The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, Alsace within France, majority German speaking; the Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention; the ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it. The Confederation was dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers member states Austria and Prussia; the War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine; the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein; the German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty; the states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were: Anhalt-Bernburg Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen Austrian Empire Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Hesse Hohenzollern-Hechingen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg Hesse-Homburg Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866.
The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation. The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Ass
Sannikov Land was a phantom island in the Arctic Ocean. Its supposed existence became something of a myth in 19th-century Russia. Yakov Sannikov and Matvei Gedenschtrom claimed to have seen the land mass during their 1809–1810 cartographic expedition to the New Siberian Islands. Sannikov was the first one to report the sighting of a "new land" north of Kotelny Island in 1811. In 1886, a Baltic German explorer in Russian service, Baron Eduard Toll, reported observing the elusive land during an expedition to the New Siberian Islands. In August 1901, during the Russian Polar Expedition led by Toll, the Russian Arctic ship Zarya headed across the Laptev Sea, searching for the legendary Sannikov Land, it was soon blocked by floating pack ice in the New Siberian Islands. Attempts to reach Sannikov Land, deemed to be beyond the De Long Islands, continued in 1902 while the Zarya was trapped in fast ice. In November and three companions left the Zarya and travelled south on loose ice floes, away from Bennett Island, vanished forever.
A search by the Soviet icebreaker Sadko was announced in 1936 and carried out in 1937 but found no trace of the land. Some historians and geographers, judging from other successes of Sannikov and the presence of shallow sand shoals at Sannikov Land's mapped location, postulate that it indeed once existed, but was destroyed by coastal erosion and became a submerged sand shoal, like many other islands formed either of fossilized ice or of permafrost; this process of Arctic islands disappearing continues within the New Siberian Islands archipelago. Other historians and geographers hypothesize that Sannikov Land might have been a miraged image of Bennett Island; such mirages occur in the Arctic region. Russian geologist and science fiction writer Vladimir Obruchev fictionalized this phantom island in his novel Sannikov Land. In the story, the island provided the last escape for a tribe of Onkilon, pushed away from the mainland by other Siberian peoples; the Onkilon were thought to be extinct, were discovered by a small expedition looking for the island and stranded at it.
Obruchev provided a reasonable justification of the possibility of the described events. The island turned out to be a crater of a warm place, heated by the volcano, it hosted a tribe of Neanderthals and mammoths. In the end of the story the volcano destroys the land. In 1973, a science fiction film based on the book, called Sannikov Land, was released in the Soviet Union. Crocker Land Bradley Land 1906 German map showing Sannikov Land north of Kessel Island 19th century Russian map showing Sannikov land as a white area between 110E and 120E
Smilodon is a genus of the extinct machairodont subfamily of the felids. It is one of the most famous prehistoric mammals, the best known saber-toothed cat. Although known as the saber-toothed tiger, it was not related to the tiger or other modern cats. Smilodon lived in the Americas during the Pleistocene epoch; the genus was named based on fossils from Brazil. Three species are recognized today: S. gracilis, S. fatalis, S. populator. The two latter species were descended from S. gracilis, which itself evolved from Megantereon. The hundreds of individuals obtained from the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles constitute the largest collection of Smilodon fossils. Overall, Smilodon was more robustly built than any extant cat, with well-developed forelimbs and exceptionally long upper canine teeth, its jaw had a bigger gape than that of modern cats, its upper canines were slender and fragile, being adapted for precision killing. S. gracilis was the smallest species at 55 to 100 kg in weight. S. fatalis had a weight of 160 to 280 height of 100 cm.
Both of these species are known from North America, but remains from South America have been attributed to them. S. populator from South America was the largest species, at 220 to 400 kg in weight and 120 cm in height, was among the largest known felids. The coat pattern of Smilodon is unknown, but it has been artistically restored with plain or spotted patterns. In North America, Smilodon hunted large herbivores such as bison and camels, it remained successful when encountering new prey species in South America. Smilodon is thought to have killed its prey by holding it still with its forelimbs and biting it, but it is unclear in what manner the bite itself was delivered. Scientists debate whether Smilodon had a solitary lifestyle. Smilodon lived in closed habitats such as forests and bush, which would have provided cover for ambushing prey. Smilodon died out at the same time that most North and South American megafauna disappeared, about 10,000 years ago, its reliance on large animals has been proposed as the cause of its extinction, along with climate change and competition with other species, but the exact cause is unknown.
