Manuel Sánchez Arcas
Manuel Sánchez Arcas was a Spanish Modernist architect. During the Spanish Civil War he served in the Republican government as Undersecretary for Propaganda. After the Republican defeat he went into exile in Moscow and Berlin. Manuel Sánchez Arcas was born in Madrid in 1897, he studied at the Madrid School of Architecture, graduated in 1921. He went to London for further studies. On his return to Spain he first worked with Secundino Zuazo from 1925 worked alone, he was one of the architects known as the "1925 generation" that tried to introduce avant-garde Modernist concepts into Spain. Modesto López Otero was the director for the Madrid University City project, he formed a diverse team of young architects to design the various buildings, including Sánchez Arcas. Sánchez Arcas and Jesús Martí Martín designed a new building for the Center for Historical Studies; the engineer Eduardo Torroja joined the group in 1929. He worked with Sánchez Arcas, sharing his interest in new architectural forms that rejected preconceived formulas.
The first collaborative work of Torroja and Sanchez Arcas was the pavilion of the Construction Commission of the university city, completed in June 1931. They worked on the clinical hospital for the university city. Sánchez Arcas and Torroja designed an enclosed and semi-spherical shell for the 1932 Algeciras market hall; the 9 centimetres thick concrete roof was 47.5 metres high, supported on eight pillars. As an engineering work it is considered Torroja's masterpiece. Sánchez Arcas and Torroja founded the journal Hormigón y Acero. In 1934 they founded the Instituto Técnico de la Construcción y Edificación. Other founding members were the architect Modesto López Otero and the engineers José María Aguirre Gonzalo and Alfonso Peña Boeuf; the ITCE was a non-profit organization dedicated to developing and applying technical innovations in engineering civil structures. Sánchez Arcas became a dedicated member of the Spanish Communist Party; the Spanish Civil War began in July 1939 with the rebellion of Nationalists led by Francisco Franco.
With the approach of Nationalist troops to Madrid in early November 1936 the government of Prime Minister Francisco Largo Caballero was restructured to include the anarchists Joan Peiró, Juan López Sánchez and Federica Montseny. Carlos Esplá became the first Minister of Propaganda of Spain, with Sánchez Arcas as undersecretary; when Juan Negrín formed his first government he eliminated the Ministry of Propaganda, making it a sub-secretariat under the Ministry of State. Esplá remained in charge of propaganda. Sánchez Arcas was appointed undersecretary of propaganda on 22 January 1938 by José Giral, Minister of Foreign Affairs, he replaced the communist Federico Melchor. When Negrín formed his new cabinet on 5 April 1938 he made Julio Álvarez del Vayo the Foreign Minister. Alvarez del Vayo in turn made Sánchez Arcas head of the Propaganda Subsecretería. In May 1938 he confirmed Ramos Oliveira as head of the Press Office in the Spanish Embassy in London. With a serious shortage of foreign currency, Sánchez Arcas took measures to centralize control of the sub secretariat and to reduce costs.
He dissolved the Servicio Espaňol de Información and took charge of correspondence with foreign representatives. He delegated this task to Miguel González, his Head of Publications, he proposed to sell books and pamphlets published abroad at a price sufficient to cover costs. In March 1939 the Republican government faced a rebellion led by Segismundo Casado. Prime Minister Juan Negrín and the communist leaders Dolores Ibárruri, Juan Modesto, Enrique Líster and Vicente Uribe flew out of Spain from Monóvar airfield in the morning of 6 March 1939. Sánchez Arcas accompanied Negrín. Sánchez Arcas went into exile in Russia, he was appointed Minister in Warsaw by the exiled Spanish Republican government in 1946. His reports to the exiled government in Paris were aligned with Stalinist propaganda. In the summer of 1947 the PCE withdrew from the exiled government. Sánchez Arcas's relationship with the government deteriorated, while Poland lost interest in supporting it now there were no communist members.
Sánchez Arcas was among the Spanish delegates to the World Congress of Peace in 1949. In February 1950 he was forced to resign from his position as Spanish Minister due to a conflict between Stalin and Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, whom the government in exile supported. Under pressure from Moscow he remained in Warsaw with his wife and daughters. In 1951 he resumed work as an architect in Warsaw. In 1954 he was elected a member of the Central Committee of the PCE at the 5th Congress held in Prague, he moved to Berlin, where he died in 1970. 1931 Hospital Provincial de Toledo, Spain 1932 Edificio Rockefeller, Spain 1932 Central Térmica, Spain 1935 Mercado de Algeciras, Spain 1928–36 Hospital Clinico San Carlos de Madrid Casos prácticos de estudio de iluminación natural. Instituto Técnico de la Construcción y Edificación. Madrid 193? Form und Bauweise der Schalen Berlín: VEB Verlag für Bauwesen, 1961 Stadt und Verkehr: Verkehrs- und Stadtplanung in den USA und in Westeuropa. Berlín: Deutsche Bauakademie, 1968 Stadtzentren.
