Virginia Commonwealth University - Qatar
Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts in Qatar is Virginia Commonwealth University’s Qatari branch of its School of the Arts. The main campus is located in Virginia. VCUarts Qatar is located at Education City in Qatar. VCUarts Qatar is accredited by the National Association of Schools of Art & Design, the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the Council for Interior Design Accreditation. VCUarts Qatar was the first campus established in Education City in 1998, it has since been joined by Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Weill Cornell Medical College, Texas A&M, Carnegie Mellon University, Northwestern University, HEC Paris, University College London. VCUarts Qatar renewed its contract in July 2012 and it is in effect through June 2022. VCUarts Qatar is funded by Qatar Foundation for Education and Community Development, a semi-private non-profit organization founded by then-emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani and his second wife and mother of current emir, Moza bint Nasser.
Aside from funding of the campus in Qatar and the management fee that the university receives as profit, universities who agree to open branches in Qatar are the recipients of endowed chairs at the U. S. campuses. In 2014, the estimated budget of VCUarts Qatar provided to VCU by Qatar Foundation was nearly $42 million. On top of that, undergraduate tuition was $25,000. VCUarts Qatar offers Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees in fashion design, graphic design, interior design, painting & printmaking, a Bachelor of Arts degree in art history, a Master of Fine Arts degree in design. Transcripts from VCUarts Qatar indicate that the courses were completed in Qatar, but the diploma is issued by VCU in Richmond, Virginia. VCUarts Qatar has 339 students representing 38 nationalities between its undergraduate and graduate students; the university was opened for women, but in 2008 began accepting men. Per VCU’s agreement with Qatar Foundation, at least 70% of admitted students must be Qatari citizens. Since Qatar adheres to a strict form of Islam called Wahhabism, standards for social conduct are much stricter and more conservative.
Alcohol is regulated by the State of Qatar. Only individuals with a permit allowing them to purchase alcohol from Qatari authorized vendors are allowed to possess or consume alcohol. Consumption of alcohol is forbidden to all Muslims; these policies, in part, create a much more regulated and conservative student life experience than at VCU’s campus in Richmond. In 2010, a major expansion project allowed VCUarts Qatar to more than double its facilities, integrating its undergraduate and graduate programs under one roof; the expansion extended the technical spaces to include a media lab, digital fabrication lab, printmaking studios, a photography studio, an expanded library and the region’s first materials library. Along with other U. S. campuses in Education City, a campus in Qatar has a certain reputational risk associated with it. Not only do they risk devaluing the degrees of their U. S. campus, but the campus ties them to a regime with extensive critics and foreign policy that runs contrary to that of the United States.
Qatar’s ties to terrorist and extremist groups such as Al Qaeda and the Muslim Brotherhood, a terrible human rights record, World Cup 2022 corruption allegations have drawn heavy criticism to US universities there. With the visit of First Lady Michelle Obama, US scholar and analyst David Andrew Weinberg called on schools in Education City to speak out against radicalism being spread through Education City’s main mosque. Speakers at the mosque have called for the mass murder of “infidels” and described the Charlie Hebdo shootings and 9/11 as segments of a “comedy film." Many of these statements go against accepted policies on freedom of speech at the US campuses of universities such as VCU. U. S. Public universities in Qatar including VCU, Texas A&M and Houston Community College, who scaled back its Qatari operations, have all received criticism for their Qatari campuses; the criticisms have focused on how the abroad campus goes against the institutions’ obligations to educate American students, or students within their local districts.
Some have criticized them for using resources, such as professors that should be in the American branch campuses, that should be put towards educating American students. While VCU does not use Virginia taxpayer dollars to fund the campus, they do sometimes send professors from their home campus to Doha for shorter term teaching positions. In Qatar, the monarchy has absolute authority over all aspects of life, including its strict adherence to Sharia Law. There are strict censorship laws that at times have spilled over into Education City, despite the countries stated claims that the institutions there have total academic and intellectual freedoms. In 2014, a book by VCUarts Qatar’s English professor, Mohanalakshmi Rajakumar, Love Comes Later was banned by the State of Qatar with no explanation. Rajakumar has stated that she wrote the book with the Qatari “sensibilities of the public culture” in mind, meaning that the book did not include the main three objections: sex and politics. Rajakumar founded the Doha Writer’s Workshop.