During the 1830s, Danish naturalist Peter Wilhelm Lund and his assistants collected fossils in the calcareous caves near the small town of Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Among the thousands of fossils found, he recognized a few isolated cheek teeth as belonging to a hyena, which he named Hyaena neogaea in 1839. After more material was found, Lund concluded the fossils instead belonged to a distinct genus of felid, though transitional to the hyenas, he stated it would have matched the largest modern predators in size, was more robust than any modern cat. Lund wanted to name the new genus Hyaenodon, but realizing this had become preoccupied by another prehistoric predator, he instead named it Smilodon populator in 1842, he explained the Ancient Greek meaning of Smilodon as σμίλη, a scalpel or two-edged knife, οδόντος, tooth. This has been translated as "tooth shaped like double-edged knife", he explained the species name populator as "the destroyer", translated as "he who brings devastation".
By 1846, Lund had acquired nearly every part of the skeleton, more specimens were found in neighboring countries by other collectors in the following years. Though some authors used Lund's original species name neogaea instead of populator, it is now considered an invalid nomen nudum, as it was not accompanied with a proper description and no type specimens were designated; some South American specimens have been referred to other genera, subgenera and subspecies, such as Smilodontidion riggii, Smilodon ensenadensis, S. bonaeriensis, but these are now thought to be junior synonyms of S. populator. Fossils of Smilodon were discovered in North America from the second half of the 19th century onwards. In 1869, American paleontologist Joseph Leidy described a maxilla fragment with a molar, discovered in a petroleum bed in Hardin County, Texas, he referred the specimen to the genus Felis but found it distinct enough to be part of its own subgenus, as F. fatalis. The species name means "fate" or "destiny", but it is thought Leidy intended it to mean "fatal".
In an 1880 article about extinct American cats, American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope pointed out that the F. fatalis molar was identical to that of Smilodon, he proposed the new combination S. fatalis. Most North American finds were scanty until excavations began in the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, where hundreds of individuals of S. fatalis have been found since 1875. S. fatalis has junior synonyms such as S. mercerii, S. floridanus, S. californicus. American paleontologist Annalisa Berta considered the holotype of S. fatalis too incomplete to be an adequate type specimen, the species has at times been proposed to be a junior synonym of S. populator. Swedish paleontologists Björn Kurtén and Lars Werdelin supported the distinctness of the two species in 1990. In his 1880 article about extinct cats, Cope named a third species of Smilodon, S. gracilis. The species was based on a partial canine, obtained in a cave near the Schuylkill River in Pennsylvania. Cope found the canine to be distinct from that of the other Smilodon species due to
New Siberia is the easternmost of the Anzhu Islands, the northern subgroup of the New Siberian Islands lying between the Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea. Its area of 6,200 square kilometres places it the 102nd largest islands in the world. New Siberia Island is low rising to only 76 metres and covered with tundra vegetation; the island is a part of the territory of the Sakha Republic of Russia. New Siberia Island consists of clastic sediments ranging from Late Cretaceous to Pleistocene in age; the Late Cretaceous sediments consist of extensively folded layers of gray and greenish gray tuffaceous sand, tuffaceous silt, pebbly sand, layers of brown coal exposed in sea cliffs along it southwest coast. The sand and silt contain either volcanic glass, fossil plants, rhyolite pebbles, or some combination of them. Eocene sand, silt and brown coal overlies an erosional unconformity cut into the Late Cretaceous sediments. Within the northwest part of New Siberia Island, these sediments grade into clays that contain fragments of marine bivalves.
Directly overlying the Eocene sediments and another erosional unconformity are sands of Oligocene and Early Miocene age. They contain thin beds of silt, mud and pebbles; these sands contain fossil plants and lagoonal and lacustrine diatoms. These sands are overlain by Pliocene sediments consisting of layers of sand, mud and pebbles. Except for the Derevyannye Hills, Pleistocene sediments blanket the entire surface of New Siberia Island; these deposits consist of layers of marine sediments overlain by terrestrial sediments. The lower marine sediments are composed of three superimposed beds of marine to brackish water clay containing fossil mollusks and capped with peat; the overlying terrestrial sediments consist of an ice complex composed of ice-rich wind-blown silt in which ice wedges have developed. This ice complex accumulated over tens of thousands of years during the Late Pleistocene, through the Last Glacial Maximum, until it stopped at about 10,000 BP. During this period of tens of thousands of years, the formation of ice complex buried and preserved in permafrost an enormous number of mammoth tusks and bones and the bones of other “megafauna”.
