Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez was a Chilean teacher, theater director, singer-songwriter and political activist tortured and killed during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. He developed Chilean theater by directing a broad array of works, ranging from locally produced plays to world classics, as well as the experimental work of playwrights such as Ann Jellicoe, he played a pivotal role among neo-folkloric musicians who established the Nueva Canción Chilena movement. This led to an uprising of new sounds in popular music during the administration of President Salvador Allende. Jara was arrested shortly after the Chilean coup of 11 September 1973, he was tortured during interrogations and shot dead, his body was thrown out on the street of a shantytown in Santiago. The contrast between the themes of his songs—which focused on love and social justice—and the brutal way in which he was murdered transformed Jara into a "potent symbol of struggle for human rights and justice" for those killed during the Pinochet regime.
In June 2016, a Florida jury found former Chilean Army officer Pedro Barrientos liable for Jara's murder. In July 2018, eight retired Chilean military officers were sentenced to 18 years and a day in prison for Jara's murder. Víctor Jara was born in 1932 in San Ignacio, near Chillán, to two farmers, Manuel Jara and Amanda Martínez, his father was illiterate and encouraged his children to work from an early age to help the family survive, rather than attend school. By the age of 6, Jara was working on the land, his father could not support the family on his earnings as a peasant at the Ruiz-Tagle estate, nor was he able to find stable work. He took to drinking and became violent, his relationship with his wife deteriorated, he left the family to look for work when Víctor was still a child. Jara's mother raised him and his siblings, insisted that they get a good education. A mestiza with deep Araucanian roots in southern Chile, she was self-taught, played the guitar and the piano, she performed as a singer, with a repertory of traditional folk songs that she used for local functions like weddings and funerals.
She died. He began to study to be an accountant, but soon moved into a seminary, where he studied for the priesthood. After a couple of years, however, he became disillusioned with the Catholic Church and left the seminary. Subsequently, he spent several years in army service before returning to his hometown to pursue interests in folk music and theater. After joining the choir at the University of Chile in Santiago, Jara was convinced by a choir-mate to pursue a career in theater, he subsequently earned a scholarship for talent. He appeared in several of the university's plays, gravitating toward those with social themes, such as Russian playwright Maxim Gorky's The Lower Depths, a depiction of the hardships of lower-class life. In 1957, he met Violeta Parra, a singer who had steered folk music in Chile away from the rote reproduction of rural materials toward modern song composition rooted in traditional forms, who had established musical community centers called peñas to incorporate folk music into the everyday life of modern Chileans.
Jara absorbed these lessons and began singing with a group called Cuncumén, with whom he continued his explorations of Chile's traditional music. He was influenced by the folk music of Chile and other Latin American countries, by artists such as Parra, Atahualpa Yupanqui, the poet Pablo Neruda. In the 1960s, Jara started specializing in folk music and sang at Santiago's La Peña de Los Parra, owned by Ángel Parra. Through these activities, he became involved in the Nueva Canción movement of Latin American folk music, he released his first album, Canto a lo humano, in 1966, by 1970, he had left his theater work in favor of a career in music. His songs were inspired by a combination of left-wing political activism. From this period, some of his best-known songs are "Plegaria a un Labrador" and "Te Recuerdo Amanda". Early in his recording career, Jara showed a knack for antagonizing conservative Chileans, releasing a traditional comic song called "La beata" that depicted a religious woman with a crush on the priest to whom she goes for confession.
The song was banned on radio stations and removed from record shops, but the controversy only added to Jara's reputation among young and progressive Chileans. More serious in the eyes of the Chilean right wing was Jara's growing identification with the socialist movement led by Salvador Allende. After visits to Cuba and the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, Jara had joined the Communist Party; the personal met the political in his songs about the poverty he had experienced firsthand. Jara's songs were performed by American folk artists, his popularity was due not only to his songwriting skills but to his exceptional power as a performer. He took a decisive turn toward political confrontation with his 1969 song "Preguntas por Puerto Montt", which took direct aim at a government official who had ordered police to attack squatters in the town of Puerto Montt; the Chilean political situation deteriorated after the official was assassinated, right-wing thugs beat up Jara on one occasion. In 1970, Jara supported Allende, the Popular Unity coalition candidate for president, volunteering for political work and playing free concerts.