Some art, displayed at VCUarts Qatar has had to be taken down as some Qatari students found it to be disrespectful to their culture, an issue that reflects the differences in conservatism and social practices that are present at the Qatari campus. Administration: Donald N. Baker - Executive Dean Patty Paine – Interim Associate Dean for Academic Affairs Andrew Mascari– Interim Associate Dean for Administration Valerie Jeremijenko – Assistant Dean of Student Affairs Greet Provoost – Associate Dean and Registration Services Michael Joh
Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature; some monarchies have a weak or symbolic legislature and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, which itself is a federation of such monarchies – a federal monarchy. In Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Gupta and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called "Devaraja" and "Chakravartin", exercised absolute power over the empire and people. Throughout Imperial China, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven. In pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Korea under the Joseon dynasty and short-lived empire was an absolute monarchy. In the Ottoman Empire, many sultans wielded absolute power through heavenly mandates reflected in their title, the "Shadow of God on Earth". Throughout much of European history, the divine right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by divine right, that their subjects had no rights to limit their power. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle. Charles I's attempt to enforce episcopal polity on the Church of Scotland led to rebellion by the Covenanters and the Bishops' Wars fears that Charles I was attempting to establish absolutist government along European lines was a major cause of the English Civil War, despite the fact that he did rule this way for 11 years starting in 1629, after dissolving the Parliament of England for a time.
By the 19th century, the Divine Right was regarded as an obsolete theory in most countries in the Western world, except in Russia where it was still given credence as the official justification for the Tsar's power until February Revolution in 1917. There is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, while historians such as Roger Mettam dispute the concept of absolutism. In general, historians who disagree with the appellation of absolutism argue that most monarchs labeled as absolutist exerted no greater power over their subjects than any other non-absolutist rulers, these historians tend to emphasize the differences between the absolutist rhetoric of monarchs and the realities of the effective use of power by these absolute monarchs. Renaissance historian William Bouwsma summed up this contradiction: Nothing so indicates the limits of royal power as the fact that governments were perennially in financial trouble, unable to tap the wealth of those ablest to pay, to stir up a costly revolt whenever they attempted to develop an adequate income.
Though some historians doubt if he had, Louis XIV of France is said to have proclaimed "L'état, c'est moi". Although criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis' reign should be considered'absolute', given the reality of the balance of power between the monarch and the nobility; the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the supreme judicial authority, he could condemn people to death without the right of appeal. It was both his duty to stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to annul them. One of his steps in creating an absolute monarchy in France was to build the Palace of Versailles, where he lived with many of his nobles and other important people, in order to control and watch over them. Absolutism was underpinned by a written constitution for the first time in Europe in 1665 Kongeloven of Denmark-Norway, which ordered that the Monarch "shall from this day forth be revered and considered the most perfect and supreme person on the Earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having no judge above his person, neither in spiritual nor temporal matters, except God alone".
This law authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm. In Brandenburg-Prussia, the concept of absolute monarch took a notable turn from the above with its emphasis on the monarch as the "first servant of the state", but it echoed many of the important characteristics of Absolutism. Frederick William, known as the Great Elector, used the uncertainties of the final stages of the Thirty Years' War to consolidate his territories into the dominant kingdom in northern Germany, whilst increasing his power over his subjects
Qatar Foundation for Education and Community Development is a semi-private chartered, non-profit organization in Qatar, founded in 1995 by then-emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani and his second wife Moza bint Nasser. In addition to private funding, it is government-supported and in some ways government-funded. Qatar Foundation, chaired by Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, has spearheaded Qatar's endeavors to establish itself as a leader in education and cultural development on both a regional and global scale. QF has stated an aim "to support Qatar on its journey from a carbon economy to a knowledge economy by unlocking human potential."The organization's initiatives are oriented towards education and research, community development. It has solicited a number of international universities to establish campuses in Qatar as part of its goal to develop a youth population with the necessary expertise to maintain a knowledge economy, its main science and research agenda is developing Qatar's technological capacity by researching new technologies which can be commercialized.
