Albert D. Richardson
Albert Deane Richardson was a well-known American journalist, Union spy, author. Among his works is his noted biography of Ulysses S. Grant. Richardson was shot on two separate occasions, the second time fatally, by a jealous husband of the women Richardson was in love with. Born in Franklin, October 6, 1833 Obtained first job with newspaper, Pittsburgh Commercial Journal, 1851. Married Mary Louise Pease, April 1855. Correspondent for the Boston Journal, 1857. Edited The Western Mountaineer of Golden City, Colorado, 1860. Journalist for the New York Daily Tribune. Captured by the Confederates at Vicksburg, May 3, 1863. Wife and daughter died. Escaped Salisbury, NC, December 18, 1864. Shot by Daniel McFarland, March 14, 1867. Wrote Through to the Pacific for the New York Tribune, May–June, 1869. Shot again by Daniel McFarland, November 25, 1869. Married Abby Sage McFarland, November, 1869. Died December 2, 1869. Richardson wrote for the New York Tribune owned by Horace Greeley, traveled to battlefields during the American Civil War to report on the war with fellow journalist Junius Henri Browne.
Richardson and Browne were imprisoned for 20 months in seven different prisons, confined successively at Vicksburg, Atlanta and Salisbury, North Carolina, prisons. On December 18, 1864, after 20 months of imprisonment, he escaped from Salisbury, along with Browne, they traveled together more than 400 miles through hostile country, reached the Union lines on January 14, 1865. His list of Union soldiers who died at Salisbury, published in the Tribune, is the only authentic account of their fate. Richardson was one of the best known reporters of his age, due to his abilities as a writer and his services as a Union spy, his reputation is recalled as the victim of a homicide that gained considerable notoriety in the Gilded Age. Richardson's wife and daughter had died during the war, he subsequently met Abby Sage McFarland, an actress married to one Daniel McFarland. McFarland claimed to be a major businessman and politician, but he was a violent husband and alcoholic with connections with Tammany Hall.
Richardson and Abby Sage McFarland lived together, their friends and acquaintances understanding Richardson was protecting the woman he loved while she was trying to get a divorce, something, not well received by the public in the 1860s. Sage McFarland and Richardson got advice from his friend Vice President Schuyler Colfax on using Indiana divorce laws for the fastest results. McFarland shot and wounded Richardson in March 1867, but on November 25, 1869 McFarland shot Richardson in the offices of the New York Tribune in front of the night clerk Daniel Frohman. Richarson lived for over a week. By this time Abby Sage had gotten her divorce, Richardson married her at a special bedside marriage performed by the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher; the trial was a farce, with Tammany connections and dislike for the people who worked at the Tribune being used shamelessly to protect McFarland. He was shown by his defenders to be a defender of the home and hearth against a seducer, as Harry K. Thaw would be shown to be in his 1907 trial for the murder of Stanford White.
McFarland was acquitted among cheering crowds. But his ex-wife did not return to him and spent the rest of her life as Abby Richardson, working in the theater as play reader, she died in 1900. McFarland went west. In the words of the criminal historian Edmund Pearson, it did not take him long to drink himself to death. Looked at today the story has a modern ring because of Abby being the victim of domestic violence, yet sixty years the historian Claude G. Bowers in his partisan history The Tragic Era showed a mean comfort in the fate of Richardson, the tarnishing of Beecher and Greeley by the scandal. Journalist Leander Richardson was the son of Mary Louise. Richardson, Albert D.. The Secret Service, the Field, the Dungeon, the Escape. American Publishing Company. American Publishing Company. A Personal History of Ulysses S Grant. American Publishing Company. Garnered Sheaves. Columbian Book Company. Carlson, Peter. Junius and Albert's Adventures in the Confederacy. PublicAffairs. Bibliography of Ulysses S. Grant Bowers, Claude G..
The Tragic Era: The Revolution After Lincoln. New York, Halcyon House. Cooper, George. Lost Love: A True Story of Passion, And Justice In Old New York. New York: Random House/Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-43398-8.. Edmund Lester Pearson, More Studies in Murder, p. 196-203: "The Birth of the Brainstorm". Andie Tucher, "Reporting for Duty: The Bohemian Brigade, the Civil War, the Social Construction of the Reporter," Book History 9: 131-57 Works by Albert D. Richardson at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Albert D. Richardson at Internet Archive Works by Albert D. Richardson at LibriVox
Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux Klan called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States; each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. The Klan used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were exaggerated by both friends and enemies; the first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South by using violence against African-American leaders; each chapter was autonomous and secret as to membership and plans. Its numerous chapters across the South were suppressed through federal law enforcement.