New Siberia Island is noted for abundant upright tree trunks, leaf prints, other plant debris that occur within sediments that are exposed along sea cliffs and within the uplands of the Derevyannye Hills along its southern coast. Because of the abundance of exposed coalified logs and upright trunks, early explorers and paleobotanists referred to the Derevyannye Hills as either the "Wood Mountains", "Wood Hills", or "Tree Mountain". At one time, the folded layers of sand, mud and brown coal containing these coalified tree fossils were once thought to have accumulated during either the Miocene or Eocene Epoch; these sediments and the fossil trunks and logs, which they contain, are now known to date to the Late Cretaceous Period. Baron Von Toll, Dr. Klubov and others, Dr. Dorofeev and others, other publications all demonstrate that the claims by some authors, i.e. Mr. Southall, that the "Wood Hills" of New Siberia Island are either or "formed of driftwood" are erroneous. Rush/grass, cryptogam tundra covers the New Siberia Island.
It is tundra consisting of low-growing grasses, forbs, mosses and liverworts. These plants either or cover the surface of the ground; the soils are moist, fine-grained, hummocky. Yakov Sannikov was the first recorded European to set foot on New Siberia Island, in 1806, he discovered it during one of several hunting expeditions financed by merchants and Lev Syrovatsky. Jan Eskymo Welzl List of islands of Russia anonymous, nd,"New Siberian Islands". Archived from the original on 2010-12-23. Retrieved 2010-12-23. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown aerial photographs of these islands. Andreev, A. A. and D. M. Peteet, 1999, Climate and Diet of Mammoths in the East Siberian Arctic. Science Briefs. Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, New York. Last visited July 12, 2008. Anisimov, M. A. and V. E. Tumskoy, 2002, Environmental History of the Novosibirskie Islands for the last 12 ka. 32nd International Arctic Workshop and Abstracts 2002. Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado at Boulder, pp 23–25.
Kuznetsova, T. V. L. D. Sulerzhitsky, Ch. Siegert, 2001, New data on the “Mammoth” fauna of the Laptev Shelf Land, The World of Elephants - International Congress, Rome 2001. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Studio per il Quaternario e l'Evoluzione Ambientale, Università di Roma, Italy. Schirrmeister, L. H.-W. Hubberten, V. Rachold, V. G. Grosse, 2005, Lost world - Late Quaternary environment of periglacial Arctic shelves and coastal lowlands in NE-Siberia. 2nd International Alfred Wegener Symposium Bremerhaven, October, 30 - November 2, 2005
East Siberian Sea
The East Siberian Sea is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean. It is located between the Arctic Cape to the north, the coast of Siberia to the south, the New Siberian Islands to the west and Cape Billings, close to Chukotka, Wrangel Island to the east; this sea borders on the Laptev Sea to the Chukchi Sea to the east. This sea is one of the least studied in the Arctic area, it is characterized by severe climate, low water salinity, a scarcity of flora and human population, as well as shallow depths, slow sea currents, low tides, frequent fogs in summer, an abundance of ice fields which melt only in August–September. The sea shores were inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous tribes of Yukaghirs and Evens and Evenks, which were engaged in fishing and reindeer husbandry, they were absorbed by Yakuts and by Russians. Major industrial activities in the area are navigation within the Northern Sea Route; the largest city and port is the northernmost city of mainland Russia. The present name was assigned to the sea on 27 June 1935 by Decree of the Soviet Government.
Before that, the sea had no distinct name was intermixedly called in Russia as "Indigirskoe", "Kolymskoe", "Severnoe", "Sibirskoe" or "Ledovitoe". The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the East Siberian Sea as follows: On the West; the Eastern limit of Laptev Sea. On the North. A line from the Northernmost point of Wrangel Island to the Northern sides of the De Long Islands and Bennett Island, thence to the Northern extremity of Kotelni Island. On the East. From the Northernmost point of Wrangel Island through this island to Cape Blossom thence to Cape Yakan on the main land; because it is open towards the Arctic Ocean in the north, the main gulfs of the East Siberian Sea, like the Kolyma Bay, the Kolyma Gulf and the Chaunskaya Bay, are all located in its southern limits. There are no islands in the middle of the East Siberian Sea, but there are a few islands and island groups in its coastal waters, like Ayon Island and the Medvyezhi island group; the total area of the islands is only 80 km2.
