Palace of Versailles
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris; the palace is now a Monument historique and UNESCO World Heritage site, notable for the ceremonial Hall of Mirrors, the jewel-like Royal Opera, the royal apartments. The Palace was stripped of all its furnishings after the French Revolution, but many pieces have been returned and many of the palace rooms have been restored. In 2017 the Palace of Versailles received 7,700,000 visitors, making it the second-most visited monument in the Île-de-France region, just behind the Louvre and ahead of the Eiffel Tower; the site of the Palace was first occupied by a small village and church, surrounded by forests filled with abundant game. It was owned by the priory of Saint Julian. King Henry IV went hunting there in 1589, returned in 1604 and 1609, staying in the village inn.
His son, the future Louis XIII, came on his own hunting trip there in 1607. After he became King in 1610, Louis XIII returned to the village, bought some land, in 1623-24 built a modest two-story hunting lodge on the site of the current marble courtyard, he was staying there in November 1630 during the event known as the Day of the Dupes, when the enemies of the King's chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, aided by the King's mother, Marie de' Medici, tried to take over the government. The King sent his mother into exile. After this event, Louis XIII decided to make his hunting lodge at Versailles into a château; the King purchased the surrounding territory from the Gondi family, in 1631–1634 had the architect Philibert Le Roy replace the hunting lodge with a château of brick and stone with classical pilasters in the doric style and high slate-covered roofs, surrounding the courtyard of the original hunting lodge. The gardens and park were enlarged, laid out by Jacques Boyceau and his nephew, Jacques de Menours, reached the size they have today.
Louis XIV first visited the château on a hunting trip in 1651 at the age of twelve, but returned only until his marriage to Maria Theresa of Spain in 1660 and the death of Cardinal Mazarin in 1661, after which he acquired a passion for the site. He decided to rebuild and enlarge the château and to transform it into a setting for both rest and for elaborate entertainments on a grand scale; the first phase of the expansion was supervised by the architect Louis Le Vau. He added two wings to the forecourt, one for servants quarters and kitchens, the other for stables. In 1668 he added three new wings built of stone, known as the envelope, to the north and west of the original château; these buildings had nearly-flat roofs covered with lead. The king commissioned the landscape designer André Le Nôtre to create the most magnificent gardens in Europe, embellished with fountains, basins, geometric flower beds and groves of trees, he added two grottos in the Italian style and an immense orangerie to house fruit trees, as well as a zoo with a central pavilion for exotic animals.
After Le Vau's death in 1670, the work was taken over and completed by his assistant François d'Orbay. The main floor of the new palace contained two symmetrical sets of apartments, one for the king and the other for the queen, looking over the gardens; the two apartments were separated by a marble terrace, overlooking the garden, with a fountain in the center. Each set of apartments was connected to the ground floor with a ceremonial stairway, each had seven rooms, aligned in a row. On the ground floor under the King's apartment was another apartment, the same size, designed for his private life, decorated on the theme of Apollo, the Sun god, his personal emblem. Under the Queen's apartment was the apartment of the Grand Dauphin, the heir to the throne; the interior decoration was assigned to Charles Le Brun. Le Brun supervised the work of a large group of sculptors and painters, called the Petite Academie, who crafted and painted the ornate walls and ceilings. Le Brun supervised the design and installation of countless statues in the gardens.
The grand stairway to the King's apartment was soon redecorated as soon as it was completed with plaques of colored marble and trophies of arms and balconies, so the members of the court could observe the processions of the King. In 1670, Le Vau added a new pavilion northwest of the chateau, called the Trianon, for the King's relaxation in the hot summers, it was surrounded by flowerbeds and decorated with blue and white porcelain, in imitation of the Chinese style. The King spent his days in Versailles, the government and courtiers, numbering six to seven thousand persons, crowded into the buildings; the King ordered a further enlargement, which he entrusted to the young architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart. Hadouin-Mansart added two large new wings on either side of the original Cour Royale, he replaced Le Vau's large terrace, facing the garden on the west, with what bec
Mâcon anglicised as Mascon, is a city in east-central France. It is the prefecture of the department of Saône-et-Loire in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Mâcon is home to over 34,000 residents; the city gave its name to the nearby vineyards and wine'appellation'. The city lies on the western bank of the Saône river, between Bresse in the east and the Beaujolais hills in the south. Mâcon is the southernmost city in the department of Saône-et-Loire and the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, it is 65 kilometres north of 400 kilometres from Paris. The Saône river runs through the town; the climate is temperate with a slight continental tendency. Mâcon features an oceanic climate, with warm summers too cool to be called subtropical. Winters are cold to French standards, but milder and more rainy than north of Mâcon. Most precipitation is in autumn; the agglomeration of Mâcon originates from the establishment of an oppidum and of a river port by the Celts from the Aedui at the beginning of the first century BC.