Members made their own colorful, costumes: robes and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities. The second Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy took a pro-Prohibition stance, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the Pope and the Catholic Church; this second organization was funded by selling its members a standard white costume. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others, it declined in the half of the 1920s. The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name.
They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center; as of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total KKK membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center puts it at 6,000 members total. The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality every Christian denomination has denounced the KKK; the first Klan was founded in Pulaski, sometime between December 1865 and August 1866 by six former officers of the Confederate army as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the largely defunct Sons of Malta. It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: "ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan," according to Albert Stevens in 1907.
The name is derived from the Greek word kuklos which means circle. The manual of rituals was printed by Laps D. McCord of Pulaski. According to The Cyclopædia of Fraternities, "Beginning in April, 1867, there was a gradual transformation... The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein, they had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on innocent lines, found themselves overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all — that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do."Although there was little organizational structure above the local level, similar groups rose across the South and adopted the same name and methods. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement promoting resistance and white supremacy during the Reconstruction Era. For example, Confederate veteran John W. Morton founded a chapter in Tennessee; as a secret vigilante group, the Klan targeted their allies. In 1870 and 1871, the federal government passed the Enforcement Acts, which were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes.
The first Klan had mixed results in terms of achieving its objectives. It weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence. On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens". Historian George C. Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South, he says: the Klan declined in strength in part because of internal weaknesses. More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective – the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South. After the Klan was suppressed, similar insurgent paramilitary groups arose that were explicitly directed at suppressing Republican voting and turning Republicans out o
1868 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1868 was the 21st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1868. In the first election of the Reconstruction Era, Republican nominee Ulysses S. Grant defeated Democrat Horatio Seymour, it was the first presidential election to take place after the conclusion of the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery. Incumbent President Andrew Johnson had succeeded to the presidency in 1865 following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, a Republican. Johnson, a War Democrat from Tennessee, had served as Lincoln's running mate in 1864 on the National Union ticket, designed to attract Republicans and War Democrats. Upon accession to office, Johnson clashed with the Republican Congress over Reconstruction policies and was nearly removed from office. Johnson received some support for another term at the 1868 Democratic National Convention, after several ballots, the Democratic convention nominated Governor Seymour of New York; the 1868 Republican National Convention unanimously nominated General Grant, the highest-ranking Union general at the end of the Civil War.
The Democrats criticized the Republican Reconstruction policies, "campaigned explicitly on an anti-black, pro-white platform," while Republicans campaigned on Grant's popularity and the Union victory in the Civil War. Grant decisively won the electoral vote. In addition to his appeal in the North, Grant benefited from votes among the newly enfranchised freedmen in the South, while the temporary political disfranchisement of many Southern whites helped Republican margins; as three of the former Confederate states were not yet restored to the Union, their electors could not vote in the election. It was the first election in which African Americans could vote in the Reconstructed Southern states, in accordance with the First Reconstruction Act. Reconstruction and civil rights of former slaves was a hotly debated issue in the Union. Grant supported the Reconstruction plans of the Radical Republicans in Congress, which favored the 14th Amendment, with full citizenship and civil rights for freedpeople, including suffrage for adult freedmen.
The Democratic platform condemned "Negro supremacy," and demanded a restoration of states' rights, including the right of southern states to determine for themselves whether to allow suffrage for adult freedmen. By 1868, the Republicans felt strong enough to drop the Union Party label, but wanted to nominate a popular hero for their presidential candidate; the Democratic Party controlled many large Northern states that had a great percentage of the electoral votes. General Ulysses S. Grant announced he was a Republican and was unanimously nominated on the first ballot as the party's standard bearer at the Republican convention in Chicago, held on May 20–21, 1868. House Speaker Schuyler Colfax, a Radical Republican from Indiana, was nominated for vice-president on the sixth ballot, beating out the early favorite, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio; the Republican platform supported black suffrage in the South as part of the passage to full citizenship for former slaves. It agreed to let northern states decide individually.