He composed "Venceremos", the theme song of Allende's Popular Unity movement, welcomed Allende
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres is an Order of France, established on 2 May 1957 by the Minister of Culture, its supplementary status to the Ordre national du Mérite was confirmed by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963. Its purpose is the recognition of significant contributions to the arts, literature, or the propagation of these fields, its origin is attributed to the Order of Saint-Michel. French government guidelines stipulate that citizens of France must be at least thirty years old, respect French civil law, must have, "significantly contributed to the enrichment of the French cultural inheritance" to be considered for award. Membership is not, limited to French nationals. Foreign recipients are admitted into the Order, "without condition of age"; the Order has three grades: Commandeur — medallion worn on necklet. Officier — medallion worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Chevalier — medallion worn on ribbon on left breast; the médaille of the Order is an eight-point, green-enameled asterisk, in gilt for Commanders and Officers and in silver for Knights.
The reverse central disc features the head of Marianne on a golden background, surrounded by a golden ring bearing the words "Ordre des Arts et des Lettres". The Commander's badge is topped by a gilt twisted ring; the ribbon of the Order is green with four white stripes. According to the statutes of the Order, French citizens must wait a minimum of 5 years before they are eligible to be upgraded from Chevalier to Officier, or Officier to Commandeur, must have displayed additional meritorious deeds than just those which made them a Chevalier. However, in the statutes there is a clause saying "Les Officiers et les Commandeurs de la Légion d'honneur peuvent être directement promus à un grade équivalent dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres"; this means that were someone to be made Officier of the Legion of Honour the next year that person can be made directly Officier of the Order of Arts and Letters and by pass a nomination as knight and the five-year rule. Ribbons of the French military and civil awards Ordre des arts et des lettres du Québec, a Quebec order based in part on the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres "Nominations dans l'Ordre des Arts et Lettres".
Ministère de la culture, France. 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2009
Santa María de Iquique (cantata)
Santa María de Iquique, cantata popular is a cantata composed in 1969 by the Chilean composer Luis Advis Vitaglich, combining elements of both classical and folkloric/indigenous musical traditions to produce what became known as a popular cantata and one of Quilapayún’s most acclaimed and popular music interpretation. The theme of the cantata is a historical industrial dispute that ended with the massacre of miners in the northern Chilean city of Iquique in 1907; the reading is impeccably executed by the Chilean actor Hector Duvauchelle, who captures the tense struggle between the miners and their exploiters in the narrative. Instrumental interludes and songs empower the progression of the story leading to a final song which voices the miners demand for an end to exploitation with visions of an egalitarian and free world; the following are the statements made by Luis Advis, that appeared on the original booklet that accompanied the record release in 1970. “This work, dedicated to Quilapayún, was composed following the general guidelines of a classical cantata.
There is, albeit, a variant which refers to: literary-thematic aspects: the traditional religious motive has been replaced with one based on real events from the social order.” “The musical stylistics: rather than avoid the European traditions, it has been amalgamated with melodic trends, harmonic modulations and rhythmic nuclei of American or Hispanic-American root. “ “Instrumental aspects: of the traditional orchestra we have only preserved the violoncello and the double bass in supporting mode, joined by two guitars, two quenas, one charango and one Bombo legüero. “ “Narrative aspects: the classical recitative chant has been replaced by spoken narration. This contains rhythmic and metrical elements with the aim of not breaking the sonorous totality.” The Cantata Santa Maria de Iquique represented Quilapayun at the Segundo Festival de la Nueva Canción Chilena. Despite the success of the work, it had its share of critics within the music world at the time of its release; this debate over what was authentic, what served “the cause” would grow in the years following the cantata’s release – creating serious dialectical confrontations on what materials were to be included or excluded from the NCCh.
