Education in India

Education in India is provided by public schools and private schools. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14; the approximate ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5. India has made progress in increasing the attainment rate of primary education. In 2011, Approximately 75% of the population, aged between 7 and 10 years, was literate. India's improved education system is cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrolment in higher education has increased over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013, there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrolment levels of developed nations, a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.

At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group. Certain post-secondary technical schools are private; the private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market. As per the Annual Status of Education Report 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrolment above 96%. India has maintained an average enrolment ratio of 95% for students in this age group from year 2007 to 2014; as an outcome the number of students in the age group 6-14 who are not enrolled in school has come down to 2.8% in the year academic year 2018. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 229 million students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrolment, a 19% increase in girl's enrolment.

While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned in its government run school system. While more than 95 percent of children attend primary school, just 40 percent of Indian adolescents attend secondary school. Since 2000, the World Bank has committed over $2 billion to education in India; some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day. States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools. Although there are private schools in India, they are regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading. In January 2019, India had over 40,000 colleges. In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes.

In universities and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, the highest percentage of reservations in India. Takshasila was the earliest recorded centre of higher learning in India from 8th century BCE, it is debatable whether it could be regarded a university or not in modern sense, since teachers living there may not have had official membership of particular colleges, there did not seem to have existed purpose-built lecture halls and residential quarters in Taxila, in contrast to the Nalanda university in eastern India. Nalanda was the oldest university-system of education in the world in the modern sense of university. There all subjects were taught in Ariano -páli Language. Secular institutions cropped up along Buddhist monasteries; these institutions imparted practical education. A number of urban learning centres became visible from the period between 500 BCE to 400 CE.

The important urban centres of learning were Manassa in Nagpur, among others. These institutions systematically imparted knowledge and attracted a number of foreign students to study topics such as Buddhist Páli literature, logic, páli grammar, etc. Chanakya, a Brahmin teacher, was among the most famous teachers, associated with founding of Mauryan Empire. Sammanas and Brahmin gurus offered education by means of donations, rather than charging fees or the procurement of funds from students or their guardians. Stupas, temples became centres of education. Students were required to be celibates; the knowledge in these orders was related to the tasks a section of the society had to perform. The priest class, the Sammanas, were imparted knowledge of religion and other ancillary branches while the warrior class, the Kshatriya, were trained in the various aspects of warfare; the business class, the Vaishya, were taught their trade and the working class of the Shudras was deprived of educational advantages.

The central board and most of the state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education. In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Ju

Three crows

Three crows are a symbol or metaphor in several traditions. Crows, ravens feature in European legends or mythology as portents or harbingers of doom or death, because of their dark plumage, unnerving calls, tendency to eat carrion. According to Druid tradition they're believed to bring upon new changes A version of the three crows is based on the three ravens folk tale where three crows plot to devour the corpse of a dead knight, they are thwarted by the knight's hawk and mistress. Three crows are often implicated in the parliament of crows where three crows preside over a larger number of crows and sit in judgment over the fate of another crow; the verdict sometimes results in a crow being set upon by all the other crows. This behavior and their tendency to show up at battlefields and the scenes of murders may be explain the collective term for crows as being a'murder of crows'. Three crows refers to a tale of three crows bothering the king. There are several references to the three crows in the German folklore.

A number of these were included in the collection of stories by the Grimm brothers and Wilhelm. There is, for instance, the legend of Faithful John, which told of three crows who warned faithful John about a series of misfortunes that would befall his king; the Grimms recorded a story called Three Crows, which involved a tale that characterized the crows in the same light. In the story, a man called Conrad was beaten hard so that he became blind, he overheard three crows talking, which gave him information that improved his life. The Three Crows may refer to the group of three go players who are part of the triumvirate of certain eras in go history; these players include Hideyuki Fujisawa, Keizo Suzuki, Toshiro Yamabe. Although, since Suzuki died young, he was replaced by Takeo Kajiwara. Hashimoto Utaro, Murashima Yoshinori, Shinohara Masami. Fujisawa Hosai, Takagawa Kaku, Sakata Eio. Ishida Yoshio, Kato Masao and Takemiya Masaki. In Japanese the term is used of triumvirates of other fields as e.g. sumo and baseball.