In addition to diversifying the economy, this strategy helps satisfy Qatar's aim of becoming a research and development hub. The foundation's social development programs aim to preserve Qatar's culture, "foster a progressive society" and to confront pressing social issues. Joint venture partnerships in the areas of design and communication technologies, policy studies, event management contribute to fulfilling the objectives of Qatar Foundation. Several small Qatari firms have thrived under the auspices of the Foundation. In primary and secondary education, Qatar Foundation has several initiatives. Examples include establishing five Qatar Academy branches, opening Awsaj Academy, a school for children with learning difficulties, opening Qatar Leadership Academy in collaboration with the Qatar Armed Forces. Furthermore, the foundation launched the Academic Bridge Program, a post-secondary school program that helps students transition from high school to university. A major reform of the K–12 education system was embarked upon by Qatar Foundation in 2003, resulting in the formation of the RAND-Qatar Policy Institute and the subsequent publishing of the institute's assessment and recommendations in Education for a New Era: Design and Implementation of K-12 Education Reform in Qatar.
As a response to declining standardized test scores, Qatar Foundation terminated its partnership with the RAND Corporation in 2013. In higher education, Qatar Foundation established branch campuses of eight international universities at the main campus just outside Doha: 1998 – Virginia Commonwealth University, with programs in art and design. 2002 – Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar opened, offering a two-year pre-medical program and a four-year medical program leading to an MD. 2003 – Texas A&M University at Qatar opened, offering programs in chemical, electrical and mechanical engineering. 2004 – Carnegie Mellon University Qatar opened, offering programs in computer science, biological sciences, computational biology, information systems. 2005 – Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Qatar opened, offering programs in international affairs. 2008 – Northwestern University in Qatar opened, offering programs in journalism and communications. 2011 – HEC Paris in Qatar launched the first EMBA in the country.
2011 – University College London Qatar opened, offering postgraduate qualifications in museum studies and archaeology in partnership with Qatar Museums Authority. These centers sit alongside the Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies which began its first graduate classes in the 2007–2008 academic year. An international center for Islamic thinking and dialogue, it aims to produce scholars who are grounded in Islamic faith and civilization, it offers master's degrees in Islamic finance, contemporary Islamic studies and Islamic public policy. Half of these universities' students are Qatari, it is claimed that around 90 different nationalities in total are represented by the students and staff at the Foundation campus; the Foundation has managed to make an impact within its first decade or so in operation. Scholars at the centers such as Weill Cornell Medical College have made contributions to studies on genetics and AIDS, the peer-reviewed periodical Academic Medicine published a study on Weill Cornell Medical College’s Medical Ethics and Humanities course for premedical students.
The course, first offered in 2003, is designed to prepare students for the medical school curriculum, the report pointed to challenges such as cross-cultural tensions that could emerge when introducing themes from Western medical ethics and humanities into an Islamic context like Qatar. "The authors outline the response to this challenge and strategies to broaden student inquiry without engaging in indoctrination," it said. As part of the Foundation's activities in education, it sponsors the World Innovation Summit for Education, a global forum that brings together education professionals, opinion leaders and decision-makers from all over the world to discuss educational issues; the summit has been held in Doha since 2009. A program known as the Qatar Science Leadership Program was initiated in 2008 in order to help develop aspiring applied science students. In 2014, the program's first PhD scholar graduated from university; the majority of the universities on Qatar Foundation's campus run their own research programs collaborating with QF's own applied research bodies.
In addition to the university programs, Q
Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar
Carnegie Mellon University in Qatar, is one of the branch campuses of Carnegie Mellon University, located in Doha, Qatar. It is Carnegie Mellon's first undergraduate branch campus, is a member of the Qatar Foundation, began graduating students in May 2008. Carnegie Mellon Qatar has 400 students, 60 faculty and postdoctoral researchers, 90 staff. Carnegie Mellon University's campus in Qatar was established in 2004, it was the fourth U. S. higher education institution to establish a campus in Qatar. The establishment of the campuses was spearheaded by Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, the mother of Qatar’s current Emir Tamim bin Hamad al Thani. Carnegie Mellon Qatar is part of Education City, a campus on the outskirts of Doha that houses eight other university campuses from the United States and Europe. Education City’s other institutions include Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, Weill Cornell Medical College, Virginia Commonwealth University, Texas A&M, Northwestern University, HEC Paris, University College London.
