Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva was a Chilean political leader. In his long political career, he was Minister of Public Works, president of his Christian Democratic Party, President of the Senate, the 28th president of Chile from 1964 to 1970, his eldest son, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle became president of Chile. Frei's Christian Democratic Party supported the Armed Forces intervention to remove his successor Salvador Allende from office in 1973, after the Chamber of Deputies, on August 22, 1973, accused Allende of violating the Constitution and called for his overthrow, he was a vocal opponent of the Augusto Pinochet regime. On January 22, 1982, Frei was assassinated in Chile. Eduardo Frei Montalva was born in Santiago on January 16, 1911, the son of Eduard Frei Schlinz, a Swiss-born ethnic German from Austria, Victoria Montalva Martínez. In 1914, his family moved to Lontué. In addition, his other two siblings and Irene, were born, he attended the Escuela Pública de Lontué. In 1919 the family returned to Santiago and Eduardo, as a young man, entered the boarding school Seminario Conciliar de Santiago where he remained until 1922.
In 1923, he entered Instituto de Humanidades Luis Campino, where he graduated in 1928, at the age of 17. As an 18-year-old, he entered Universidad Católica School of Law in 1929. For two years, he had been visiting the sister of his friend, Alfredo Ruiz-Tagle, he attended high school and went on to study law, graduating as a lawyer in 1933. He married María Ruiz-Tagle with, his eldest son, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. He began his political career in the Conservative Party, but was among a group of young men who founded their own party in 1938: the Falange Nacional, he was minister of Public Works in 1945, in 1949, Frei was elected senator for Atacama and Coquimbo. The same year he published “Historia de los Partidos Políticos Chilenos” in collaboration with Albert Edwards Vives. In 1950, he traveled to New York as a UN delegate. In 1952, at 41 years of age, Frei Montalva announced his first candidacy in the presidential elections; the 1952 election was won by Carlos Ibáñez del Campo.
President Ibañez requested Frei to organize an executive committee. However, this never came to be. In 1954, the UN appointed him President of the Commission in charge of elaborating the report of the Conference of Chancellors held in Rio de Janeiro; some of its members were: Carlos Lleras Restrepo, former President of Colombia, Raúl Prebisch director of ECLAC. The report served as a basis for subsequent studies on economic development and the integration of Latin America. In 1956 he was elected Senator in Santiago by first majority. On July 27, 1957, the Falange Nacional became the Christian Democratic Party of Chile, he became the undisputed leader. Frei Montalva was offered once more the candidacy for president of the Republic in the 1958 elections. Jorge Alessandri Rodríguez was elected president. During these years he published three more books: “Sentido y Forma de una Política”, “La Verdad Tiene Su Hora”, y “Pensamiento y Acción”. In 1960, he lectured at conference “The Mission of Universities in Latin America” in Montevideo.
In 1961, he was elected President of the First World Christian Democratic Party Congress, held in Santiago, Chile. The congress was attended by delegations from throughout Latin America, North American, African countries; that year he was invited as special guest to a seminar on the problems of Developing Nations, held at Oxford University. The seminar was attended by delegates from all over the world. Between 1960-62, he lectured at Columbia University on problems in Latin America. In 1962, he gave a conference at Notre Dame University on the development and the integration of Latin American countries, he ran for president again in 1964. Declassified documents show that from 1962 through 1964, the CIA spent a total of $2.6 million to finance his presidential campaign and spent $3 million in anti-Allende propaganda "to scare voters away from Allende's FRAP coalition". The CIA considered its role in the victory of Frei a great success; that year he was elected with his "Revolución en Libertad" slogan by a large margin, defeating Socialist candidate Salvador Allende who only received 39% of the vote, but who subsequently won the 1970 Chilean presidential election.
Frei's administration began many reforms in Chilean society. "Promoción Popular", "Reforma Agraria", "Reforma Educacional", "Juntas de Vecinos" were some of his main projects. He took measures to rationalize drug supply. On September 4, 1964, having one of the highest turnouts in Chilean history, Frei Montalva was elected President of the Republic of Chile, he took office two months on November 4. The Frei presidency did much to tackle poverty, as characterised by the growing share of wages as a proportion of GNP. By the end of the Frei presidency, the wage and salaried sector received close to 51% of GNP, compared with 42% at the end of the Alessandri presidency; this positive redistribution of wealth was encouraged by government policies in the rural sector, where wages rose by 40% in real terms. Between 1964-70, total enrollment in education increased by 46%, while around 250,000 houses were built for the poor
Aaron Mark Hardie is an Australian cricketer. In January 2018, he was added to Australia's squad for the 2018 Under-19 Cricket World Cup, but was ruled out of the tournament due to injury. In November 2018, he played for the Cricket Australia XI team in a four-day match against India at the Sydney Cricket Ground. During the match, he took the wicket of India's captain Virat Kohli, finishing with figures of four wickets for 50 runs in the first innings, scored 86 runs while batting. Hardie described the experience as being "a bit surreal", he made his Twenty20 debut for the Perth Scorchers in the 2018–19 Big Bash League season on 9 January 2019. He bowled one over, conceding thirteen runs, did not bat, with the Perth Scorchers winning by six wickets, he made his first-class debut for Western Australia in the 2018–19 Sheffield Shield season on 20 March 2019. He made his List A debut on 23 October 2019, for Western Australia in the 2019–20 Marsh One-Day Cup. In March 2020, in round nine of the 2019–20 Sheffield Shield season, Hardie scored his maiden century in first-class cricket.