Known under the name of Matisco, the town developed during the age of the Roman Empire. This is demonstrated by the large Roman hoard, the Mâcon Treasure, discovered in the town in 1764, the remains of, in the British Museum. During the 4th century, the town was fortified. During the Middle Ages, Mâcon was the administrative center of a county belonging to the Duchy of Burgundy at the extremity of the bridge over the Saône leading to the Bresse territory belonging to the Duchy of Savoy; the town was controlling access to present-day Lamartinien Valley, where the southern end of the Côte de Bourgogne joins the first foothills of the Beaujolais hills, opening the way to the rich plains of the Loire. On 3 June 1564, Charles IX from Chalon, stopped in the town during his Royal Tour of France, accompanied by the Court and the nobles of his kingdom, including his brother the Duke of Anjou, Henry of Navarre, the cardinals of Bourbon and Lorraine; the town is strategically built: it was a possible entrance into the kingdom for the Swiss or German mercenaries during the French Wars of Religion.
He was welcomed by the Queen Jeanne III of Navarre, nicknamed the “Queen of Protestants”, 1,500 Huguenots. On 21 October 1790, the matriarch of a prominent local family gave birth to a son who remains visible in his hometown, the Romantic poet and historian Alphonse de Lamartine. In 1790, the Revolutionary government designated Mâcon as the capital of Saône-et-Loire, a newly created département within the radical restructuring of national administration. In 1814, the town was invaded by Austrian troops and liberated twice by French troops before being permanently occupied until the fall of the Empire. After Napoléon’s return and the subsequent Hundred Days, Mâcon and the Mâconnais were again captured by the Austrians. During World War II, Mâcon was the first town in the unoccupied zone libre between Lyon; the town was liberated on 4 September by the troops. The Old Saint-Vincent in the town centre Mâcon Cathedral in the town centre Museum of Fine Arts Hôtel de Senecé Saint-Clément Catholic Church in the district of Saint-Clément Church Saint-Pierre, Place Saint-Pierre, opposite the Town Hall The Municipal Olympic Pool of Mâcon The Maison des Vins or Maison Maconnaise des Vins, on De-Lattre de Tassigny Avenue.
The Quai Lamartine, the Vallon des Rigollettes, the Physical Activity Training Course and the Marina: many places suitable for walking and relaxing. The Theater of Mâcon close to the Maison des vins, Droits de l'Homme esplanade. Château Saint-Jean, in the old commune of Saint-Jean-le-Priche annexed to Mâcon in 1972 Château des Perrières, on a hill overlooking the town In 2007, the city was awarded the Grand Prix prize and “4 flowers” in the Entente Florale competition. Mâcon is connected to neighbouring major cities through various routes: Roads: A6 motorway A40 Motorway A406 Motorway Route nationale 6 RCEA which allows a direct traffic flow from Annemasse to Nantes or Bordeaux The François Mitterrand Bridge is the second work of construction connecting Mâcon to the left bank of the Saône River Railway Infrastructures: Gare de Mâcon Loché TGV Gare de Mâcon-Ville River infrastructures: The Saône river which allows access to the Mediterranean Sea via the Rhône River Mâcon uses the urban transport service Tréma, run by the organising transport authorities, the SITUM.