The degrees issued by Carnegie Mellon are the same degrees and curriculum that students receive at the Pittsburgh campus. Undergraduate degrees are offered in Computer Science, Business Administration, Information Systems, Computational Biology, Biological Sciences; the campus facilities and upkeep to them is covered by the Qatar Foundation. Carnegie Mellon received money each year to run the campus and pay faculty, it is estimated that Carnegie Mellon has received between $50 and $60 million per year from Qatar to run the campus. Tuition for the school was $49,610 in 2015; as of December 2015, the campus had 62 faculty members. In a Washington Post article, the dean of the University’s Qatar campus, Ilker Baybars, called faculty recruiting “the most difficult part of job”, noting that it is difficult to persuade tenured professors to leave America for Doha. In order to persuade professors to teach at the Doha campus, the university has provided incentives such as salary premiums, generous housing arrangements, research funding.
Carnegie Mellon Qatar is housed in a building designed by architects Legorreta + Legorreta. The university began occupancy in August 2008. All academics, student affairs and events are held in the building; some have criticized the Qatari government for placing too much emphasis on and giving too much funding to international institutions of higher education which serve only the country's elite, without demonstrating, stimulating, the quality of national institutions. Education City has been the subject of criticism for its hosting of extremist preachers at its mosque; this is in violation of the prominent Jeddah Communique signed by the GCC member states and the US to commit to combat the threat of terrorism. Announcements of these types of speakers are promoted by Education City’s Housing and Residence Life to Education City students. While American institutions of higher education place strong emphasis on freedom of speech and religion, these types of hate preachers speak out against these principles and create an intolerant atmosphere for students of Education City.
For this reason, Carnegie Mellon, along with other Education City institutions, has been the subject of criticism over whether the large amount of funding they receive provides an incentive for them to remain silent about hate preachers at Education City and other issues such as Qatar’s sponsorship of terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIS and its abysmal human rights record. Carnegie Mellon, along with the other institutions of Education City, has been the subject of questions over how a U. S. institution that values freedom of speech can function in a country where Islamic Sharia Law is enforced and the monarchy has absolute power. Critics have called into question the role that Sharia Law plays on university campuses in Qatar and how this affects the students at Carnegie Mellon and others. Qatar adheres to Wahhabism, one of the most fundamental sects of Islam. With these limitations in place due to Qatari societal norms, the question is raised of whether or not Carnegie Mellon and the rest of Education City can provide the same caliber of academic experiences as their main U.
S. campuses. Criticism has not only fallen on the universities, but on Qatar as critics question whether their motive for hosting the universities is to improve higher education opportunities in Qatar, or rather that it is more about exporting their beliefs. Carnegie Mellon Qatar Web Site Carnegie Mellon University Web Site
The Oxford Union Society referred to as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford, whose membership is drawn from the University of Oxford. Founded in 1823, it is one of Britain's oldest University Unions; the Oxford Union exists independently from the University and is separate from the Oxford University Student Union. The Oxford Union has a tradition of hosting some of the world's most prominent individuals across politics and popular culture, including US Presidents Ronald Reagan, Jimmy Carter, Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton, British Prime Ministers Winston Churchill, Margaret Thatcher, David Cameron and Theresa May, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan, activists Malcolm X, Dalai Lama and Mother Teresa, actor Morgan Freeman, musicians Sir Elton John and Michael Jackson and sportspeople Diego Maradona and Manny Pacquiao; the University university restricted junior members from discussing certain issues. Although such restrictions have since been lifted, the Oxford Union has remained separate from and independent of the University, is constitutionally bound to remain so.