Beiträgezur Ungestaltung und Neuplanung. Berlín: Deutsche Bauakademie, 1967
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Jaroslav Josef Polívka
Jaroslav Josef Polivka, Czech structural engineer who collaborated with Frank Lloyd Wright between 1946 and 1959. Jaroslav Josef Polivka a.k.a. J. J. Polivka Civil Engineer was born in Prague in 1886, he received his undergraduate degree in structural engineering at the College of Technology in Prague in 1909. He studied at the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich, Switzerland and at the Prague Institute of Technology, where he earned a doctoral degree in 1917. After serving in First World War, he opened his own architectural and engineering office in Prague and developed his skills in stress analysis of reinforced concrete, pre-stressed reinforced concrete and steel structures. Polivka became an expert in photo-elastic stress analysis, a technique that examines small-scale transparent models in polarized light. In Prague Polivka worked together with avant-garde Czech architect Josef Havlíček on the Habich Building and Chicago Building. Polivka designed the structural frame of the Czech Pavilion at the Paris International Exhibition of 1937 collaborating with renown Czech architect, Jaromír Krejcar and Czech engineer René Wiesner.
Two years he worked with Czech architect Kamil Roškot to design another Czech Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair. In 1939 Polivka immigrated to the United States and took a position as research associate and lecturer at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1941, he and Victor di Suvero co-invented a structural design technique that received a patent for improvements in structures. Polivka with his son Milos translated into English Eduardo Torroja’s ‘Philosophy of Structures’ book published in 1958. In 1946 Polivka began to work with Frank Lloyd Wright collaborating on several major projects until Wright's death in 1959. For Wright’s projects Polivka performed stress analyses and investigations of specific building materials, they worked on a total of seven projects, two of which were built: the Johnson Wax Research Tower, 1946-1951 at Racine Wisconsin and the Guggenheim Museum, 1946-1959 in New York City for which Polivka managed to design out the gallery ramp perimeter columns required.
Their other well-known design proposal was the reinforced concrete Butterfly Bridge at the Southern Crossing of the San Francisco Bay. Polivka performed the photoelasticity for the Podolsko Bridge is an arch bridge that spans the Vltava between Podolsko and Temešvár in Písek District, Czech Republic. At the time of its completion in 1943, it was the longest arch bridge in Czechoslovakia, he died in California. Tejada, editor. Engineering the Organic: The Partnership of Jaroslav J. Polivka and Frank Lloyd Wright. Buffalo: State University of New York. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Margolius, Ivan. Architects + Engineers = Structures. London: Wiley-Academy. ISBN 0-471-49825-4. Polivka, J. J.. My War Diary. Manchester Center: Shire Press. "Contractor Meets Close Design Tolerances in Building Long-Span Concrete Arch Bridge" J. J. Polivka, Civil Engineering, ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers January 1949 Polivka archives at University at Buffalo, The State University of New York University of California Berkeley
Thin-shell structures are called plate and shell structures. They are lightweight constructions using shell elements; these elements curved, are assembled to make large structures. Typical applications include aircraft fuselages, boat hulls, the roofs of large buildings. A thin shell is defined as a shell with a thickness, small compared to its other dimensions and in which deformations are not large compared to thickness. A primary difference between a shell structure and a plate structure is that, in the unstressed state, the shell structure has curvature as opposed to the plates structure, flat. Membrane action in a shell is caused by in-plane forces, but there may be secondary forces resulting from flexural deformations. Where a flat plate acts similar to a beam with bending and shear stresses, shells are analogous to a cable which resists loads through tensile stresses; the ideal thin shell must be capable of developing both compression. The most popular types of thin-shell structures are: Concrete shell structures cast as a monolithic dome or stressed ribbon bridge or saddle roof Lattice shell structures called gridshell structures in the form of a geodesic dome or a hyperboloid structure Membrane structures, which include fabric structures and other tensile structures, cable domes, pneumatic structures.