Aaron Hardie at ESPNcricinfo
October Sky is the first memoir in a series of four, by Homer Hickam Jr. It is a story of growing up in a mining town, a boy's pursuit of amateur rocketry in a coal mining town, it won the W. D. Weatherford Award in 1998, the year of its release. Today, it is one of the most picked community/library reads in the United States, it is studied in many school systems around the world. October Sky was followed by The Coalwood Way, Sky of Stone, Carrying Albert Home. Rocket Boys was made into a film in 1999, titled October Sky; the book was re-published as October Sky shortly afterwards. Homer "Sonny" Hickam Jr. lives in a small coal mining town in West Virginia named Coalwood. Sonny, after seeing the Russian satellite Sputnik, decides to join the American team of rocket engineers called the Missile Agency when he graduates from school. Sonny's older brother, Jim Hickam, excels at football and expects to get a college football scholarship. Sonny, however, is terrible at sports and has no special skill that would get him "out of Coalwood".
Sonny's mother is afraid. Sonny's first attempt at rocketry consists of a flashlight model airplane body as a casing, it is fueled by flash powder from old cherry bombs. It explodes violently. After that, Sonny enlists the help of Quentin Wilson, Roy Lee Cooke, Sherman Siers, Jimmy "O'Dell" Carroll, Billy Rose to help build rockets while forming the BCMA, their first real rocket, powered by black powder, is named Auk 1. This an allusion to the great auk, a flightless seabird that became extinct in the mid-19th century. Auk 1 flies six feet before the solder melts, the nozzle, a washer, separates from the casement, they call themselves "Rocket Boys" and call the place where they are launching their rockets "Cape Coalwood", in honor of Cape Canaveral. The Rocket Boys enjoy mixed success during their three-year rocket launching campaign, they employ several fuel mixtures including rocket candy and a mixture called "zincoshine", composed of zinc dust and sulfur, along with alcohol from moonshine, supplied by a local bootlegger, as a binder for the mixture.
They launch a total of 35 rockets, all sequentially numbered Auk I–XXXI. They win a National Science Fair gold medal for their rockets, for their project titled "A Study of Amateur Rocketry Techniques." Homer "Sonny" Hickam Jr. is the narrator of the memoir. He is 8 years old at the beginning of the story but is in high school for most of the book, he serves as the leader of the Rocket Boys, he is nearsighted and wears glasses, he plays in the school band. Elsie Hickam is the mother of Jim and "Sonny" Hickam, she has a tense relationship with her husband through most of the story. She is supportive of Sonny's rocket building, finds herself at odds with her husband, Homer Sr. about the rocket building. She tells Sonny, "Don't blow yourself up." She works on a mural of Myrtle Beach throughout the memoir. Homer Hickam Sr. is the father of Jim and "Sonny" Hickam. He is the hard-headed mine foreman in Coalwood, he takes his job seriously, going out of his way to help miners in distress. He is always at odds with the union leader, John Dubonnet, who dated Elsie when they were all in high school together.
Homer Sr. seems to not care about Sonny's affairs as much. He has a spot on his lung, the common miner's disease, black lung, but refuses to quit work, although most men who are discovered to have this illness are forced into retirement, but allowed to stay in Coalwood. Jim Hickam is the son of Elsie and Homer Hickam, he is a star athlete, which leads to him having several conflicts with "Sonny" over how Homer seems to favor Jim over "Sonny". He dates the girl Sonny is in love with, Dorothy Plunk, but dumps her like he does with many of his girlfriends. Quentin Wilson is one of the more intelligent members of the Rocket Boys, the one who does the most math. Quentin carries a suitcase stuffed with books wherever he goes and finds excuses to get out of gym class, he is excitable and confounds the other members and townspeople with his advanced vocabulary. Jimmy "O'Dell" Carroll is excitable, the most emotional member of the group, his father drives the town garbage truck, allowing O'Dell access to many useful items scrounged to further the group's efforts.
He is always scheming of ways of making money, from the failed iron scrap attempt—which took an entire summer, yielded a net loss of one dollar, not counting the destruction of borrowed equipment and killing Sonny—to the profitable harvesting of ginseng. Sherman Siers does not let it slow him down, he is the most observant and practical member of the team. At the age of twenty-six, Sherman died unexpectedly of a heart attack. Roy Lee Cooke is Sonny's best friend, he teaches Sonny something about girls. In the follow-up memoir titled The Coalwood Way, it is revealed that he is known as The Big Creek Lovemaster. Roy Lee knows the moonshiner in town, John Eye, who provides the boys with the alcohol needed for their special propellant they call Zincoshine. On page 302, Roy Lee states that if they were s