It opposed using greenbacks to redeem U. S. bonds, encouraged immigration, endorsed full rights for naturalized citizens, favored Radical Reconstruction as distinct from the more lenient policy of President Andrew Johnson. The Democratic National Convention was held in New York City between July 4, July 9, 1868; the front-runner in the early balloting was George H. Pendleton, who led on the first fifteen ballots, followed in varying order by incumbent president Andrew Johnson, Winfield Scott Hancock, Sanford Church, Asa Packer, Joel Parker, James E. English, James Rood Doolittle, Thomas A. Hendricks; the unpopular Johnson, having narrowly survived impeachment, won sixty-five votes on the first ballot, less than one-third of the total necessary for nomination, thus lost his bid for election as president in his own right. Meanwhile, the convention chairman Horatio Seymour, former governor of New York, received nine votes on the fourth ballot from the state of North Carolina; this unexpected move caused "loud and enthusiastic cheering," but Seymour refused, saying, I must not be nominated by this Convention, as I could not accept the nomination if tendered.
My own inclination prompted me to decline at the outset. It is impossible with my position, to allow my name to be mentioned in this Convention against my protest; the clerk will proceed with the call. By the seventh ballot Pendleton and Hendricks had emerged as the two front-runners, with Hancock the only other candidate with much support by this point. After numerous indecisive ballots, the names of John T. Hoffman, Francis P. Blair, Stephen Johnson Field were placed in nomination. None of these candidates, gained substantial support. For twenty-one ballots, the opposing candidates battled it out: the East battling the West for control, the conservatives battling the radicals. Pendleton's support collapsed after the 15th ballot, but went to Hancock rather than Hendricks, leaving the convention still deadlocked; the two leading candidates were determined. Seymour still hoped it would be Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase, but on the twenty-second ballot, the chairman of the Ohio delegation announced, "at the unanimous request and demand of the delegation I place Horatio Seymour in nomination with twenty-one votes-against his inclination, but no longer against his honor."
Seymour had to wait for the rousing cheers to die
A blockade runner is a merchant vessel used for evading a naval blockade of a port or strait. It is light and fast, using stealth and speed rather than confronting the blockaders in order to break the blockade. Blockade runners transport cargo, for example bringing food or arms to a blockaded city, they have carried mail in an attempt to communicate with the outside world. Blockade runners are the fastest ships available, come armed and armored, their operations are quite risky. However, the potential profits from a successful blockade run are tremendous, so blockade-runners had excellent crews. Although having modus operandi similar to that of smugglers, blockade-runners are operated by state's navies as part of the regular fleet. Notable users of blockade runners include the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, Germany during the World Wars. There were numerous attempts at blockade running during the Peloponnesian War. With his fleet blockaded, Leon of Salamis dispatched blockade runners to seek reinforcements from Athens.
During the Punic Wars, the Carthaginian Empire attempted to get around Roman blockades of its ports and strongholds. At one point, blockade runners brought in the only food reaching the city of Carthage, Blockade runners in the American Revolution eluded the British naval blockades in order to supply resources to the army; this included French ships. During the American Civil War, blockade running became a major enterprise for the Confederacy due to the Union's Anaconda Plan, which sought to cut off all the Confederacy's overseas trade. Twelve major ports and 3,500 miles of coastline along the Confederate States were patrolled by some 500 ships that were commissioned by the Union government. Great Britain played a major role on the blockade running business, as they had investments in the south and were suffering from the Lancashire Cotton Famine. Great Britain controlled many of the neutral ports in the Caribbean, in the Bahamas and Bermuda. To protect their interests British investors had engineered steamships that were longer and faster than most of the conventional steamers guarding the American coastline, thus enabling them to outmaneuver and outrun blockaders.
Among the more notable was the CSS Advance that completed more than 20 successful runs through the Union blockade before being captured. These vessels brought badly needed supplies firearms, carried Confederate mail; the blockade played a major role in the Union's victory over the Confederate states. By the end of the Civil War the Union Navy had captured more than 1,100 blockade runners and had destroyed or run aground another 355 vessels. During the Great Cretan Revolt, Greek blockade runners supplied the Christians revolting against the Turkish rule during this time. Names of the ships include: Arkadion. During World War I the Central Powers, most notably Germany, were blockaded by the Entente Powers. In particular the North Sea blockade made it nearly impossible for surface ships to leave Germany for the neutral United States and other locations; the blockade was run with cargo submarines called merchant submarines and Bremen, which reached the neutral United States. The Marie ran the British North Sea blockade and docked damaged, in Batavia, Dutch East Indies on May 13, 1916.