Bechthold, Martin. Innovative Surface Structures: Technologies and Applications. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415419673. Suchov, Vladimir G.. Rainer Gaefe, ed. VLADIMIR G. SUCHOV 1853-1939. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. ISBN 9783421029843. Thin-shell structures Double thin-shells structures Hypar & Concrete Shells Past and Future of Grid Shell Structures Shape optimization of Shell and Spatial structure Lattice Shell for Space Vehicles International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Algeciras is a port city in the south of Spain, is the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar. The Port of Algeciras is one of the largest ports in Europe and the world in three categories: container and transhipment, it is located 20 km north-east of Tarifa on the Río de la Miel, the southernmost river of the Iberian peninsula and continental Europe. In 2015, it had a population of 118,920, it is the biggest city among those of its metropolitan area that includes the municipalities of Los Barrios, La Línea de la Concepción, Castellar de la Frontera, Jimena de la Frontera, San Roque and Tarifa, with a population of 263,739. The site of Roman cities called Portus Albus and Iuliua Tracta, the current name of Algeciras comes from the Arab period of the Iberian Peninsula: Al-Jazīra Al-Khadrā' Arabic الجزيرة الخضراء or Green Island. However, in modern dialectical Arabic it is referred to as Al Khuzurat in neighboring Morocco; the area of the city has been populated since prehistory, the earliest remains belong to Neanderthal populations from the Paleolithic era.
Due to its strategic position it was an important port under the Phoenicians, was the site of the relevant Roman port of Portus Albus, with two nearby cities called Caetaria and Iulia Transducta, founded by the Romans. It has been proposed that the site of Iulia Transducta was the Villa Vieja of Algeciras. After being destroyed by the Goths and their Vandal allies, the city was founded again in April 711 by the invading Moors, as the first city created by the Amazigh on the occupied Spanish soil. In the year 859 AD Viking troops on board 62 drekars and commanded by the leaders Hastein and Björn Ironside besieged the city for three days and subsequently laid waste to much of it. After looting the houses of the rich, they burnt the Banderas mosque. Reorganized near the medina, the inhabitants managed to recover the city and make the invaders run away, capturing two boats, it enjoyed a brief period of independence as a taifa state from 1035 to 1058. It was named al-Jazirah al-Khadra' after the offshore Isla Verde.
In 1055 Emir Al-Mutadid of Seville drove the Berbers from Algeciras. In 1278, Algeciras was besieged by the forces of the Kingdom of Castile under the command of Alfonso X of Castile and his son, Sancho IV; this siege was the first of a series of attempts to take the city and ended in failure for the Castilian forces. An armada sent by Castile was annihilated whilst trying to blockade the city's harbor. After many centuries of Muslim rule, the tide of the reconquista arrived at Algeciras. In July 1309 Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege to Algeciras as well as Gibraltar; the latter fell into Christian hands, but Muslim Algeciras held on for the following three decades, until Alfonso XI of Castile resumed its siege. Juan Nunez de Lara, Juan Manuel, Pedro Fernández de Castro, Juan Alfonso de la Cerda, lord of Gibraleón all participated in the siege, as did knights from France and Germany, King Philip III of Navarre, king consort of Navarra, who came accompanied by 100 horsemen and 300 infantry. In March 1344, after several years of siege, Algeciras surrendered.
On winning the city, Alfonso XI made it the seat of a new diocese, established by Pope Clement VI's bull Gaudemus et exultamus of 30 April 1344, entrusted to the governance of the bishop of Cadiz. The bishops of Cadiz continued to hold the title of Aliezira, as it called, until 1851, when in accordance with a concordat between Spain and the Holy See its territory was incorporated into the diocese of Cadiz. No longer a residential bishopric, Aliezira is today listed by the Catholic Church; the city was retaken by the Moors in 1368. It was destroyed on the orders of Muhammed V of Granada; the site was subsequently abandoned, but was refounded in 1704 by refugees from Gibraltar following the territory's capture by Anglo-Dutch forces in the War of the Spanish Succession. It was fortified to guard against British raids with installations such as the Fuerte de Isla Verde built to guard key points; the city was rebuilt on its present rectangular plan by Charles III of Spain in 1760. In July 1801, the French and Spanish navies fought the British Royal Navy offshore in the Battle of Algeciras, which ended in a British victory.
The city became the scene for settling a major international crisis as it hosted the Algeciras Conference in 1906. The international forum to discuss the future of Morocco, held in the Casa Consistorial, it confirmed the independence of Morocco against threats from Germany, gave France control of banking and police interests. In July 1942 Italian frogmen set up in a secret base in the Italian tanker Olterra, interned in Algeciras, in order to attack shipping in Gibraltar. During the Franco era, Algeciras underwent substantial industrial development, creating many new jobs for the local workers made unemployed when the border between Gibraltar and Spain was sealed by Franco between 1969 and 1982. In 1982 there was a failed plan codenamed Operation Algeciras conceived by the Argentinian military to sabotage the British military facilities in Gibraltar during the Falklands War; the Spanish authorities intervened just before the attack, deported the two Argentine Montoneros and military liaison officer involved.
Algeciras is principally industrial city. Its main activities are connected with the port, which serves as the main embarkation point between Spain and Tangier and other