The SITUM consists of 3 members: CAMVAL and the Chaintré and Crêches-sur-Saône communes. The Urban Transport Area of the SITUM extends over 28 communes in total. On the evening of 30 June 2009, the Mâcon Bus services ceased operation; this was due to the public service delegation contract between the SITUM and the Mâcon Bus company, operating the network since 1987, not being renewed at the last call for bids. So since 1 July 2009, the company CarPostal Mâcon has been providing city transport services on the network renamed Tréma; the network Tréma, restructured on 31 August 2009, made the following bid: urban lines going through Mâcon, Crêches-sur-Saône, Sancé, Saint-Laurent-sur-Saône, central Charnay-lès-Mâcon and Mâcon Loché TGV train stati
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, 120 km north of Paris and 100 km south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Hauts-de-France; the city had a population of 136,105 according to the 2006 census, one of the biggest university hospitals in France with a capacity of 1,200 beds. Amiens Cathedral, the tallest of the large, Gothic churches of the 13th century and the largest in France of its kind, is a World Heritage Site; the author Jules Verne lived in Amiens from 1871 until his death in 1905, served on the city council for 15 years. The town was fought over during both World Wars, suffering much damage, occupied several times by both sides; the 1918 Battle of Amiens was the opening phase of the Hundred Days Offensive which led directly to the Armistice with Germany. Bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War, the city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans with wider the streets to ease traffic congestion; these newer structures were built of brick and white stone with slate roofs.
The architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare d'Amiens train station and nearby Tour Perret. Amiens has an important cultural heritage, on which tourism is based. Apart from the cathedral, there is the hortillonnages, Jules Verne House, the Tour Perret, the Musée de Picardie, the zoo, the quarters of Saint-Leu and Saint-Maurice. A total of 53 monuments are listed in the inventory of monuments historiques, 126 places and monuments listed in the general inventory of cultural heritage, 263 objects listed in the inventory of monuments historiques. During December, the town hosts the largest Christmas market in northern France, it is known including "macarons d'Amiens", almond paste biscuits. The first known settlement at this location was Samarobriva, the central settlement of the Ambiani, one of the principal tribes of Gaul; the town was given the name Ambianum by the Romans, meaning settlement of the Ambiani people. Amiens was part of Francia from the 5th century. Normans sacked the city in 859 and again in 882.
In 1113, the city was recognized by King Louis VI of France and joined to the Crown of France in 1185. In 1597, Spanish soldiers held the city during the six-month Siege of Amiens, before Henry IV regained control. During the 18th and 19th century, the textile tradition of Amiens became famous for its velours. In 1789, the provinces of France were dismantled and the territory was organised into departments. Much of Picardy became the newly created department of Somme with Amiens as the departmental capital. During the industrial revolution, the city walls were demolished, opening up space for large boulevards around the town centre; the Henriville neighbourhood in the south of the city was developed around this time. In 1848, the first railway arrived in Amiens. During the 1870 Battle of Amiens when the Somme was invaded by Prussian forces, Amiens was occupied; the town was fought over during both the First and Second World Wars, suffering much damage and being occupied several times by both sides.
The 1918 Battle of Amiens was the opening phase of the Hundred Days Offensive which led directly to the Armistice with Germany that ended the war. It was bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War; the city was rebuilt according to Pierre Dufau's plans with a focus on widening the streets to ease traffic congestion. These newer structures were built of brick and white stone with slate roofs; the architect Auguste Perret designed the Gare d'Amiens train station and nearby Tour Perret. Amiens, the regional prefecture of Picardy, is the prefecture of the Somme, one of the three departments in the region. Located in the Paris Basin, across the country the city benefits from a privileged geographical position. At the crossroads of major European routes of movement, the city is at the heart of a major rail star; as the crow flies, the city is 115 kilometres from Paris, 97 kilometres from Lille, 100 kilometres from Rouen, 162 kilometres from Le Havre and 144 kilometres from Reims. At the regional level, Amiens is located 53 kilometres north of Beauvais, 71 kilometres west of Saint-Quentin, 66 kilometres from Compiègne and 102 kilometres from Laon.