Only members of Oxford University are eligible to become life members of the Union, but students at certain other educational institutions are entitled to join for the duration of their time in Oxford, including: Magna Carta College Oxford Brookes University Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies Ripon College, Cuddesdon Ruskin College Sarah Lawrence ProgrammeShorter membership is extended to those participating in some visiting study programmes in Oxford as well as staff members of the University of Oxford or any of its colleges or Permanent Private Halls. Residential memberships are available to Oxford residents who are not from the university, but only if they are deemed worthy by a full meeting of officers of the Union; the Union buildings are owned by a separate charitable trust, the Oxford Literary and Debating Union Trust. The Oxford Union buildings are located in Frewin Court, off Cornmarket Street, on St Michael's Street; the original Union buildings were designed by Benjamin Woodward and opened in 1857.
The society soon outgrew these premises and commissioned Alfred Waterhouse to design a free-standing debating chamber in the gardens, opened in 1879. This was about a decade after the completion of the Cambridge Union's premises designed by Waterhouse, the exterior of the two buildings is similar; the original Woodward debating chamber is now known as "The Old Library". The Old Library is best known for its Pre-Raphaelite paintings by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris, referred to as the Oxford Union murals; the current debating chamber, several further extensions to the main buildings were added over the next forty years. The final extension was designed in a conventional Gothic Revival style by Walter Mills and Thorpe and built in 1910-11, it provides the MacMillan Room as well as the Goodman Library, underneath which there are basement library stacks. The Union consists of a Bar on the ground floor, the Morris Room and Snooker Room on the first floor, a Members' TV Room on the third floor, along with separate offices for the President, Librarian and Secretary.
Many of the rooms in the Union are named after figures from the Union's past, such as the Goodman Library, with its oriel windows, the wood-panelled MacMillan Room with barrel ceiling. The buildings have been added to with paintings and statues of past presidents and prominent members; the Old Library contains a fireplace situated in the middle of the floor, with a concealed flue, a rare design of which only a handful of examples survive in the UK. In the debating chamber there are busts of such notables as Roy Jenkins, Edward Heath, Michael Heseltine, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and William Ewart Gladstone. There is a grand piano in the debating chamber known as the "Bartlet-Jones Piano" after the Oxford University Music Society president who found it dusty and forgotten in a cupboard in the Holywell Music Room and placed it on permanent loan to the Union; the piano was unveiled by Vladimir Ashkenazy, who famously refused to play it in front of the packed chamber because he "had not warmed up".
The despatch boxes which continue to be used in Union debates are modelled on those in the House of Commons, were offered to the House during World War II. As as the 1970s the Oxford Union still provided a full silver service dining room for its members, which like its famous bar was the afternoon and evening venue of choice for many of the university's leading undergraduate journalists and politicos. To be invited to dine at the large table in the bay window, the usual domain of the Union's president, was considered the acme of attainment in that particular sphere of the university, it was said more plots were hatched around that particular table on a regular evening than in the Houses of Parliament on Bonfire Night. The Union's two libraries were extensively used by that same cadre of undergraduates studying humanities, who were rushing at the last minute to complete the obligatory weekly essay for their formal university education; the Union's buildings were used as a location for the films Oxford Blues and The Madness of King George.
Debating at the Oxford Union takes two forms — competitive debating and chamber debating. Competitive debating offers members of the Union debate workshops and a platform upon which to practice and improve their debating skills; the Union's best debaters compete internationally against other top debating societies, the Oxford Union fields one of
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people. It is used in this regard to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants; the terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D. C. in 2001. There are different definitions of terrorism. Terrorism is a charged term, it is used with the connotation of something, "morally wrong". Governments and non-state groups denounce opposing groups. Varied political organizations have been accused of using terrorism to achieve their objectives; these organizations include right-wing and left-wing political organizations, nationalist groups, religious groups and ruling governments.
