer refers to the seat of Macar. Hittite records from the Late Bronze Age name the island Lazpa and must have considered its population significant enough to allow the Hittites to "borrow their gods" to cure their king when the local gods were not forthcoming, it is believed that emigrants from mainland Greece from Thessaly, entered the island in the Late Bronze Age and bequeathed it with the Aeolic dialect of the Greek language, whose written form survives in the poems of Sappho, amongst others. The abundant grey pottery ware found on the island and the worship of Cybele, the great mother-goddess of Anatolia, suggest the cultural continuity of the population from Neolithic times; when the Persian king Cyrus defeated Croesus the Ionic Greek cities of An
Michael Stanley Dukakis is a retired American politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991. He is the longest-serving governor in Massachusetts history and only the second Greek-American governor in U. S. history, after Spiro Agnew. He was nominated by the Democratic Party for president in the 1988 election, losing to the Republican candidate, Vice President George H. W. Bush. Born in Brookline, Massachusetts to Greek and Aromanian Greek immigrants, Dukakis attended Swarthmore College before enlisting in the United States Army. After graduating from Harvard Law School, he won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, serving from 1963 to 1971, he won the 1974 Massachusetts gubernatorial election but lost his 1978 bid for re-nomination to Edward J. King, he defeated King in the 1982 gubernatorial primary and served as governor from 1983 to 1991, presiding over a period of economic growth known as the "Massachusetts Miracle".
Building on his popularity as governor, Dukakis sought the Democratic presidential nomination for the 1988 presidential election. He prevailed in the Democratic primaries and was formally nominated at the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Dukakis chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running mate, while the Republicans nominated a ticket consisting of George H. W. Bush and Senator Dan Quayle. Dukakis lost the election, carrying only ten states and Washington, D. C. but he improved on the Democratic performance in the previous two elections. After the election, Dukakis announced that he would not seek another term as governor, he left office in 1991. Since leaving office, Dukakis has served on the board of directors for Amtrak and has taught political science at Northeastern University and UCLA, he was mentioned as a potential appointee to the Senate in 2009 to fill the vacancy caused by Ted Kennedy's death, but Governor Deval Patrick chose Paul G. Kirk. In 2012, Dukakis backed the successful Senate campaign of Elizabeth Warren.
Dukakis was born in Massachusetts. His father Panos was a Greek immigrant from Adramyttion, in Asia Minor, part of the Ottoman Empire. Panos Dukakis settled in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1912, graduated from Harvard Medical School twelve years subsequently working as an obstetrician. Dukakis' mother Euterpe was an Aromanian Greek immigrant from Larissa, in Thessaly. Dukakis attended Brookline High School in his hometown, where he was an honor student and a member of the basketball, baseball and cross-country teams; as a 17-year-old senior in high school, he ran the Boston Marathon. He graduated from Swarthmore College in 1955 with a B. A. in political science. Although Dukakis had been accepted into Harvard Law School, he chose to enlist in the United States Army. After basic training at Fort Dix and advanced individual training at Camp Gordon, he was assigned as radio operator to the 8020th Administrative Unit in Munsan, South Korea; the unit was a support group to the United Nations delegation of the Military Armistice Commission Dukakis served from 1955 to 1957.
He received his J. D. degree from Harvard Law School in 1960. Dukakis is an Eagle Scout and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America. Dukakis began his political career as an elected Town Meeting Member in the town of Brookline. After serving four terms in the Massachusetts House of Representatives between 1962 and 1970, Dukakis was elected governor in 1974, defeating the incumbent Republican Francis Sargent during a period of fiscal crisis. Dukakis won in part by promising to be a "reformer" and pledging a "lead pipe guarantee" of no new taxes to balance the state budget, he would reverse his position after taking office. He pledged to dismantle the powerful Metropolitan District Commission, a bureaucratic enclave that served as home to hundreds of political patronage employees; the MDC managed state parks and waterways, as well as the highways and roads abutting those waterways. In addition to its own police force, the MDC had its own maritime patrol force, an enormous budget from the state, for which it provided minimal accounting.