In area, it is the third in the Somme, after Hornoy-le-Bourg. The area of the commune is 4,946 hectares. Amiens is crossed by the main stem of the River Somme and is quiet, except during exceptional floods, several weeks long, it is on its southeastern outskirts, close to Camon and Longueau, the confluence with its main tributary on the left bank, the Avre. The Selle enters from the northwest of Amiens, with two arms passing behind the Unicorn Stadium, the exhibition park, the megacity and horse racing track passing the end of the Promenade de la Hotoie and the zoo of Amiens, to the right of the water treatment plant, in front of the island Sainte-Aragone, opposite the cemetery of La Madeleine in Amiens; the city developed in a natural narrowing of the river at the level of the hortillonnages, due to the advance of the rim of the Picard plateau in Saint-Pierre (ford
Holland House known as Cope Castle, was an early Jacobean country house in Kensington, situated in a country estate, now Holland Park. It was built in 1605 by the diplomat Sir Walter Cope; the building passed by marriage to Henry Rich, 1st Baron Kensington, 1st Earl of Holland, by descent through the Rich family became the property of the Fox family, during which time it became a noted gathering-place for Whigs in the 19th century. The house was destroyed by German firebombing during the Blitz in 1940 and today only the east wing and some ruins of the ground floor and south facade remain, along with various outbuildings and formal gardens. In 1949 the ruin was designated a grade I listed building and it is now owned by the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Cope commissioned the house in 1604 from the architect John Thorpe, to preside over a 500 acres estate that, in modern terms, stretched from Holland Park Avenue to Fulham Road. and contained exotic trees imported by John Tradescant the Younger.
Following its completion, Cope entertained the queen at it numerous times. In November 1612 King James I, following the death of his eldest son Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, spent the night at Cope Castle, being joined the following day by his next son Prince Charles and daughter Princess Elizabeth, her fiancé Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Cope died in 1614 without a son and the house was inherited by his daughter Isabel Cope, who in 1616, two years after her father's death, married Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland, whose property it became. Rich was granted the titles of Baron Kensington and Earl of Holland by James I, upon gaining the latter renamed the building to Holland House. In 1649 Rich was beheaded for his Cavalier activities during the English Civil War and the house was used as an army headquarters, being visited by Oliver Cromwell. Following the death of Henry Rich, his eldest son Robert Rich, the second Earl of Holland, inherited the house, in 1673 succeeded his first cousin as fifth Earl of Warwick, commemorated locally by Warwick Road and Warwick Gardens to the southwest of Holland House.
The house and titles of Rich and Holland passed from him to his son Edward Rich. King William III considered moving to Holland House for health reasons, he had been a lifelong sufferer from asthma, which condition was exacerbated by the damp air at the riverside location of the Palace of Whitehall. In 1689, attempting to improve his health, he decided to move his court. After a short time spent at Hampton Court, he decided to find another home, near enough to the capital to carry out royal business, but far enough away from the air of London not to threaten his health, he considered Holland House for the purpose, stayed there for some weeks. Several of his letters are dated from Holland House, he purchased nearby Kensington House, the residence of Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham, which became Kensington Palace. In 1697 Edward Rich had married Charlotte Myddelton, the only child of Sir Thomas Myddelton, 2nd Baronet of Chirk Castle, Denbighshire, she survived him at his death in 1701, in 1716 remarried to the celebrated writer Joseph Addison.
Addison lived at Holland House after his marriage, not a happy one, died there three years in 1719. Among his favoured venues for spending his leisure hours was the White Horse Inn, sited at the entrance of the back lane to Holland House. A century Addison Avenue, Gardens and Road on the § Ilchester Estate west of Holland Park were named after him. Ownership of the house passed from the sixth Earl to his son Edward Henry Rich, 4th Earl of Holland, 7th Earl of Warwick, he died in 1721 aged 23, unmarried, a decade before his mother. His titles, but not his estates, were inherited by his cousin Edward Henry Rich, while the house was inherited by his aunt Lady Elizabeth Rich, married to Francis Edwardes of Pembrokeshire, whose family owned extensive lands in Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion. On his death in 1725 Holland House passed to his son Edward Henry Edwardes, who in turn at his death in 1737 bequeathed the house to his brother William Edwardes, 1st Baron Kensington, subject to a long entail. Edwardes followed his father in being Member of Parliament for Haverfordwest, was elevated to the Peerage of Ireland as Baron Kensington in 1776.