In 1918 Germany tried unsuccessfully to supply their forces in Africa by sending Zeppelin LZ104. On the outbreak of war, the Royal Navy imposed a naval blockade against Germany. However, the fall of France provided the German occupying forces with access to the French Atlantic coast, between 1940 and 1942, many blockade running trips succeeded in delivering cargoes of critical war supplies - crude rubber - through the port of Bordeaux. Allied attempts to disrupt these operations had only a limited effect. From 1943, improved Allied air supremacy over the Bay of Biscay rendered blockade running by surface ships impossible. By some counts, during the war Germans sent 32 blockade runners to Japan, only 16 of them reaching their destination. In the war, most of the trade between Germany and Japan was by cargo submarine. A number of Italian units, interned in Spain after Italy entered in the war in June 1940, run from the Bay of Biscay to Bordeaux, some of them, such as Fidelitas and Eugenio C, dashed through the English Channel bound for Germany and Norway.
In an attempt to transfer technology to Imperial Japan, Nazi Germany dispatched a submarine, U-234, to sail to Japan. Germany surrendered; the Japanese submarine I-8 completed a similar mission. On Nov. 23, 1942, the German ship Ramses attempted unsuccessfully to sail from Batavia, the ship being in the Pacific when the war started, to Bordeaux with a cargo of rubber. The hope was that maintaining a sharp 24-hour lookout they would be able to evade the Allied blockade. A small number of planes succeeded in flying between the Axis-controlled Europe and the Japanese-controlled parts of Asia; the first known flight was by an Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.75 Marsupiale, which flew in July 1942, according to various sources, either from Zaporozhye
Fort Monroe is a decommissioned military installation in Hampton, Virginia at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula, United States. Along with Fort Wool, Fort Monroe guarded the navigation channel between the Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads—the natural roadstead at the confluence of the Elizabeth, the Nansemond and the James rivers; until disarmament in 1946, the areas protected by the fort were the entire Chesapeake Bay and Potomac River regions, including the water approaches to the cities of Washington, D. C. and Baltimore, along with important shipyards and naval bases in the Hampton Roads area. Surrounded by a moat, the six-sided bastion fort is the largest fort by area built in the United States. During the initial exploration by a mission headed by Captain Christopher Newport in the early 1600s, the earliest days of the Colony of Virginia, the site was identified as a strategic defensive location. Beginning by 1609, defensive fortifications were built at Old Point Comfort during Virginia's first two centuries.
The first was a wooden stockade named Fort Algernourne, followed by other small forts. However, the much more substantial facility of stone that became known as Fort Monroe were completed in 1834, as part of the third system of U. S. fortifications. The principal fort was named in honor of U. S. President James Monroe. Although Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands throughout the American Civil War, it became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies. For two years thereafter, the former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, was imprisoned at the fort, his first months of confinement were spent in a cell of the casemated fort walls, now part of its Casemate Museum. Around the turn of the 20th century, numerous gun batteries were added in and near Fort Monroe under the Endicott program. In the 19th and 20th centuries it housed artillery schools, including the Coast Artillery School.
The Continental Army Command headquarters was at Fort Monroe, succeeded by the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command following a division of CONARC into TRADOC and United States Army Forces Command in 1973. CONARC was responsible for all active Army units in the continental United States. TRADOC was headquartered at the fort from 1973 until its decommissioning. Fort Monroe was decommissioned on September 15, 2011, many of its functions were transferred to nearby Fort Eustis. Several re-use plans for Fort Monroe are under development in the Hampton community. On November 1, 2011, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation to designate portions of Fort Monroe as a National Monument; this was the first time that President Obama exercised his authority under the Antiquities Act, a 1906 law to protect sites deemed to have natural, historical or scientific significance. Within the 565 acres of Fort Monroe are 170 historic buildings and nearly 200 acres of natural resources, including 8 miles of waterfront, 3.2 miles of beaches on the Chesapeake Bay, 110 acres of submerged lands and 85 acres of wetlands.