In the Kwantung Army of Imperial Japan for instance, the Three Crows refer to the Triumvirate of Army War College 24th class graduate Kenji Doihara, Army War College 28th class graduate Itagaki Seishiro and Army War College 30th class Military Sword Club member Kanji Ishiwara: the main masterminds of the Mukden Incident and the subsequent invasion of China. Stock market investors sometimes refer to a three crows as a pattern of successive declining stock prices over three days identified by overlapping candlestick patterns. Three crows are seen as a warning of a period of powerful selling pressure on the stock market. There are those who recommended, that investors should not be alarmed since an identical three crow pattern in a primary uptrend will break out downward but reverse in a few days

The Beginning (Red Dwarf)

"The Beginning" is the sixth episode of science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf series X broadcast on the British television channel Dave on 8 November 2012. The crew are attacked by Simulants, in desperation are forced to rely on Rimmer to save them; the episode opens during Rimmer's childhood. He is a student at a college on Io, his father is the teacher. Rimmer's father uses the unwitting young Arnold as a guinea pig, he has prepped the students to make Arnold feel unsure of his decisions, he humiliates him when he gets them wrong. Three million years aboard Red Dwarf and the others are visited - yet again - by a dim-witted rogue droid named Hogey, challenging them to duels across time and space due to boredom. While Lister and Rimmer attempt to talk him into a simpler competition, Hogey reveals he has stolen a map of all the wormholes and derelicts in the galaxy from a Simulant Death Ship; the Simulants have followed him, they dispatch three Annihilators to attack Red Dwarf. The hull outside the sleeping quarters is breached, the ensuing decompression pulls Hogey against the hole, sealing it.

The Dwarfers abandon him. Rimmer grabs a holo-lamp that his father gave him as a child, containing a message that he is supposed to listen to once he becomes an officer; the Dwarfers escape in Blue Midget, leading the Annihilators and Death Ship away from Red Dwarf. They proceed to a nearby asteroid belt; as the Simulants close in, they are forced to come up with a battle plan, a responsibility that Lister bestows upon Rimmer on the grounds that he's familiar with both Astro-Navigation and military strategy. Rimmer rises to the challenge, he attempts to make a battle plan in the storage room. The Cat, while playing with some string, unexpectedly points out to Rimmer why he's never able to focus - his father, he suggests that Rimmer just move on. Inspired, Rimmer decides to play the message on the holo-lamp so that he can prove to himself he doesn't care what his father thinks. However, the message gives him a shocking revelation - Rimmer's father isn't his biological father, his real father is the family gardener, "Dungo".

Although shaken by this news, Rimmer manages to turn it around in his favour. He reckons a humble gardener, would have been proud of his accomplishments. With his new-found confidence, he comes up with a plan of action. At first, the others put it to a vote. With all three voting against it, Rimmer votes with them, but remembering how his father humiliated him in school, he stands by his decision, in a rare show of bravery, he tells his crew-mates that they can do this. Rousing them together, they all fly Blue Midget out of the asteroid belt. Surrounded from all sides by all four of the Simulant ships, Rimmer opens communication with Zlurg and Wednesday, offering surrender; the Simulants are amused by this proposal, fire missiles inward at Blue Midget from all four directions. After giving them a chance to call off their attack, Rimmer gives the order and Lister promptly uses the Molecular Destabilizer to destabilize Blue Midget's bulkheads, allowing the missiles to pass harmlessly through the cockpit and continue straight into all four Simulant ships, destroying them.

Pleased with his heroics and content with his new humble background, Rimmer gives the following order: "Kryten - set a course for Red Dwarf! The slime's coming home!", a direct reference to the final line of the first episode: "Holly, plot a course for Fiji! Look out, the slime's coming home!". In a post-credit sequence, the crew return to their mothership, they are annoyed to find Hogey still there. An indication is given that Rimmer was the one who saved them from the ship-eating microbe in "Only the Good...", although the conversation is interrupted before exact details are given and Lister insists the incident was a fluke for which Rimmer took credit. The original plan for the final two episodes of Series X was for a plot that would see the reintroduction of Kristine Kochanski; however production problems meant the plan had to be ditched, two new episodes were written at short notice. Much of this episode was adapted from the unused script for the Red Dwarf movie; the original working title for this episode was "Death Day", but it was changed to "The Beginning" in deliberate reference to the first episode of Red Dwarf, "The End".

The episode featured Richard O'Callaghan playing the rogue droid called "Hogey the Roguey". Hogey was a character from the aborted movie, O'Callaghan had years earlier played the role during the pre-production script readings of the movie. O'Callaghan subsequently appeared on Red Dwarf: Back to Earth playing the "creator" tracked down by the crew; the episode began with a scene depicting Rimmer's father played by Simon Treves. Rimmer's father had appeared in the series II episode Better Than Life where he was played by John Abineri; the simulant leader "Dominator Zlurth" was played by Gary Cady, who did not realise he was shooting a comedy until after his first scene. The episode was dedicated to the memory of Peter Wragg, the BBC Visual Effects Designer who created the original spaceship models for Red Dwarf, oversaw the effects for the first seven series; the psychological experiment performed on young Rimmer at the beginning of the episode, in which an unsuspec