Despite this the work was the highlight of the NCCh and a masterpiece of the Nueva Canción in Latin America and many musicologists and musicians consider it one of the most important recorded musical composition in Latin American music history. This great appreciation for the work didn’t appear to be shared by some members of Quilapayun who saw in the existing work considerable room for improvement. In 1978, they assigned the Belgian/Argentine writer Julio Cortázar to restructure part of the original text and they introduced minor modifications to the original recorded arrangements for a new version and recording; this was done without consulting the composer of the work, Luis Advis, who upon hearing of the recording expressed great dismay and publicly attacked the artistic integrity of both Quilapayun and Julio Cortázar. ”Pregón” / Announcement – 2:11 ”Preludio instrumental” / Instrumental Prelude – 5:45 ”Relato I” / Narrative I – 2:11 ”Canción I” / Choral Song I – 2:21 ”Interludio instrumental I” / Instrumental Interlude I – 1:33 ”Relato II” / Narrative II – 1:21 ”Canción II” / Solo Song II – 2:08 ”Interludio instrumental II” / Instrumental Interlude II – 1:44 ”Relato III” / Narrative III – 1:35 ”Interludio cantado” /Sung interlude – 2:05 ”Relato IV” / Narrative IV – 1:00 ”Canción III” / Song III – 1:44 ”Interludio instrumental III” / Instrumental Interlude III – 1:55 ”Relato V” / Narrative V – 2:14 ”Canción letanía” / Supplicatory song - 1:33 ”Canción IV” / Song IV – 2:55 ”Pregón II” / Announcement II – 0:32 ”Canción final” / Final Song – 2:50 Eduardo Carrasco Rodolfo Parada Willy Oddó Carlos Quezada Patricio Castillo Hernán GomezAdditional Personnel Héctor Duvauchelle Eduardo Seinkiewicz Luis Bignon Lasko, Susan.
Songs of Struggle, Songs of Hope: The Chilean New Song. Senior Essay Cantata Santa María de Iquique Text/Lyrics Luis Advis' site
The quena is the traditional flute of the Andes. Traditionally made of cane or wood, it has 6 finger holes and one thumb hole, is open on both ends or the bottom is half-closed. To produce sound, the player closes the top end of the pipe with the flesh between the chin and lower lip, blows a stream of air downward, along the axis of the pipe, over an elliptical notch cut into the end, it is in the key of G, with G4 being the lowest note. It produces a "textured" and "dark" timbre because of the length-to-bore ratio of about 16 to 20, unlike the tone of the Western concert flute with bore ratio about 38; the quenacho made the same way. It is with D4 being the lowest note, a perfect fourth lower than the quena, it produces a rich timbre because of the length-to-bore ratio of about 25, paradoxically brighter by comparison to the quena. Quena is used in traditional Andean music. In the 1960s and 1970s the quena was used by several nueva canción musicians; this use was in most cases for particular songs and not as a standard instrument, but some groups such as Illapu and virtuoso player Facio Santillan have used it regularly.