Dukakis' efforts to dismantle the MDC failed in the legislature, where the MDC had many powerful supporters. As a result, the MDC would withhold its critical backing of Dukakis in the 1978 gubernatorial primary. Governor Dukakis hosted President Gerald Ford and Britain's Queen Elizabeth II during their visits to Boston in 1976 to commemorate the bicentennial of the United States, he gained some notice as the only politician in the state government who went to work during the Blizzard of 1978, during which he went to local TV studios in a sweater to announce emergency bulletins. Dukakis is remembered for his 1977 exoneration of Sacco and Vanzetti, two Italian anarchists whose trial sparked protests around the world. During his first term in office, Dukakis commuted the sentences of 21 first-degree murderers and 23 second-degree murderers, his first term performance proved to be insufficient to offset a backlash against the state's high sales and property tax rates, which turned out to be the predominant issue in the 1978 gubernatorial campaign.
Dukakis, despite being the incumbent Democratic governor, was refused renomination by his own party. The state's Democratic Party chose to support Director of the Massachusetts Port Authority Edward J. King in the primary because King rode the wave against high property taxes, but more because state Democratic Party leaders lost confidence in Dukakis' ability to govern e
Alevism is a syncretic and local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli. Alevis are found in Turkey among ethnic Turks and Kurds, make up between 11-12% of Turkey's population, the largest belief after Sunni Islam. After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a dispute arose about his legitimate successor; the Islamic community was divided into those who adhered to Abu Bakr, named Sunnis, those who sided with Ali, called Shia. Concurrently, people who sided with Ali were called Alevis, defined as "those who adore to Ali and his family". Therefore, some authors uses Shiism synonymously with Alevism. However, Alevism is not Shiism, but affected by Shiism and although they share some common beliefs with the Twelver Shia, their rites and practises are wholly different from Shiism, thus Alevism incorporates Turkish beliefs present during the 14th century such as Shamanism and Animism, which mixed with Extremist Shias and Sufi beliefs that were adopted by some Turkish tribes, similar to the Sufi-Ghulat view of the first Safavids, integrated with Sunnism.
In Turkey, Ja'faris, Kaysanites, Fatimid Ismailis, Qizilbashes and Pamiris are called as Aleviler. However Alawism and Alevism are two distinct sects; the topic Alevi investigated in this article refers to "Kızılbaş faith". Some of the differences that mark Alevis from mainstream Muslims are the use of cemevi halls rather than mosques. Alevis have some links with Twelver Shia Islam, but do not follow taqlid towards a Marja' "source of emulation"; some practices of the Alevis are based on Sufi elements of the Bektashi tariqa. "Alevi" is explained as referring to Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. The name represents a Turkish form of the word ‘Alawi "of or pertaining to Ali". According to scholar Soner Cagaptay, Alevism is a "relatively unstructured interpretation of Islam". Journalist Patrick Kingsley states that for some self-described Alevi, their religion is "simply a cultural identity, rather than a form of worship". Many teachings are based on an orally transmitted tradition, traditionally kept secret from outsiders.
Alevis profess the Islamic shahada, but adding "Ali is the friend of God". The basis for Alevis' most distinctive beliefs is found in the Buyruks. Included are hymns by figures such as Shah Ismail or Pir Sultan Abdal, stories of Hajji Bektash and other lore. In Alevi cosmology, God is called Al-Haqq or referred to as Allah. God created life and gave part of Himself, the soul, so the created world can reflect His Being. Alevis believe in the unity of Allah and Ali, but this is not a trinity composed of God and the historical figures of Muhammad and Ali. Rather and Ali are representations of Allah's light, being neither independent from God, nor separate characteristics of Him, they do not worship god because they are scared of him they worship god because of their everlasting love. The exact meaning of this trinity is blurred; some consider Haqq with Muhammed and Ali equal below created from His light. Others consider them all to be the same. In Alevi writings are many references to the unity of Muhammad and Ali, such as: Ali Muhammed'dir uh dur fah'ad, Muhammad Ali, Gördüm bir elmadır, el-Hamdû'liLlâh.
The phrase "For the love of Allah-Muhammad-Ali" is common to several Alevi prayers. Despite the different description of God, there can't be found a trace of God ruling based on fear. Accordingly, God will not judge the people by their acts of worship and there is no literal hell or heaven with material punishments or pleasures; however Alevism believes in the immortality of the soul. Alevis, who believe in a literal existence of supernatural beings believe in good and bad angels the same as Orthodox Islam, i
Homer is the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature. The Iliad is set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek kingdoms, it focuses on a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles lasting a few weeks during the last year of the war. The Odyssey focuses on the ten-year journey home of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, after the fall of Troy. Many accounts of Homer's life circulated in classical antiquity, the most widespread being that he was a blind bard from Ionia, a region of central coastal Anatolia in present-day Turkey. Modern scholars consider these accounts legendary; the Homeric Question – concerning by whom, when and under what circumstances the Iliad and Odyssey were composed – continues to be debated. Broadly speaking, modern scholarly opinion falls into two groups. One holds that most of the Odyssey are the works of a single poet of genius; the other considers the Homeric poems to be the result of a process of working and reworking by many contributors, that "Homer" is best seen as a label for an entire tradition.
