Robert the Bruce
Robert I, popularly known as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329. Robert was one of the most famous warriors of his generation, led Scotland during the First War of Scottish Independence against England, he fought during his reign to regain Scotland's place as an independent country and is today revered in Scotland as a national hero. Descended from the Anglo-Norman and Gaelic nobility, his paternal fourth great-grandfather was King David I. Robert's grandfather, Robert de Brus, 5th Lord of Annandale, was one of the claimants to the Scottish throne during the "Great Cause"; as Earl of Carrick, Robert the Bruce supported his family's claim to the Scottish throne and took part in William Wallace's revolt against Edward I of England. Appointed in 1298 as a Guardian of Scotland alongside his chief rival for the throne, John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, William Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews, Robert resigned in 1300 due to his quarrels with Comyn and the imminent restoration of John Balliol to the Scottish throne.
After submitting to Edward I in 1302 and returning to "the king's peace", Robert inherited his family's claim to the Scottish throne upon his father's death. In February 1306, having wounded Comyn, rushed from the church where they had met and encountered his attendants outside, he told them what had happened and said, "I must be off, for I doubt I have slain the Red Comyn." "Doubt?" Roger de Kirkpatrick of Closeburn answered, "I mak sikker," and, rushing into the church, killed Comyn. For this Bruce was excommunicated by the Pope. Bruce moved to seize the throne and was crowned king of Scots on 25 March 1306. Edward I's forces defeated Robert in battle, forcing him to flee into hiding before re-emerging in 1307 to defeat an English army at Loudoun Hill and wage a successful guerrilla war against the English. Bruce defeated his other Scots enemies, destroying their strongholds and devastating their lands, in 1309 held his first parliament. A series of military victories between 1310 and 1314 won him control of much of Scotland, at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Robert defeated a much larger English army under Edward II of England, confirming the re-establishment of an independent Scottish kingdom.
The battle marked a significant turning point, with Robert's armies now free to launch devastating raids throughout northern England, while extending his war against the English to Ireland by sending an army to invade there and by appealing to the Irish to rise against Edward II's rule. Despite Bannockburn and the capture of the final English stronghold at Berwick in 1318, Edward II refused to renounce his claim to the overlordship of Scotland. In 1320, the Scottish nobility submitted the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII, declaring Robert as their rightful monarch and asserting Scotland's status as an independent kingdom. In 1324, the Pope recognised Robert I as king of an independent Scotland, in 1326, the Franco-Scottish alliance was renewed in the Treaty of Corbeil. In 1327, the English deposed Edward II in favour of his son, Edward III, peace was concluded between Scotland and England with the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton, by which Edward III renounced all claims to sovereignty over Scotland.
Robert died in June 1329. His body is buried in Dunfermline Abbey, while his heart was interred in Melrose Abbey and his internal organs embalmed and placed in St Serf’s Chapel, site of the medieval Cardross Parish church. Robert de Brus, 1st Lord of Annandale, the first of the Bruce, or de Brus, line arrived in Scotland with David I in 1124 and was given the lands of Annandale in Dumfries and Galloway. Several members of the Bruce family were called Robert, the future king was one of ten children, the eldest son, of Robert de Brus, 6th Lord of Annandale, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick, claimed the Scottish throne as a fourth great-grandson of David I, his mother was by all accounts a formidable woman who, legend would have it, kept Robert Bruce's father captive until he agreed to marry her. From his mother, he inherited the Earldom of Carrick, through his father, a royal lineage that would give him a claim to the Scottish throne; the Bruces held substantial estates in Aberdeenshire, County Antrim, County Durham, Essex and Yorkshire.
Although Robert the Bruce's date of birth is known, his place of birth is less certain, although it is most to have been Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, the head of his mother's earldom. However there are claims that he may have been born in Lochmaben in Dumfriesshire, or Writtle in Essex. Little is known of his youth, he was brought up in a mixture of the Anglo-Norman culture of northern England and south-eastern Scotland, the Gaelic culture of south-west Scotland and most of Scotland north of the River Forth. Annandale was feudalised and the form of Northern Middle English that would develop into the Scots language was spoken throughout the region. Carrick was an integral part of Galloway, though the earls of Carrick had achieved some feudalisation, the society of Carrick at the end of the thirteenth century remained emphatically Celtic and Gaelic speaking. Robert the Bruce would most have become trilingual at an early age, he would have been schooled to speak and write in the Anglo-Norman language of his Scots-Norman peers and his father's family.