Despite owning Holland House, neither William Edwardes nor any of his family appear to have lived in it. In 1746 he let the house and sixty-four acres of land to his parliamentary colleague Henry Fox - a leading Whig politician who would be created Baron Holland - for ninety-nine years or three lives. By 1767, Fox was leasing all of Edwardes' estate north of the Hammersmith road, in 1768 completed the purchase of the 200 acres of land for £17,000, with a further £2,500 paid in compensation to Rowland Edwardes and John Owen Edwardes, the beneficiaries of the entail established by Edward Henry Edwardes. A private Act of Parliament was obtained to confirm the conveyance; the sale included the lordship of the manor of Abbots Kensington, situated on the estate was Little Holland House, the dower house, with two or three more minor houses and a tavern. Between 1762-8 Lord Holland built for his retirement Holland House, Kingsgate, a large country house at Kingsgate in Kent. Fox died at Holland House in 1774, whereupon his title passed to his son Stephen, but Stephen died only fiv
French Revolution of 1848
The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. In the months that followed, this government steered a course. On 23 June 1848, the people of Paris rose in insurrection, which became known as June Days uprising – a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course. On 2 December 1848, Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was elected President of the Second Republic on peasant support. Three years he suspended the elected assembly, establishing the Second French Empire, which lasted until 1870. Louis Napoléon went on to become the de facto last French monarch; the February revolution established the principle of the "right to work", its newly established government created "National Workshops" for the unemployed.
At the same time a sort of industrial parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc, with the object of preparing a scheme for the organization of labour. These tensions between liberal Orléanist and Radical Republicans and Socialists led to the June Days Uprising. Under the Charter of 1814, Louis XVIII ruled France as the head of a constitutional monarchy. Upon Louis XVIII's death, his brother, the Count of Artois, ascended to the throne in 1824, as Charles X. Supported by the ultra-royalists, Charles X was an unpopular reactionary monarch whose aspirations were far more grand than those of his deceased brother, he had no desire to rule as a constitutional monarch, taking various steps to strengthen his own authority as monarch and weaken that of the lower house. In 1830, Charles X of France instigated by one of his chief advisers Jules, Prince de Polignac, issued the Four Ordinances of St. Cloud; these ordinances abolished freedom of the press, reduced the electorate by 75%, dissolved the lower house.
This action provoked an immediate reaction from the citizenry, who revolted against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of 26–29 July 1830. Charles was forced to flee Paris for the United Kingdom; as a result, Louis Philippe, of the Orléanist branch, rose to power, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830, his rule became known as the July Monarchy. Nicknamed the "Bourgeois Monarch", Louis Philippe sat at the head of a moderately liberal state controlled by educated elites. Supported by the Orléanists, he was opposed on his right by the Legitimists and on his left by the Republicans and Socialists. Louis Philippe was an expert businessman and, by means of his businesses, he had become one of the richest men in France. Still Louis Philippe saw himself as the successful embodiment of a "small businessman", he and his government did not look with favour on the big business the industrial section of the French bourgeoisie. Louis Philippe did, support the bankers and small. Indeed, at the beginning of his reign in 1830, Jaques Laffitte, a banker and liberal politician who supported Louis Philippe's rise to the throne, said "From now on, the bankers will rule."
Accordingly, during the reign of Louis Philippe, the privileged "financial aristocracy", i.e. bankers, stock exchange magnates, railroad barons, owners of coal mines, iron ore mines, forests and all landowners associated with them, tended to support him, while the industrial section of the bourgeoisie, which may have owned the land their factories sat on but not much more, were disfavoured by Louis Philippe and tended to side with the middle class and laboring class in opposition to Louis Philippe in the Chamber of Deputies. Land-ownership was favoured, this elitism resulted in the disenfranchisement of much of the middle and working classes. By 1848 only about one percent of the population held the franchise. Though France had a free press and trial by jury, only landholders were permitted to vote, which alienated the petty bourgeoisie and the industrial bourgeoisie from the government. Louis Philippe was viewed as indifferent to the needs of society to those members of the middle class who were excluded from the political arena.