It has a 332-slip marina and shallow water inlet access to Mill Creek, suitable for small watercraft. The land area where Fort Monroe is became part of Elizabeth Cittie in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. Over 300 years in 1952, Elizabeth City County and the nearby Town of Phoebus agreed to consolidate with the smaller independent city of Hampton, which became one of the larger cities of Hampton Roads. Arriving with three ships under Captain Christopher Newport, Captain John Smith and the colonists of the Virginia Company established the settlement of Jamestown of the British Colony of Virginia on the James River in 1607. On their initial exploration, they recognized the strategic importance of the site at Old Point Comfort for purposes of coastal defense, they built Fort Algernourne at the location of the present Fort Monroe. It is assumed to have been a triangular stockade, based on the fort at Jamestown. Other small forts known as Fort Henry and Fort Charles were built nearby in 1610.
Fort Algernourne burned in 1612. In the latter part of August 1619, a Dutch ship, the White Lion, appeared off the coast of Old Point Comfort, its cargo included. Traded for work and supplies from the English, they were the first Africans to come ashore on British-occupied land in what would become the United States; the arrival of these Bantu Africans from Angola is considered to mark the beginning of slavery in America. Another fort, known only as "the fort at Old Point Comfort" was constructed in 1632. In 1728, Fort George was built on the site, its masonry walls were destroyed by a hurricane in 1749, but the wood buildings in the fort were used by a reduced force from circa 1755 until at least 1775. During the American Revolutionary War, as Patriot and French forces approached Yorktown in 1781, the British established batteries on the ruins of Fort George. Shortly afterward, during the Siege of Yorktown, the French West Indian fleet occupied these batteries. Throughout the Colonial period, fortifications were manned at the location from time to time.
Following the War of 1812, the United States realized the need to protect Hampton Roads and the inland waters from attack by sea. C. In Marc
Fort Warren (Massachusetts)
Fort Warren is a historic fort on the 28-acre Georges Island at the entrance to Boston Harbor. It is not to be confused with Fort Winthrop, named Fort Warren from 1808 to 1833. Fort Warren is a pentagonal bastion fort, made with stone and granite, was constructed from 1833–1861, completed shortly after the beginning of the American Civil War. Fort Warren defended the harbor in Boston, from 1861 through the end of World War II, during the Civil War served as a prison for Confederate officers and government officials; the fort remained active through the Spanish–American War and World War I, was re-activated during World War II. It was permanently decommissioned in 1947, is now a tourist site, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970 as a masterpiece of coastal engineering of the pre-Civil War period, for its role in the Civil War. The fort is named for Revolutionary War hero Dr. Joseph Warren, who sent Paul Revere on his famous ride, was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill; the name was transferred from the first Fort Warren in 1833, renamed Fort Winthrop.
Fort Warren was built from 1833 to 1861 and was completed shortly after the beginning of the American Civil War as part of the third system of US fortifications. The Army engineer in charge during the bulk of the fort's construction was Colonel Sylvanus Thayer, best known for his tenure as Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, it was the fifth largest of the 42 third system forts. The overall plan was pentagonal in shape irregular to make the best use of the island's terrain; the fort features excellent granite work. A demilune battery protecting the north sally port is a rare feature in US forts; the fort was designed for over 200 guns, including some mortars and flank howitzers. During the Civil War it was armed with 10-inch Rodman smoothbore guns. During the Civil War, the island fort served as a prison for captured Confederate army and navy personnel, elected civil officials from the state of Maryland, Northern political prisoners. James M. Mason and John Slidell, the Confederate diplomats seized in the Trent affair, were among those held at the fort.
Confederate military officers held at Fort Warren included Richard S. Ewell, Isaac R. Trimble, John Gregg, Adam "Stovepipe" Johnson, Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. and Lloyd Tilghman. High-ranking civilians held at Fort Warren include Confederate Vice President Alexander H. Stephens and Confederate Postmaster General John Henninger Reagan; the prison camp had a reputation for humane treatment of its detainees. When the camp commander's son, Lieutenant Justin E. Dimick, left Fort Warren for active duty in the field with the Second U. S. Artillery, he was given a letter from Confederate officers in the camp urging good care should he be captured; the famous Union marching song John Brown's Body was written at the fort using a tune from an old Methodist camp song, was performed at a flag-raising there on 12 May 1861. The song was carried to the Army of the Potomac by the men of the "Webster Regiment", who had mustered in at Fort Warren. Julia Ward Howe heard this song while visiting Washington, DC. At the suggestion of her minister, Howe was encouraged to write new words.