He would have spoken both the Gaeli
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
A pretender is one who maintains or is able to maintain a claim that they are entitled to a position of honour or rank, which may be occupied by an incumbent, or whose powers may be exercised by another person or authority. Most it refers to a former monarch, or descendant thereof, whose throne is occupied or claimed by a rival or has been abolished; the term "claimant" is sometimes preferred, but the term "pretend" in itself is not pejorative in this context. The original meaning of the English word pretend comes from the French word prétendre, meant "to put forward, to profess or claim". A pretender was, therefore one who put forward or professed a claim to a title or, in modern terms, a claimant. Only did the word acquire its modern sense of professing or claiming falsely; the term "pretender" may apply to claimants with arguably genuine rights. It may be used for those possessing an arguable right to a position who do not claim it, as well as impostors with wholly fabricated claims. People in the latter category assume the identities of deceased or missing royalty to support their claim, are sometimes referred to for clarity as false pretenders or royal impersonators.
A pretender to the title of Pope is called an antipope. Ancient Rome knew many pretenders to the offices making up the title of Roman Emperor during the crisis of the Third Century; these are customarily referred to as the Thirty Tyrants, an allusion to the Thirty Tyrants of Athens some five hundred years earlier. The Loeb translation of the appropriate chapter of the Augustan History therefore represents the Latin triginta tyranni by "Thirty Pretenders" to avoid this artificial and confusing parallel. Not all of them were afterwards considered pretenders. Disputed successions to the Roman Empire long continued at Constantinople. Most after the fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade in 1204, its eventual recovery by Michael VIII Palaiologos, there came to be three Byzantine successor states, each of which claimed to be the Roman Empire, several Latin claimants to the Latin Empire the Crusaders had set up in its place. At times, some of these states and titles were subjected to multiple claims.
Following the defeat and death of King James III King of Cyprus in 1474, his younger and illegitimate brother, Eugène Matteo de Lusignan styled d'Arménie removed to Sicily to Malta. He was acknowledged as rightful heir to the thrones of Cyprus, Armenia and Antioch, although he never made serious efforts to pursue the claims; the title of "Barone de Baccari" was created in 1508 for Jacques Matteo d'Armenia with the remainder to his descendants in perpetuity. Eugene, illegitimate son of King Jacques II of Cyprus, when his family were exiled, first gone to Naples Sicily settled on Malta, marrying a Sicilian heiress, Donna Paola Mazzara, with issue; the claimant to the throne of the last Greek kingdom is Constantine II, who reigned as king from 1964 to 1973. He belongs to the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the senior branch of the House of Oldenburg, his designated heir is Crown Prince of Greece. The establishment of the First Republic and the execution of Louis XVI in 1793 led to the king's son becoming pretender to the abolished throne, styled as Louis XVII.
As Louis XVII was a child and imprisoned in Paris by the revolutionaries, his uncle, the Comte de Provence, proclaimed himself regent in his nephew's name. After Louis XVII died in 1795, the Comte de Provence became pretender himself, as Louis XVIII. Louis XVIII was restored to the throne in 1814, was succeeded by his brother Charles X in 1824. Charles X was, forced into exile by the July Revolution. Charles X and his son, Louis-Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, abdicated their claims in favor of Charles's grandson, Count of Chambord. For most of the July Monarchy, the legitimists, as supporters of the exiled senior line came to be known, were uncertain of whom to support; some believed the abdication of Charles and his son legal, recognized the young Chambord as king, while others maintained that abdication was unconstitutional in France of the ancien régime, continued to recognize first Charles X and Louis-Antoine, until the latter's death in 1844. On his uncle's death, Chambord claimed the crown, but lived in exile and upon his death in 1883, the direct male-line of Louis XV became extinct.
In 1848, Louis Philippe was himself overthrown by the February Revolution, abdicated the throne in favor of his young grandson, Comte de Paris. However, a republic was proclaimed, leaving Paris, like his cousin Chambord a pretender to a no longer existing crown. Over the next several decades, there were several attempts at a so-called "fusion", to unite both groups of monarchists in support of the childless Chambord as king, who would recognize the Count of Paris as his heir; those efforts failed in the 1850s
Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke
Isabel de Clare, suo jure 4th Countess of Pembroke and Striguil, was a Cambro-Norman-Irish noblewoman and one of the wealthiest heiresses in Wales and Ireland. She was the wife of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, who served four successive kings as Lord Marshal of England, her marriage had been arranged by King Richard I. Isabel was born in 1172 in Pembrokeshire, the eldest child of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known to history as "Strongbow", Aoife of Leinster, the daughter of Diarmait Mac Murchada, the deposed King of Leinster and Mór ingen Muirchertaig; the latter was a daughter of Cacht ingen Loigsig. The marriage of Strongbow and Aoife took place in August 1170, the day after the capture of Waterford by the Cambro-Norman forces led by Strongbow. Isabel's paternal grandparents were Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, his wife Lady Isabel de Beaumont, she had a younger brother Gilbert de Striguil who, being a minor, was not formally invested with either the earldom of Pembroke or of Striguil.
