SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Educational attainment in the United States

The educational attainment of the U. S. population refers to the highest level of education completed. The educational attainment of the U. S. population is similar to that of many other industrialized countries with the vast majority of the population having completed secondary education and a rising number of college graduates that outnumber high school dropouts. As a whole, the population of the United States is spending more years in formal educational programs; as with income, levels differ by race, household configuration, geography. Overall, the demographics with the highest educational attainment in the United States are those with the highest household income and wealth. In 2003, over four-fifths of all adults 25 years or older reported they had completed at least high school, or obtained a GED/high school equivalency certificate. Over one in four adults had attained at least a bachelor's degree. Both of these measures are all time highs. In 2003, the percentage of the adult population who had completed high school or had not completed high school but obtained a GED increased for the first time since 2000, when it was 84 percent.

This increase follows a general trend that the Current Population Survey has shown since educational attainment was first measured in 1947. In 2015, among adults aged 65 and older, 84 percent had either completed high school or more education, or had failed to complete high school but obtained at least a GED certification, compared to 91 percent of adults aged 25 to 34 and 89 percent of adults aged 35 to 44 years or 45 to 64 years. In addition, 27 percent of the population aged 65 and older reported a bachelor's degree or more education compared to 36 percent of adults 25 to 34 years old and 32 percent of adults aged 45 to 64 years. Since 1983 the percentage of people either graduating from high school or failing to complete high school but getting a GED certification has increased from 85% to 88%; the greatest increases in educational attainment were documented in the 60s and 70s. In the 1950s and much of the 1960s high school graduates constituted about 50% of those considered adults. For adults aged between 25 and 30, the percentage of either high school graduates or GED obtainers was 50% in 1950 versus 90% today.

For the past fifty years, there has been a gap in the educational achievement of males and females in the United States, but which gender has been disadvantaged has fluctuated over the years. In the 1970s and 1980s, data showed girls trailing behind boys in a variety of academic performance measures in test scores in math and science. Data in the last twenty years shows the general trend of girls outperforming boys in academic achievement in terms of class grades across all subjects and college graduation rates, but boys scoring higher on standardized tests and being better represented in the higher-paying and more prestigious STEM fields. Traditionally, girls have outperformed boys in writing. Although this gap may be minimal in kindergarten, it grows. According to the 2004 National Reading Assessment measured by the US Department of Education, the gap between boys and girls, only noticeable in 4th grade, left boys 14 points behind girls during their 12th grade year. On the 2008 test, female students continued to have higher average reading scores than male students at all three ages.

The gap between male and female 4th graders was 7 points in 2008. By 12th grade, there was an 11-point gap between females. On the 2002 National Writing Assessment, boys scored on average 17 points lower than girls in 4th grade; the average gap increased to 21 points by 8th grade and widened to 24 points by senior year in high school. In the more recent 2007 National Assessment of Writing Skills, female students continued to score higher than male students, though margins closed from previous assessments; the average score for female eighth-graders was 20 points higher than males, down 1 point from the 2002 score. For twelfth-graders, females outscored males by 18 points as opposed to 24 points in 2002. All of these assessments were conducted on a 100-point scale. Overall, women have surpassed men in terms of completion of post-secondary education. In 2015/2016, women earned 61% of associate degrees, 57% of bachelor's degrees, 59% of master's degrees, 53% of doctorates. A similar pattern is seen in high school education, where, in 2016, 7.1% of males, but only 5.1% of females dropped out of high school.