In the 1980s and 1990s some post-nueva canción rock groups have incorporated the quena in some of their songs. The quena is relatively common in world music. Quenas are played in pairs, in harmony. In Peru, one sees white quenas made from the leg-bone of the condor. Other Andean flutes include the following: The pinkillu has the same fingering as the quena, is similar in appearance and operation to a recorder. Unlike the actual quena, it fipple to conduct the air; the auxiliary tube acts as an aeroduct. In most towns in the Andes, "vamos a ir a la quena" was a popular sentence to threaten little children, because according to popular beliefs the instrument was used to whip. Tarka Native American flute Anasazi flute, a similar end-blown instrument Shakuhachi, a similar Japanese end-blown flute Quenas with embouchures made of ebony and other woods Quena music Modern Quena models How to select a quena The sound of the quena Los Koyas Quenacho Music Iain Kelso
Canciones folklóricas de América
Canciones folklóricas de América is a music album released by Quilapayún and Víctor Jara in 1967. "Hush-a-bye" "Bailecito" "Paloma del palomar" "Duerme negrita" "El llanto de mi madre" "El carrero" "Mare Mare" "Noche de rosas" "Tres bailecitos" Ernesto Cavour "Gira, girasol" "Peoncito del mandiocal" "El turururururú" "El conejí" Eduardo Carrasco Julio Carrasco Carlos Quezada Willy Oddó Patricio Castillo Víctor Jara
Patria is an album released by the Chilean folk group Quilapayún in 1975. “Mi patria”/My Homeland “El paso del ñandú”/The passing of the ñandu “Te recuerdo Amanda”/I remember you Amanda “Vals de Colombes”/Colombes Waltz “Continuará nuestra lucha”/Our struggle shall continue “1. Recitado”/1. Narrative “2. Cueca autobiográfica”/Autobiographical Cueca Dance “Ventolera”/Windstorm “Padre, hermano y camarada”/Father and comrade “Machu Picchu “Un son para Cuba”/A son for Cuba “Patria de multitudes”/Homeland of multitudes Eduardo Carrasco Carlos Quezada Willy Oddó Hernán Gómez Rodolfo Parada Hugo Lagos Guillermo García
Basta is an album, released by Quilapayún in 1969. It brings together popular and folk songs from Latin America, the former USSR, Italy; this album included "La muralla"/The wall - one of the most popular folk songs in Latin America - based on the text of a poem by the Cuban poet Nicolás Guillén. The vocal arrangements reach their peak in “Bella Ciao”, “Por montañas y praderas” and “Patrón.” This album – as X Vietnam - shows the internationalism of Nueva Cancion Chilena/ New Chilean Song. The liner notes below are from the original Basta album release in 1969 and in the re-edition of the album in Italy in 1974, but may not appear with more recent editions; the importance of the role that art has to play for the revolutionary movements of our people was addressed for the first time in our country by a historical letter - that serves as an introduction to this recording -, signed by the first leader of the proletariat cause in Chile, Luis Emilio Recabarren. Since its inception our group has defined its work as committed with the interests of the proletariat, hasn’t concealed, nor will it conceal, its political aims.
This is born of a need to remain forever loyal to the nascent truth that impels and mobilizes our people towards the hour of its authentic historical realization. All artists that have the opportunity to give their work to the revolutionary cause should do so, in that manner not only do they fulfill their responsibility with the working class but with art itself. Given that in an era of exploitation and misery, of subjugation, of cruel and unjust wars, of unrestrained egoism and selfishness, of repression that violate the will of the people, which seek to liberate themselves from imperialism and capitalism. An essence, which yearns to liberate, to educate, to elevate mankind. Bourgeois society wants art to be another factor contributing to social alienation; this surpassing is called revolution and its motor and fundamental agent is the working class. Our group, loyal to the ideals of Luis Emilio Recabarren, sees its work as a continuation of what has been achieved by many other popular/folk artists.
This side of the trenches has been occupied by artists whose names are forever linked to the revolutionary struggle of our people. The example they have given us is the light. ”A la mina no voy” ”La muralla” ”La gaviota” ”Bella ciao” ”Coplas de baguala” ”Cueca de Balmaceda” ”Por montañas y praderas ”La carta” ”Carabina 30-30" ”Porqué los pobres no tienen...” ”Patrón” ”Basta ya” Eduardo Carrasco Carlos Quezada Willy Oddó Patricio Castillo Hernán Gómez Rodolfo Parada Out-of-date-link - no longer leads to Basta Album Lyrics