It is unlikely that his father could have passed on the title to Pembroke as he himself did not possess it. When Gilbert died in 1185, Isabel became Countess of Pembroke in her own right until her death in 1220. In this way, she could be said to be the first successor to the earldom of Pembroke since her grandfather Gilbert, the first earl. By this reckoning, Isabel ought to be called the second countess, not the fourth countess of Pembroke. In any event, the title Earl was re-created for her husband, she had an illegitimate half-sister Basile de Clare, who married three times. Basile's husbands were: Robert de Quincy. Isabel was described as having been "the good, the fair, the wise, the courteous lady of high degree", she spoke French and Latin. After her brother Gilbert's death, Isabel became one of the wealthiest heiresses in the kingdom, owning besides the titles of Pembroke and Striguil, much land in Wales and Ireland, she inherited the numerous castles on the inlet of Milford Haven, guarding the South Channel, including Pembroke Castle.
She was a legal ward of King Henry II, who watched over her inheritance. The new King Richard I arranged her marriage in August 1189 to William Marshal, regarded by many as the greatest knight and soldier in the realm. Henry II had promised Marshal he would be given Isabel as his bride, his son and successor Richard upheld the promise one month after his accession to the throne. At the time of her marriage, Isabel was residing in the Tower of London in the protective custody of the Justiciar of England, Ranulf de Glanville. Following the wedding, celebrated in London "with due pomp and ceremony", they spent their honeymoon at Stoke d'Abernon in Surrey which belonged to Enguerrand d'Abernon. Marriage to Isabel elevated William Marshal from the status as a landless knight into one of the richest men in the kingdom, he would serve as Lord Marshal of England, four kings in all: Henry II, Richard I, Henry III. Although Marshal did not become the jure uxoris 1st Earl of Pembroke, Earl of Striguil until 1199, he assumed overlordship of Leinster in Ireland, Pembroke Castle, Chepstow Castle, as well as Isabel's other castles in Wales such as the keep of Haverford, Lewhaden, Stackpole.
Shortly after their marriage and Isabel arrived in Ireland, at Old Ross, a settlement located in the territory which belonged to her grandfather, Dermot MacMurrough. A motte was hastily constructed, a medieval borough grew around it, afterwards the Marshals founded the port town by the river which subsequently became known as New Ross; the Chronicles of Ross, which are housed in the British Museum, described Isabel and Marshal's arrival in Ireland and records that Isabella set about building a lovely city on the banks of the Barrow. In 1192, Isabel and her husband assumed the task of managing their vast lands, they commissioned the construction of several abbeys in the vicinity. The marriage was happy, despite the vast difference in age between them. William Marshal and Isabel produced a total of five daughters. William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke. Chief Justiciar of Ireland, he married firstly, Alice de Bethune, secondly, Eleanor Plantagenet, daughter of King John. Richard Marshal, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, married Gervase le Dinant.
He died childless. Maud Marshal, she married Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk, by whom she had issue. Five queen consorts of Henry VIII: Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr were her descendants. Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke, he married Marjorie of Scotland, daughter of King William I of Scotland. He died childless. Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke, he married Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln, widow of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln, as her second husband. The marriage was childless. Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke, he married Maud de Bohun. He died childless. Isabel Marshal, she married firstly, 4th Earl of Hertford. She had
Appleby Castle is in the town of Appleby-in-Westmorland overlooking the River Eden. It consists of a 12th-century castle keep, known as Caesar's Tower, a mansion house. These, together with their associated buildings, are set in a courtyard surrounded by curtain walls. Caesar's Tower and the mansion house are each recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building; the uninhabited parts of the castle are a scheduled ancient monument. The castle was founded by Ranulf le Meschin at the beginning of the 12th century. In about 1170 the square stone keep known; the castle was in royal hands when the Scottish king, William the Lion, invaded the Eden Valley in 1174. The constable of the castle surrendered without a fight. In 1203 the castle was granted to Robert I de Vipont by King John. In 1264 it came into the possession of Roger de Clifford, through his marriage to Isabel de Vipont, one of the two daughters and co-heiress of Robert II de Vipont. Appleby Castle remained for nearly 400 years in the ownership of the Clifford family, who were responsible for much restoration of the castle.
