Edward Braddock

Major General Edward Braddock was a British officer and commander-in-chief for the Thirteen Colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War, known in Europe and Canada as the Seven Years' War. He is best remembered for his command of a disastrous expedition against the French-occupied Ohio River Valley in 1755, in which he lost his life; the son of Major-General Edward Braddock of the Coldstream Guards and his wife, Braddock followed his father into the army. At the age of 15, he was appointed ensign in his father's regiment on 11 October 1710, he was promoted to lieutenant of the grenadier company in 1716. On 26 May 1718 he fought a duel in Hyde Park. Braddock was promoted to captain in 1736, at the age of 41, he made major in 1743, was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the regiment on 21 November 1745. He participated in the Siege of Bergen op Zoom in 1747. On 17 February 1753, Braddock was appointed colonel of the 14th Regiment of Foot, in the following year he was promoted major-general.

Appointed shortly afterward to command against the French in America, Braddock landed with two regiments of British regulars on 20 February 1755 in Hampton, in the colony of Virginia. He met with several of the colonial governors at the Congress of Alexandria on 14 April and was persuaded to undertake vigorous actions against the French. A general from Massachusetts would attack at Fort Niagara, General Johnson at Fort Saint-Frédéric at Crown Point, Colonel Monckton at Fort Beausejour on the Bay of Fundy, he would lead an Expedition against Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio River. After some months of preparation, in which he was hampered by administrative confusion and want of resources promised by the colonials, the Braddock expedition took the field with a picked column, in which George Washington served as a volunteer officer. Braddock marched forward, leaving most of his men behind; the column crossed the Monongahela River on 9 July 1755, shortly afterward collided head-on with an Indian and French force who were rushing from Fort Duquesne to oppose the river crossing.

Although the initial exchange of musketry favored the British, felling the French commander and causing some Canadian militia to flee, the remaining Indian/French force reacted quickly. They put it under a murderous crossfire. Braddock's troops became disordered; the British ran into the rest of the British soldiers earlier left behind. Braddock rallied his men but fell at last, mortally wounded by a shot through the chest. Although the exact causes of the defeat are debated to this day, a contributing factor was Braddock's underestimation of how the French and Indians could react in a battle situation, how the discipline and fighting effectiveness of his own men could evaporate. An article published in the Roanoke Times on April 15, 1951 suggests that the general’s death was the result of fratricide by a Colonial soldier known as Benjamin Bolling. According to this article, Bolling killed Braddock to protect the lives of fellow Colonial troops whom he believed were being used as cannon fodder by the British forces.

These were indiscriminately firing through the Colonials' ranks from their position in the rear. Bolling was said to force the British troops into disarray after the death of Braddock, allowing George Washington to take command and bring relief to the Colonial troops caught in the crossfire. Braddock was borne off the field by Washington and Col. Nicholas Meriwether,. Before he died, Braddock left Washington his ceremonial sash; some of his last words were, "Who would have thought?" Washington always took this sash with him for the rest of his life, both as the commander of the Continental Army or for his presidential duties. It is still on display today at Washington's home on Mount Vernon. Braddock was buried just west of Great Meadows, where the remnants of the column halted on its retreat to reorganize. Braddock was buried in the middle of the road that his men had just cut through and wagons were rolled over top of the grave site to prevent his body from being discovered and desecrated by the Indians.

George Washington presided at the burial service, as the chaplain had been wounded. Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography includes an account of helping General Braddock garner supplies and carriages for the general's troops, he describes a conversation with Braddock in which he explicitly warned the General that his plan to march troops to the fort through a narrow valley would be dangerous because of the possibility of an ambush. This is sometimes cited as advice against the disastrous eventual outcome, but the fact remains that Braddock was not ambushed in that final action, the battle site was not, in any case, a narrow valley. Braddock had in fact taken great precautions against ambuscade, had crossed the Monongahela an additional time to avoid the narrow Turtle Creek defile. In 1804, human remains believed to be Braddock's were found buried in the roadway about 1.5 miles west of Great Meadows by a crew of road workers. The remains were exhumed. A marble monument was erected over the new grave site in 1913 by the Coldstream Guards.

General Braddock is the namesake of Braddock, Mt. Braddock, Braddock Hills, North Braddock in Pennsylvania.

Al Kaufman

Al Kaufman was an American boxer. Kaufman, born on September 25, 1888 in North Dakota, was a heavyweight boxer and one of the "White Hopes" of the era when Jack Johnson, an African American, was the world heavyweight champion; the 6′1″ Kaufman, a German-American, fought out of his hometown of San Francisco, California at a weight of between 185 and 205 lbs. in a career that stretched from 1905 to 1915. He was a muscular boxer, who could punch hard. Kaufman fought Johnson for the world heavyweight title. Before that bout, Johnson had attended a match between Kaufman and Tony Ross held at the Fairmont Athletic Club in The Bronx on April 13, 1909. Kaufman, being touted as a contender for Johnson's title. Won a newspaper decision in the 10-round bout, it was reported. Five months on the 9th of September, Kaufman met Johnson at the San Francisco's Mission Street Arena in a championship fight; the Associated Press reported that Johnson landed his punches at will and could have ended the fight at any time during its 10 rounds.