Legislation declaring terrorism a crime has been adopted in many states. There is no consensus as to; the Global Terrorism Database, maintained by the University of Maryland, College Park, has recorded more than 61,000 incidents of non-state terrorism, resulting in at least 140,000 deaths between 2000 and 2014. Etmologically, the word terror is derived from the Latin verb Tersere, which becomes Terrere; the latter form appears in European languages as early as the 12th century. By 1356 the word terreur is in use. Terreur is the origin of the Middle English term terrour, which becomes the modern word "terror"; the term terroriste, meaning "terrorist", is first used in 1794 by the French philosopher François-Noël Babeuf, who denounces Maximilien Robespierre's Jacobin regime as a dictatorship. In the years leading up to the Reign of Terror, the Brunswick Manifesto threatened Paris with an "exemplary, never to be forgotten vengeance: the city would be subjected to military punishment and total destruction" if the royal family was harmed, but this only increased the Revolution's will to abolish the monarchy.
Some writers attitudes about French Revolution grew less favorable after the French monarchy was abolished in 1792. During the Reign of Terror, which began in July 1793 and lasted thirteen months, Paris was governed by the Committee of Public safety who oversaw a regime of mass executions and public purges. Prior to the French Revolution, ancient philosophers wrote about tyrannicide, as tyranny was seen as the greatest political threat to Greco-Roman civilization. Medieval philosophers were occupied with the concept of tyranny, though the analysis of some theologians like Thomas Aquinas drew a distinction between usurpers, who could be killed by anyone, legitimate rulers who abused their power – the latter, in Aquinas' view, could only be punished by a public authority. John of Salisbury was the first medieval Christian scholar. Most scholars today trace the origins of the modern tactic of terrorism to the Jewish Sicarii Zealots who attacked Romans and Jews in 1st century Palestine, they follow its development from the Persian Order of Assassins through to 19th-century anarchists.
The "Reign of Terror" is regarded as an issue of etymology. The term terrorism has been used to describe violence by non-state actors rather than government violence since the 19th-century Anarchist Movement. In December 1795, Edmund Burke used the word "Terrorists" in a description of the new French government called'Directory': At length, after a terrible struggle, the Troops prevailed over the Citizens To secure them further, they have a strong corps of irregulars, ready armed. Thousands of those Hell-hounds called Terrorists, whom they had shut up in Prison on their last Revolution, as the Satellites of Tyranny, are let loose on the people; the terms "terrorism" and "terrorist" gained renewed currency in the 1970s as a result of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Northern Ireland conflict, the Basque conflict, the operations of groups such as the Red Army Faction. Leila Khaled was described as a terrorist in a 1970 number of Life magazine. A number of books on terrorism were published in the 1970s.
The topic came further to the fore after the 1983 Beirut barracks bombings and again after the 2001 September 11 attacks and the 2002 Bali bombings. There are over 109 different definitions of terrorism. American political philosopher Michael Walzer in 2002 wrote: "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders". Bruce Hoffman, an American scholar, has noted that It is not only individual agencies within the same governmental apparatus that cannot agree on a single definition of terrorism. Experts and other long-established scholars in the field are incapable of reaching a consensus. C. A. J. Coady has written that the question of how to define terrorism is "irresolvable" because "its natural home is in polemical and propagandist contexts". French historian Sophie Wahnich distinguishes between the revolutionary terror of the French Revolution and the terrorists of the September 11 attacks: Revolutionary terror is not terrorism.
To make a moral equivalence between the Revolution's year II and September 2001 is historical and philosophical nonsense... The violence exercised on 11 September 2001 aimed neither at liberty. Nor did the preventive war announced by the president of the United States. Experts
Qatar and state-sponsored terrorism
The Arab country of Qatar, bordered by Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf, has been accused of allowing terror financiers to operate within its borders. The country has been called "the Club Med for Terrorists" by Ron Prosor, an Israeli diplomat and "most two-faced nation in the world, backing the U. S.-led coalition against the militants of the Islamic State while providing a permissive environment", in the words of one top American official, "for terrorist financiers to operate with impunity". Accusations come from a wide variety of sources including intelligence reports, government officials, journalists. At the official level, the Qatari government has been accused of supporting Hamas, the Palestinian group regarded as a foreign terrorist organization by the United States, Egypt, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, Canada. Qatar denies these allegations, stating that it does not support Hamas' political position, that its policy is to help facilitate constructive engagement between Hamas and the PA. One of the leaked Podesta emails from August 2014, addressed to John Podesta, identifies Qatar and Saudi Arabia as providing "clandestine," "financial and logistic" aid to ISIL and other "radical Sunni groups."