Early in 1848, some Orléanist liberals, such as Adolphe Thiers, had turned against Louis Philippe, disappointed by his opposition to parliamentarism. A Reform Movement developed in France which urged the government to expand the electoral franchise, just as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland had done in 1832; the more radical democrats of the Reform Movement coalesced around La Réforme. Starting in July 1847 the Reformists of all shades began to hold "banquets" at which toasts were drunk to "République française", "Liberté, égalité, fraternité", etc. Louis Philippe turned a deaf ear to the Reform Movement, discontent among wide sections of the French people continued to grow. Social and political discontent sparked revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848, which in turn inspired revolts in other parts of Europe. Workers lost their jobs, bread prices rose, people accused the government of corruption; the French set up a republic. French successes led to other revolts including those who wanted relief from the suffering caused by the Industrial Revolution and nationalism sprang up hoping for
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city with about 180,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany; as of 2016, the Swiss Basel agglomeration was the third-largest in Switzerland, with a population of 541,000 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland. The initiative Trinational Eurodistrict Basel of 62 suburban communes including municipalities in neighboring countries, counted 829,000 inhabitants in 2007; the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local Basel German dialect. The city is known for its many internationally renowned museums, ranging from the Kunstmuseum, the first collection of art accessible to the public in Europe and the largest museum of art in the whole of Switzerland, to the Fondation Beyeler; the University of Basel, Switzerland's oldest university, the city's centuries-long commitment to humanism, have made Basel a safe haven at times of political unrest in other parts of Europe for such notable people as Erasmus of Rotterdam, the Holbein family, Friedrich Nietzsche and in the 20th century Hermann Hesse and Karl Jaspers.
The city of Basel is Switzerland's second-largest economic centre after the city of Zürich and has the highest GDP per capita in the country, ahead of the cantons of Zug and Geneva. In terms of value, over 94% of Basel City's goods exports are in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors. With production facilities located in the neighboring Schweizerhalle, Basel accounts for 20% of Swiss exports and generates one third of the national product. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1501; the city has been a commercial hub and an important cultural centre since the Renaissance, has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries in the 20th century. In 1897, Basel was chosen by Theodor Herzl as the location for the first World Zionist Congress, altogether the congress has been held there ten times over a time span of 50 years, more than in any other location; the city is home to the world headquarters of the Bank for International Settlements.
In 2019 Basel, was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Geneva. There are traces of a settlement at the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of Basel-Gasfabrik, to the northwest of the Old City identical with the town of Arialbinnum mentioned on the Tabula Peutingeriana; the unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an oppidum on the site of Basel Minster in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a castra was built on the site of the Celtic oppidum; the city of Basel grew around the castra. In AD 83, Basel was incorporated into the Roman province of Germania Superior. Roman control over the area deteriorated in the 3rd century, Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian; the Germanic confederation of the Alemanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled.
However, in the great invasion of AD 406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace and a large part of the Swiss Plateau. From that time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement; the Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, by the 7th century, the former bishopric of Augusta Raurica was re-established as the Bishopric of Basel. Based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle replaced by a Romanesque structure consecrated in 1019. At the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but it passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870; the city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion in 917. The rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032.
From the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II of Metz in 999 until the Reformation, Basel was ruled by prince-bishops. In 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under Holy Roman Emperor. In 1225–1226, a bridge, now known as the Middle Bridge, was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun and Lesser Basel founded as a bridgehead to protect the bridge; the bridge was funded by Basel's Jewish community who had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river "between Lake Constance and the sea"; the Bishop allowed the furriers to establish a guild in 1226. About 15 guilds were established in the 13th century, they increased the town's, hence the bishop's, reputation and income from the taxes and duties on goods in Basel's expanding market. The plague came to Europe in 1347, but did not reach Basel until June 1349. The