Some islands consist of sand and ice and erode. The total catchment area is 1,342,000 km2. Among the rivers flowing into the East Siberian Sea, the Indigirka, Uyandina, Kolyma, Rauchua and Pegtymel are the most important. Only a few rivers are navigable; the coastline of the sea is 3,016 km long. It makes large bends, sometimes stretching deep into the land, has a rather different topography in the eastern and western parts. Fine bends occur only in the river deltas; the coastal section between the New Siberian Islands and the mouth of the Kolyma River is uniform, with low and varying slopes. It extends landwards to the marshy tundra filled with numerous small lakes. In contrast, the coast to the east of the Kolyma River is mountainous, with steep cliffs; the underwater topography of the shelf that forms the seabed is a plain, sloping from southwest to northeast, covered in a mixture of silt and stones and lacking significant depressions and elevations. About 70% of the sea is shallower than 50 m, with predominant depths of 20–25 m.
North-east to the mouth of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, there are deep trenches on the seabed, which are attributed to the ancient river valleys, now submerged by the sea. The region of small depths in the western part forms the Novosibirsk shoal; the greatest depths of about 150 m are found in the north-eastern part of the sea. The climate is influenced by the continent and Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In winter, it is affected by the continent. South-westerly and southerly winds having the speeds of 6–7 m/s bring cold air from Siberia, so the average temperature in January is −30 °C; the weather is calm and stable with occasional intrusions by cyclones. Atlantic cyclones increase the wind speed and air temperature whereas Pacific ones bring clouds and blizzards; the winds blow from the north in summer. The southeastern part is however much calmer. Northerly winds result in the low average temperatures of 0–1 °C in the open sea and 2–3 °C on the coast in July. Skies are cloudy, with frequent drizzling rains or wet snow.
Along the coasts, fogs occur 90–100 days per year in summer. Precipitation is low at 100 -- 200 mm per year; the continental runoff into the East Siberian Sea is small at about 250 km3/year that makes only 10% of the total runoff in all the Arctic seas of Russia. The largest contribution is from the Kolyma River at 132 km3, followed by the Indigirka River at 59 km3. Most runoff occurs in summer; the water exchange between the neighboring seas is. The annual outflow to the Laptev Sea, Chukchi Sea and Arctic Ocean is 3,240, 6,600 and 11,430 km3, respectively; the surface water temperature decreases
Matvei Matveyevich Gedenschtrom or in Swedish, since he has a Swedish name: Mattias Mattiasson Hedenström/von Hedenström 1 was a Russian explorer of Northern Siberia and public servant. Matvei Gedenschtrom attended University of Tartu, he left his alma mater in favor of work at Tallinn customs. Soon, however, he was arrested in connection with a smuggling affair and banished to Siberia. In 1808, Gedenschtrom arrived in Irkutsk and received his first duty assignment, the exploration of the coastline of the Arctic Ocean. Lacking necessary scientific background, Matvei Gedenschtrom had to study a lot in order to be able to reckon a latitude and longitude of a given location and use scientific equipment in general. Gedenschtrom led the cartographic expedition to explore the New Siberian Islands; the theory about the existence of Sannikov Land somewhere northwest of the Kotelny Island originated during this expedition. Gedenschtrom established the presence of the Siberian polynya – patches of open water in sea ice at the edge of the drifting ice and continental fast ice.
In 1809, Gedenschtrom visited the eastern shores of an island, discovered by merchants Semyon and Lev Syrovatsky three years earlier, named it New Siberia. Gedenschtrom charted the coastline between the mouths of the rivers Kolyma, he made many trips across Yakutia and areas east of the Lake Baikal. In 1813, Matvei Gedenschtrom was employed by the secretariat of Irkutsk governor. On, he was appointed head of district police in Verkhne-Udinsk, which did not distract him from scientific research and compiling his mineralogical and botanic collection. Matvei Gedenschtrom was a smart, talented and kind man, who helped local peasants with advice and money. However, he was known to have been an immoral person and a squanderer, he was one of the closest associates of Nikolai Treskin and made a sizeable fortune on bread purchases assigned to him by the governor’s office. In 1819, Mikhail Speransky paid a visit to Irkutsk as part of his Siberian tour and exposed many instances of official misconduct by local authorities.