The email outlines a plan of action against ISIL, urges putting pressure on Qatar and Saudi Arabia to end their alleged support for the group. Whether the email was written by Hillary Clinton, her advisor Sidney Blumenthal, or another person is unclear. In response to these allegations, on September 25, 2014, the Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, went on American television to defend his country against claims that it harbors terrorist financiers. In an interview on CNN, the Emir stated that Qatar does not fund terrorists and is committed to fighting ISIS for the long term; the Qatari government has a designated terrorist list. As of 2014, the list contained no names, according to The Telegraph. However, Qatar has a terrorist suspect watchlist, uses it to vet passengers flying internationally. Despite Qatar's efforts to arraign prominent terrorist financiers, some designated terrorists and terrorist financiers still live with impunity on Qatari soil; the violence in Afghanistan and Pakistan is bankrolled by wealthy, conservative donors across the Arabian Sea whose governments do little to stop them.
Other Arab countries which are listed as sources of militant money are Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. In 2003, the U. S. Congress was made aware that a plethora of charities based in Qatar were supporting al-Qaeda's activities by helping move and launder funds for the terrorist group. In December 2013, the United States designated a Qatari, Abd Al-Rahman al-Nuaimi, as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist; the U. S. Treasury Department placed sanctions on Nuaymi and declared him a "Qatar-based terrorist financier and facilitator who has provided money and material support and conveyed communications to al-Qa'ida and its affiliates in Syria, Iraq and Yemen for more than a decade."Furthermore, in an August 2014 op-ed published in the New York Times entitled "Club Med for Terrorists", Ron Prosor alleged that Qatar sought to improve its global image by funding prominent foreign universities in Doha and hosting the 2022 World Cup while supporting Hamas, al-Qaeda, the Muslim Brotherhood.
In December 2014, Congressman Brad Sherman and Congressman Peter Roskam requested that the U. S. government, in a letter to the Secretary of the Treasury, impose sanctions on Qatar. The two congressmen asked for a full report on activities within Qatar from individuals and organizations that fund Hamas, ISIS, Al-Qaeda, the al-Nusra Front; the State Department responded to the lawmakers' letters by stating that the US has a "productive relationship with Qatar", pointing out that Qatar has improved its counter-terrorism efforts in past years, although it conceded that Qatar's monitoring and prosecution of terrorist financiers and charities has remained "inconsistent". In December 2014, 24 members of the House Foreign Affairs Committee signed a letter suggesting that Qatar and Turkey be subject to U. S. sanctions. The Country Report on Terrorism 2015 released by the U. S. State Department on June 2, 2016 remarks that, in spite of Qatar's nominal membership and engagement in a number of counterterrorism and terror finance initiatives, "entities and individuals within Qatar continue to serve as a source of financial support for terrorist and violent extremist groups regional al-Qa'ida affiliates such as the Nusra Front".
The State Department noted Qatar's maintenance of an active watchlist of terrorist suspects, stated that the country had made efforts to arraign prominent terrorist financiers. Furthermore, the report mentioned Qatar's restructuring of its National Anti-Terrorism Committee and recent enactment of counter-terrorism laws. Former US Defense Secretary Robert Gates stated in May 2017 that he doesn't "know instances in which Qatar aggressively goes after networks of Hamas, Taliban, Al-Qaeda."In a press conference on June 9, 2017, US President Trump backed Saudi Arabia and its allies in their diplomatic spat with Qatar, stating that Qatar has been a funder of terrorism at a high level, encouraging the countries to continue their blockade. He contradicted secretary of state Rex Tillerson, who asked the quartet to moderate its blockade on Qatar as it was harming US operations against ISIL. Jamal Ahmed al-Fadl was Osama bin Laden's former business agent, he defected to the United States in 1996. In testimony to the 9/11 Commission and Congress, Al-Fadl said that Bin Laden told him in 1993 that the Qatar Charitable Society, renamed to Qatar Char