It is accepted that the poems were composed at some point around the late eighth or early seventh century BC. The poems are in Homeric Greek known as Epic Greek, a literary language which shows a mixture of features of the Ionic and Aeolic dialects from different centuries. Most researchers believe that the poems were transmitted orally. From antiquity until the present day, the influence of the Homeric epics on Western civilization has been great, inspiring many of its most famous works of literature, music and film; the Homeric epics were the greatest influence on education. Today only the Iliad and Odyssey are associated with the name'Homer'. In antiquity, a large number of other works were sometimes attributed to him, including the Homeric Hymns, the Contest of Homer and Hesiod, the Little Iliad, the Nostoi, the Thebaid, the Cypria, the Epigoni, the comic mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the Margites, the Capture of Oechalia, the Phocais; these claims are not considered authentic today and were by no means universally accepted in the ancient world.
As with the multitude of legends surrounding Homer's life, they indicate little more than the centrality of Homer to ancient Greek culture. Many traditions circulated in the ancient world concerning Homer. Modern scholarly consensus is; some claims were repeated often. They include that Homer was blind, that he was born in Chios, that he was the son of the river Meles and the nymph Critheïs, that he was a wandering bard, that he composed a varying list of other works, that he died either in Ios or after failing to solve a riddle set by fishermen, various explanations for the name "Homer"; the two best known ancient biographies of Homer are the Life of Homer by the Pseudo-Herodotus and the Contest of Homer and Hesiod. The study of Homer is one of the oldest topics in scholarship, dating back to antiquity. Nonetheless, the aims of Homeric studies have changed over the course of the millennia; the earliest preserved comments on Homer concern his treatment of the gods, which hostile critics such as the poet Xenophanes of Colophon denounced as immoral.
The allegorist Theagenes of Rhegium is said to have defended Homer by arguing that the Homeric poems are allegories. The Iliad and the Odyssey were used as school texts in ancient Greek and Hellenistic cultures, they were the first literary works taught to all students. The Iliad its first few books, was far more intently studied than the Odyssey during the Hellenistic and Roman periods; as a result of the poems' prominence in classical Greek education, extensive commentaries on them developed to explain parts of the poems that were culturally or linguistically difficult. During the Hellenistic and Roman Periods, many interpreters the Stoics, who believed that Homeric poems conveyed Stoic doctrines, regarded them as allegories, containing hidden wisdom; because of the Homeric poems' extensive use in education, many authors believed that Homer's original purpose had been to educate. Homer's wisdom became so praised that he began to acquire the image of a prototypical philosopher. Byzantine scholars such as Eustathius of Thessalonica and John Tzetzes produced commentaries and scholia to Homer in the twelfth century.
Eustathius's commentary on the Iliad alone is massive, sprawling nearly 4,000 oversized pages in a twenty-first century printed version and his commentary on the Odyssey an additional nearly 2,000. In 1488, the Greek scholar Demetrios Chalkokondyles published the editio princeps of the Homeric poems; the earliest modern Homeric scholars started with the same basic approaches towards the Homeric poems as scholars in antiquity. The allegorical interpretation of the Homeric poems, so prevalent in antiquity returned to become the prevailing view of the Renaissance. Renaissance humanists praised Homer as the archetypically wise poet, whose writings contain hidden wisdom, disguised through allegory. In western Europe during the Renaissance, Virgil was more read than Homer and Homer was seen through a Virgilian lens. In 1664, contradicting the widespread praise of Homer as the epitome of wisdom, François Hédelin, abbé d'Aubignac wrote a s
Nicolosi is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Catania in the Italian region Sicily, located about 160 kilometres southeast of Palermo and about 12 kilometres northwest of Catania. Nicolosi borders the following municipalities: Adrano, Biancavilla, Castiglione di Sicilia, Mascalucia, Randazzo, Sant'Alfio, Zafferana Etnea. Nicolosi is twinned with: Edremit, Turkey since 2010 Official website Unofficial website