Roger's son, Robert de Clifford, inherited the castle in 1282. The north wall of house and the west part of north wing with the round tower date from the 13th century; the eastern part of the house was built in 1454. In the mid-17th century, Lady Anne Clifford made the castle her home; the castle was dismantled following a siege by roundhead forces in 1648, during the Second English Civil War. However, it was restored by Lady Anne Clifford in 1651–53. On her death the castle passed to the Earls of Thanet, they were responsible for converting the hall block into a classical mansion house. The upper parts of Caesar's Tower were altered in the 18th centuries; the house was rebuilt in 1686 and the northwest wing was added in 1695. In the 19th century it was again restored and sash windows were inserted. In 1972 the castle was purchased by Ferguson Industrial Holdings and became the primary residence of Denis Vernon, the CEO of the company, his family; the Vernons lived at Appleby Castle until 1990. Vernon, a passionate conservationist, established a rare breeds survival centre.
Considerable improvements were made to the fabric of all the buildings, not least the 12th-century keep. During this period, the castle was the headquarters and training centre of FIH PLC and for those running the conservation centre. Documentary and movie director Susannah White featured Denis Vernon and Appleby Castle in her 1998 BBC documentary The Gypsies Are Coming on Appleby Horse Fair. Appleby Castle is now the private residence of the Nightingale family. Parts of the castle were opened to the public in September 2013 for small private tours, tickets can be booked online or bought at the Grounds Hut on the Gate. Caesar's Tower is built in ashlar, it has four storeys. The main house is in two wings. A semicircular round tower protrudes from the north wall of the north wing and a large square tower is at the south end of the east wing; the gateway to the castle courtyard and two adjoining cottages are listed Grade I. The gateway is in grey stone and battlemented, dating from the 17th century.
In the grounds of the castle is Lady Anne's Beehouse, built by Lady Anne Clifford in the middle of the 17th century. It is a square stone building in a door on the lower level; the upper level has a pointed arched window on a door on the fourth side. It is listed Grade I. Two stretches of the sandstone outer walls to the castle dating from the 18th and 19th centuries are listed Grade II, as is the battlemented North Lodge which dates from the 19th century; the grounds around the castle are listed Grade II*. Grade I listed buildings in Cumbria Grade II* listed buildings in Cumbria Listed buildings in Appleby-in-Westmorland Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Appleby Castle - official website Other sources about Appleby Castle
William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey
William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey was the son of Hamelin de Warenne and Isabel, daughter of William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey. His father Hamelin granted him the manor of North Lincolnshire. De Warenne was present at the coronation of John, King of England on 27 May 1199; when Normandy was lost to the French in 1204 he lost his Norman holdings, but John recompensed him with Grantham and Stamford. His first tenure of office as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports began in 1204, lasted until 1206, he was a Warden of the Welsh Marches between 1208 and 1213. Between the years 1200 and 1208, between 1217 and 1226 he was to serve as the High Sheriff of Surrey. William was one of the few barons who remained loyal to King John (who was his cousin. In 1212, when a general rebellion was feared, John committed to him the custody of the northern shires. During the king's difficulties with the barons, when they sought for the French prince to assume the English throne, William is listed as one of those who advised John to accede to the Magna Carta.