The Battle Hymn of the Republic, published as a poem, was matched with the melody of the "John Brown" song and became one of the best remembered songs of the Civil War era. In the 1870s Fort Warren was upgraded with new barbette batteries on the parapets along with a six-gun external battery. A plaque at the fort states that the southeast bastion was roofed over at this time to create a rare casemated 15-inch Rodman gun battery; the massive brick arches built to enclose this bastion are impressive. From 1892 to 1903 Fort Warren was rebuilt to accommodate modern breech-loading rifled guns under the Endicott program. Five batteries were added to the fort, replacing some of the older gun positions, as follows: The two 12-inch and five 10-inch guns were the fort's main armament against enemy battleships. For defense against smaller vessels to defend nearby mine fields against minesweepers, two 4-inch and three 3-inch guns were included; the 4-inch guns were a Navy design by Driggs-Schroeder, in the whole US Army coast defense system only Fort Warren and Fort Washington in Maryland had this type of gun.
Battery Adams was built of low-quality concrete and was disarmed and abandoned due to deterioration in 1914. Fort Warren was the headquarters of the Coast Defenses of Boston in World War I. In 1917–1918 the four 10-inch guns of Battery Bartlett were removed for potential service as railway artillery on the Western Front. Contrary to some references, no 10-inch railway guns were mounted in time to be shipped to France for World War I. Different 10-inch M1888 guns, including two from Battery Reilly at Fort Adams in Rhode Island and two from storage, replaced these weapons in 1919. In 1920, with World War I over, several weapon types were withdrawn from Coast Artillery service; these included the 4-inch Driggs-Schroeder guns of Battery Plunkett and the 3-inch Driggs-Seabury guns of Battery Lowell. The 4-inch guns at Fort Warren remained as display pieces at least through 1941. None of these were replaced. During World War II, the fort served as a control center for Boston Harbor's south mine field, a precaution taken in anticipation of potential attacks by Kriegsmarine U-boats.
At that time, Fort Warren was garrisoned by the 241st Coast Artillery Regiment (Harbor Defens
A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, plays and essays as well as various reports and news articles that may be of interest to the public. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well contribute to the cultural content of a society; the term "writer" is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone "writer" refers to the creation of written language. Some writers work from an oral tradition. Writers can produce material across a number of genres, non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature.
Some writers may use multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words; as well as producing their own written works, writers write on how they write. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be paid either in advance, or only after their work is published. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work; the term writer is used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning and is used to convey legal responsibility for a piece of writing if its composition is anonymous, unknown or collaborative. Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium. For example, a writer's work may be read or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, a comic play, or a piece of journalism.
The writer of a letter may include elements of biography, or journalism. Many writers work across genres; the genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted: novel to film. Writers may change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature and writes as a journalist. Many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of historical romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters and stories set in historical periods. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of factual detail in the work both tend to be debated; some writers write both creative fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, essayist and critic. Poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one.
To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of other techniques such as alliteration and assonance. A common theme is its vicissitudes. Shakespeare's famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions. John Donne is another poet renowned for his love poetry. Novelists write novels -- stories, they situate invented characters and plots in a narrative designed to be both credible and entertaining. Every novel worthy of the name is like another planet, whether large or small, which has its own laws just as it has its own flora and fauna. Thus, Faulkner's technique is the best one with which to paint Faulkner's world, Kafka's nightmare has produced its own myths that make it communicable. Benjamin Constant, Eugène Fromentin, Jacques Rivière, all used different techniques, took different liberties, set themselves different tasks.
François Mauriac, novelist A satirist uses wit to ridicule the shortcomings of society or individuals, with the intent of exposing stupidity. The subject of the satire is a contemporary issue such as ineffective political decisions or politicians, although human vices such as greed are a common and universal subject. Philosopher Voltaire wrote a satire about optimism called Candide, subsequently turned into an opera, many well known lyricists wrote for it. There are elements of Absurdism in Candide, just as there are in the work of contemporary satirist Barry Humphries, who writes comic satire for his character Dame Edna Everage to perform on stage. Satirists use various techniques such as irony and hyperbole to make their point and they choose from the full range of genres – the satire may be in the form of prose or poetry or dialogue in a film, for example. One of the most famous satirists is Jonathan Swift who wrote the four-volume work Gulliver's Travels and many other satires, including A Modest Proposal and The Battle of the Books.
It is amazing to me that... our age is wholly illiterate and has hardly produced one writer upon any subject. Jonathan Swift, satirist A short story writer is a writer of short stories, works of fiction that can be read in a single sitting. Libretti (the p