The fight went Johnson won a newspaper decision. Kaufman only landed two effective punches during the fight. Two years on 28 December 1911, Kaufman was K. O.ed in the fifth round of scheduled 10-rounder in Brooklyn by Al Palzer, the winner of a "White Hope" elimination tournament who would fight for the World White Heavyweight Championship against Luther McCarty. McCarty, in turn, beat Kaufman on 12 October 1912 via a T. K. O. in the second round of a scheduled 20-round bout in San Francisco. McCarthy had floored Kaufman three times with rights to the chin, sending him through the ropes into the lap of a journalist who helped him into the ring; the fight was stopped by the San Francisco chief of police. Six months Kaufman served as the sparring partner for McCarty, who had won the World Heavyweight title from Palzer on New Year's Day. On 16 May 1913, fighting on the undercard in Philadelphia (McCarty beat Fireman Jim Flynn in the main event, Kaufman won his last fight when he scored a T. K. O. over Al Benedict in the fourth round of a six-rounder.

After a 15-month layoff, he fought and lost twice in 1914 and scored a no decision in his last pro fight on New Year's Day 1915. Kaufman finished his career with an official record of 22 wins against seven losses. In addition, he lost one. Kaufman appeared in several films including the silent boxing comedy The Egg Crate Wallop. Al Kaufman on IMDb

Once Upon a Time (TV series)

Once Upon a Time is an American fantasy adventure drama television series that aired on ABC from October 23, 2011 to May 18, 2018. The first six seasons are set in the fictitious seaside town of Storybrooke, with the characters of Emma Swan and Regina Mills as the leads, while the seventh and final season takes place in Seattle, Washington, in the fictitious neighborhood of Hyperion Heights, with a new main narrative led by Mills and Henry Mills, Regina Mills and Emma Swan's son; the show borrows elements and characters from Disney and popular Western literature, Greek mythology, or and fairy tales. Once Upon a Time was created by Lost and Tron: Legacy writers Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz. A spin-off series, Once Upon a Time in Wonderland, consisting of 13 episodes which followed the titular character from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, premiered on October 10, 2013 and concluded on April 3, 2014. For the first six seasons, the series is set in the fictional seaside town of Storybrooke, Maine, in which the residents are fairy tale characters that were transported to the real world town and robbed of their memories by the Evil Queen Regina who used a powerful curse obtained from Rumplestiltskin.

The residents of Storybrooke, where Regina is mayor, have lived an unchanging existence for 28 years, unaware of their own agelessness. The town's only hope lies with a bail-bonds person from the Land Without Magic, named Emma Swan, only daughter of Snow White and Prince Charming. Emma was transported from the Enchanted Forest to the real world via a magic wardrobe as an infant before the curse was cast; as such, she is the Savior, the only person who can break the curse and restore everyone's lost memories. She is aided by her ten-year-old son, Henry Mills, with whom she was reunited after giving him up for adoption upon his birth, his Once Upon a Time book of fairy tales that holds the key to breaking the curse. Henry is the adopted son of Regina, providing a source of both conflict and common interest between the two women. In the seventh season reboot, an adult Henry Mills, along with Regina, Wish Realm Captain Hook, Rumplestiltskin, are found years in the Seattle neighborhood of Hyperion Heights, where characters from a different realm were brought under a new curse.

Hoping to restore her family's memories, Lucy must convince her parents and Cinderella, of the true nature of Hyperion Heights, in the midst of emerging dangers involving Lady Tremaine, Mother Gothel, Dr. Facilier. Episodes have one segment that details the characters' past lives that, when serialized, adds a piece to the puzzle about the characters and their connection to the events that preceded the curse and its consequences; the other, set in the present day, follows a similar pattern with a different outcome, but offers similar insights. The first season premiered on October 23, 2011; the Evil Queen interrupts the wedding of Snow White and Prince Charming to announce that she will cast a curse on everyone that will leave her with the only happy ending. As a result, the majority of the characters are transported to the town of Storybrooke, where most of them have been stripped of their original memories and identities as fairy tale characters. On her 28th birthday, Emma Swan, the daughter of Snow White and Prince Charming, is brought to Storybrooke by her biological son Henry Mills in the hopes of breaking the curse cast by his adoptive mother, the Evil Queen Regina.

The second season premiered on September 30, 2012. Despite Emma having broken the curse, the characters are not returned to the fairy tale world, must deal with their own dual identities. With the introduction of magic into Storybrooke by Mr. Gold, the fates of the two worlds become intertwined, new threats emerge in the form of Captain Hook, Regina's mother Cora known as the Queen of Hearts, sinister operatives from the real world with an agenda to destroy magic; the third season premiered on September 29, 2013. It was split into two volumes, with the first eleven episodes running from September to December 2013, the half from March to May 2014. In the first volume, the main characters travel to Neverland to rescue Henry, kidnapped by Peter Pan as part of a plan to obtain the "Heart of the Truest Believer" from him, their increasing power struggle with Pan continues in Storybrooke, which results in the complete reversal of the original curse. All the characters are returned to their original worlds, leaving Emma and Henry to escape to New York City.

In the second volume, the characters are mysteriously brought back to a recreated Storybrooke with their memories of the previous year removed, the envious Wicked Witch of the West from the Land of Oz appears with a plan to change the past. Once again, Emma is needed to save her family; the fourth season premiered on September 28, 2014. It was split into two volumes, with the first eleven episodes running from September to December 2014, the half from March to May 2015. A new storyline incorporating elements from Frozen was revealed when the time travel events of the previous season lead to the accidental arrival of Queen Elsa of Arendelle, from the Enchanted Forest of the past, to present-day Storybrooke; as she searches for her younger sister Princess Anna with the aid of the main characters, they encounter the Snow Queen. Meanwhile, Regina seeks the Author of Henry's Once Upon a Time book so that she can fin