His allegiance only faltered a few times. In March 1217 he again demonstrated his loyalty to England by supporting the young King Henry III, he was responsible for the establishment of Salisbury Cathedral. However, he disliked the royal favourites who came into power after 1227, used his influence to protect Hubert de Burgh when the latter had been removed from office by their efforts in 1232. Warenne's relations with the king became strained in course of time. In 1238 he was evidently regarded as a leader of the baronial opposition, for the Great Council appointed him as one of the treasurers who were to prevent the king from squandering the subsidy voted in that year. William married Maud Marshal, on 13 October 1225, they had a daughter. The son John succeeded his father as earl, while the daughter, Isabel de Warenne, married Hugh d'Aubigny, 5th Earl of Arundel. William may have had an earlier, childless marriage to another Matilda, daughter of William d'Aubigny, 2nd Earl of Arundel
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke
William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke called William the Marshal, was an Anglo-Norman soldier and statesman. He served five English kings – Henry II, his sons the "Young King" Henry, Richard I, John's son Henry III. Knighted in 1166, he spent his younger years as a knight errant and a successful tournament competitor. In 1189, he became the de facto Earl of Pembroke through his marriage to Isabel de Clare, though the title of earl would not be granted until 1199 during the second creation of the Pembroke Earldom. In 1216, he was appointed protector for the nine-year-old Henry III, regent of the kingdom. Before him, his father's family held a hereditary title of Marshal to the king, which by his father's time had become recognized as a chief or master Marshalcy, involving management over other Marshals and functionaries. William became known as'the Marshal', although by his time much of the function was delegated to more specialized representatives; because he was an Earl, known as the Marshal, the term "Earl Marshal" was used and this became an established hereditary title in the English Peerage.
William's father, John Marshal, supported King Stephen when he took the throne in 1135, but in about 1139 he changed sides to support the Empress Matilda in the civil war of succession between her and Stephen which led to the collapse of England into "the Anarchy". When King Stephen besieged Newbury Castle in 1152, according to William's biographer, he used the young William as a hostage to ensure that John kept his promise to surrender the castle. John, used the time allotted to reinforce the castle and to alert Matilda's forces; when Stephen ordered John to surrender or William would be hanged, John replied that he should go ahead saying, "I still have the hammer and the anvil with which to forge still more and better sons!" Subsequently, a pretence was made to launch William from a pierrière towards the castle. Stephen could not bring himself to harm young William. William remained a crown hostage for many months, was released following the peace resulting from the terms agreed at Winchester on 6 November 1153, by which the civil war was ended.
As a younger son of a minor nobleman, William had no lands or fortune to inherit, had to make his own way in life. Around the age of twelve, when his father's career was faltering, he was sent to the Château de Tancarville in Normandy to be brought up in the household of William de Tancarville, a great magnate and cousin of young William's mother. Here he began his training as a knight; this would have included biblical stories and prayers written in Latin, some exposure to French romance literature to confer precepts of chivalry upon the future knight. In Tancarville's household he is likely to have learned important and lasting practical lessons in the politics of courtly life. According to his thirteenth-century biography, L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal, Marshal had enemies at Tancarville's court who plotted against him — men threatened by his close relationship with the magnate, he was knighted in 1166 on campaign in Upper Normandy being invaded from Flanders. His first experience in battle received mixed reviews.
According to L'Histoire, everyone who witnessed the young knight in combat agreed that he had acquitted himself well. However, as medieval historian David Crouch remarks, "War in the twelfth century was not fought wholly for honour. Profit was there to be made..." In this regard Marshal was not so successful, as he was unable to parlay his combat victories into profit from either ransom or seized booty. L'Histoire relates that the Earl of Essex, expecting the customary tribute from his valorous knight after the battle, jokingly remarked: "Oh? But Marshal, what are you saying? You had forty or sixty of them — yet you refuse me so small a thing!"In 1167 he was taken by William de Tancarville to his first tournament, where he found his true métier. Quitting the Tancarville household he served in the household of his mother's brother, Earl of Salisbury. In 1168 his uncle was killed in an ambush by Guy de Lusignan. William was injured and captured in the same skirmish, but Queen Eleanor, whom they were escorting, and, the target of the ambush, was able to escape.
It is known that William received a wound to his thigh and that someone in his captor's household took pity on the young knight. He received a loaf of bread in which were concealed several lengths of clean linen bandages with which to dress his wounds; this act of kindness by an unknown person saved Marshal's life as infection setting into the wound could have killed him. After a period of time he was ransomed by Eleanor of Aquitaine, impressed by tales of his bravery, he would remain a member of Queen Eleanor's household for the next two years attending a few tournaments during this time as well. In 1170, Marshal was appointed as Young King Henry's tutor-in-arms by the Young King's father, Henry II. During the Young King-led Revolt of 1173-1174, little is known of Marshal's specific activities besides his loyalty to the Young King. After the failed rebellion, Young King Henry and his mesnie, including Marshal, traveled with Henry II for eighteen months, before asking for, receiving, permission to travel to Europe to participate in knightly tournaments.
Marshal followed the Young King, from 1176-1182 both Marshal and the Young King gained prestige from winning tournaments. Tournaments were dangerous deadly, staged battles in which money and valuable prize