On 20 February 1820, Matvei Gedenschtrom was removed from his post for his autocratic style of management, embezzlement and fraud. Speransky’s report on his findings was examined by a special committee, established on 28 July 1821; the committee divided all of the offenders into ten categories. Gedenschtrom found himself in the third category, which meant he could never again be admitted to hold any public posts and had to be banished to an inner guberniya. However, it was soon decided not to settle him in Tobolsk. Willing to take advantage of Matvei Gedenshtrom’s skills and experience, the administration of Western Siberia managed to obtain permission for him to join the public service. In 1827, Gedenshtrom was allowed to return to European Russia and employed by the Medical Service Corps as a section chief. In the 1830s, Matvei Gedenshtrom was appointed a postmaster in Tomsk. Upon his retirement, he moved to a village of Kaidukovaya near Tomsk and spent the rest of his days drinking. Matvei Gedenshtrom died in extreme poverty on 20 September 1845, at the age of 65.
He was interred in Tomsk three days later. Matvei Gedenshtrom published his scientific findings in several separate works and articles: Gedenshtrom’s Journey Across the Arctic Ocean and its Islands, Which Lie to the East of the Lena’s Estuary Description of the Arctic Ocean coastline from the Yana estuary to Cape Baranov Notes on Siberia Skehes on Siberia tc Islands Between the Lena and Kolyma New Siberia Heads of Unknown Animals Found in Northern Siberia On Baikal Material for the Description of Siberia Siberia; this article includes content derived from the Russian Biographical Dictionary, 1896–1918
Alexander Georg von Bunge
Alexander Georg von Bunge was a Russian German botanist. He is best remembered for scientific expeditions into Asia and Siberia. Bunge was born as son of a family, his father Andreas Theodor was the son of Georg Friedrich Bunge, a pharmacist who had emigrated from East Prussia to Russia in the 18th century. He studied medicine at the University of Dorpat serving as a professor of botany in Kazan. In 1835, he returned to Dorpat, where he taught classes in botany until 1867. Here, he kept in contact with Diederich Franz Leonhard von Schlechtendal, a botanist at the University of Halle, through correspondence, via articles published in the journal "Linnaea" and through the exchange of herbarium specimens, he remained in Dorpat until 1881, spending his years there conducting investigations of Estonian flora. In 1826 with Carl Friedrich von Ledebour and Carl Anton von Meyer, he embarked on an important scientific expedition to the Kirghiz Steppe and Altai Mountains. In 1830–31, he traveled to Beijing by way of Siberia, through which he conducted extensive research of Mongolian flora.
Following his investigations in China, he returned to the Altai Mountains, where he conducted studies of the eastern part of the region. In 1857 -- 58 he took part in a scientific expedition to Afghanistan, he was the father of physiologist Gustav von Bunge and of Alexander von Bunge, an explorer and zoologist. His older brother, Friedrich Georg von Bunge, was a legal historian. Taxa Genus Bungea. Pulsatilla bungeana from genus Pulsatilla Euonymus bungeanus from genus Euonymus Allium bungei from genus Allium Pinus bungeana from genus Pinus. Fraxinus bungeana from genus Fraxinus Clerodendrum bungei from genus Clerodendrum Catalpa bungei from genus Catalpa. Girgensohnia bungeana from genus Girgensohnia Iris bungei from genus IrisPlaces Bunge Land in the New Siberian Islands and a crater on Mars were named after him. Flora Altaica. Ant. Meyer et Al. A Bunge. Enumeratio plantarum quas in China boreali collegit Dr. Al. Bunge. Anno 1831. Plantarum mongolica-chinensium decas fine. Alexandri Lehmann reliquiae botanicae.
Scripsit Al. Bunge. Beitrag zur kenntniss der flor Russlands und der steppen Central-Asiens, – Contribution to the knowledge of flora native to Russia and the steppes of Central Asia. Plantas Abichianas in itineribus per Caucasum regionesque Transcaucasicas collectas, enumeravit A. Bunge. Generis Astragali species gerontogeae.. Labiatae persicae. List of Baltic German scientists