In 2015/2016, 56 percent of college students were female and 44 percent were male. From 1990 until 2015, the number of males enrolled in college increased by 41 percent, the number of female students rose by 53 percent. In 2015/2016, 51% of degrees earned by males were bachelor's, higher than that of females for whom 48% of degrees earned were bachelor's degrees; as of 2006, the numbers of both men and women receiving a bachelor's degree has increased but the increasing rate of female college graduates exceeds the increasing rate for males. In 2007, the United States Census Bureau estimated that 18,423,000 males over the age of 18 held a bachelor's degree, while 20,501,000 females over the age 18 held one. In addition, fewer males held master's degrees: 6,472,000 males compared to 7,283,000 females. However, more men held doctoral degrees than women. 2,033,000 males held professional degrees compared to 1,079,000, 1,678,000 males had received a doctoral degree compared to 817,000 females. In 2016/2017, women are projected to earn 64.2% of associate degrees, 59.9% of bachelor's degrees, 62.9% of master's degrees, 55.5% of Doctorates.

While the educational attainment of all races incre

1987 New Year Honours (Australia)

The New Year Honours 1987 were appointments by Queen Elizabeth II to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of those countries, honorary ones to citizens of other countries. They were announced on 31 December 1988 to celebrate the year passed and mark the beginning of 1989 in Australia The Honourable Mr. Justice Dormer George Andrews, Chief Justice of Queensland. Leo Arthur Hielscher, Under Treasurer of Queensland. Dr. Russell Walker Strong. For service to the medical profession. Dr. Michael James Conomos. For service to the community. David Vincent Gunn. For public and community service. Robert Keith Boughen. For service to music. James Christian Carey. For service to the legal profession and the community. Dr. Kevin Patrick Kennedy. For service to medicine. Ronald Ewan McMaster. For service to the building industry. Olga Phyllis, Mrs. Mor. For service to the sport of lawn bowls. Maxwell Thomas Bushby Speaker of the House of Assembly. Alan Norman Bray. For service to the community.

Joan, Mrs. Willoughby Joyce. For service to the community. Sydney Lingard. For service to the sport of lawn bowls. Dr. Victor Roy Luck. For service to the community. Margaret Ellen, Mrs. Pidgeon. For service to the building industry. Norman Vincent Rice. For service to bee-keeping industry. Sister Mary Dorothea Sheehan, R. S. M. For services to nursing. William James Gunn. For service to agriculture and the community. Trevor George Hodge. For service to handicapped children. Donald George Young. For public service. Lloyd A. Koerbin. For service to industry. Marjorie Dora, Mrs. Anderson. For service to the community. Betty Alma, Mrs. Bennett. For service to the community. Dr. Ailcie Meredith Foxton. For service to the community. Miss Jane Hickling. For service to the community. Winifred Isobel, Mrs. Lloyd. For service to the community in particular the blind. Thomas Walker McLucas. For service to the community. Donald Malcolm McPherson. For service to the community. Dorothy, Mrs. Nicholson. For service to the community. Michael Bernard Ryalls.

For service to the community. Joyce Helena Averina, Mrs. Savage. For service to the community. George Shaw. For service to the community. Ernest Leonard Young. For service to the community. Terence Ralph Avery. For service to the community. Robert Hilton Barratt. For services to agriculture and the community. Ellen Minnie, Mrs. Pascoe. For social welfare work. John Malachi Donoghue, Assistant Commissioner, Queensland Police Force. Harold Leslie Southern, Tasmania Police Force. James Moore, Chief Fire Safety Officer, State Fire Service

GLUT5

GLUT5 is a fructose transporter expressed on the apical border of enterocytes in the small intestine. GLUT5 allows for fructose to be transported from the intestinal lumen into the enterocyte by facilitated diffusion due to fructose's high concentration in the intestinal lumen. GLUT5 is expressed in skeletal muscle, kidney, fat tissue, brain. Fructose malabsorption or Dietary Fructose Intolerance is a dietary disability of the small intestine, where the amount of fructose carrier in enterocytes is deficient. In humans the GLUT5 protein is encoded by the SLC2A5 gene. Fructose uptake rate by GLUT5 is affected by diabetes mellitus, obesity, fructose malabsorption, inflammation. However, age-related changes in fructose intake capability are not explained by the rate of expression of GLUT5; the absorption of fructose in the simultaneous presence of glucose is improved, while sorbitol is inhibitory. Click on genes and metabolites below to link to respective articles. GLUT5+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings