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Taeniocrada is a genus of extinct plants of Devonian age. It is used as a form genus for fossil plants with leafless flattened stems which divided dichotomously and had prominent midribs regarded as containing vascular tissues, it has been suggested. Key features of the original definition of the genus Taeniocrada were that it possessed leafless flattened stems with prominent midribs which appeared to contain vascular tissues; as more species were added to the genus, its definition became less clear. Three of the better-known species are T. dubia and T. stilesvillensis. Taeniocrada decheniana, from the Lower Devonian, had separate fertile stems which branched in a dichotomous fashion ending in sporangia between 3 and 7 mm long. A few sporangia were borne on the sides of stems; the species was found in dense stands. It has been suggested that it was aquatic or semi-aquatic because it did not have stomata on the flattened stems. Taeniocrada dubia, from the Lower Devonian, was considered to be a rhyniophyte, i.e. a early vascular plant, but this has been questioned.

The central strand appears to have been composed of tubes of differing diameters with helical thickenings which were part of the original cell wall, rather than being produced as the cell matured as would be the case in the xylem of vascular plants. Taeniocrada stilesvillensis, from the Upper Devonian of New York, had stems which divided either into two equal branches or so that one branch was more of a'main stem' than the other. Ridges along the stem bore hair-like structures. True vascular tissue was present. A further nine species still considered to be part of the genus are listed and in some cases described by Taylor; the genus Taeniocrada has a somewhat complex taxonomic history. It was created by White with the species T. lesquereuxii for fossils regarded as algae but which proved to have vascular tissue. It was a form genus, used for fossil plants with flattened membrane-like stems, which were leafless with a prominent central thickened strand and which showed dichotomous branching. In 1986 Taylor noted that as more species had been added to the genus, the characters it possessed became wider, so that some species had sporangia which were at the ends of stems, others had sporangia borne on the sides of stems.

Some species had smooth stems, other had stems with'emergences'. Some were known to have vascular tissue, others not, he concluded that the genus no longer matched any existing description and that its species belonged to more than one genus. He suggested that the flattening of the stems might be artefacts of preservation. In 1985, Fairon-Demaret created a new genus for fossils assigned to Taeniocrada but which had single lateral sporangia, she transferred T. langii to Stockmansella langii, leaving Taeniocrada for fossil plants with terminal sporangia borne on branched structures. Following Taylor, Crane et al. regard Taeniocrada as a polyphyletic genus. Some species may belong to the Rhyniopsida as defined by Kenrick and Crane

Lee Creek (Arkansas)

Lee Creek is a 64.6-mile-long river in Arkansas and Oklahoma which starts near West Fork in Washington County and flows south to the Arkansas River passing through Crawford County and Sequoyah County, Oklahoma. Lee Creek flows from Arkansas into Oklahoma returns to Arkansas before its confluence with the Arkansas River near Van Buren and Fort Smith. Lee Creek is known as Lee's Creek in Oklahoma where it is classified by the State of Oklahoma as a State Scenic River. In Arkansas upstream of the Oklahoma border, Lee Creek is classified by the State of Arkansas as an Extraordinary Resource Waterway. List of rivers of Arkansas Southwest Paddler - Lee Creek, Arkansas Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory "Lee Creek". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2014-01-11

Gladiators (2008 British TV series)

Gladiators is a British television series which aired on Sky1 from 11 May 2008 to 25 October 2009. It was a revival of the earlier series of the same name and based on the American version of the show; the US, UK and Australian versions of the show were all revived in 2008. The winners of the series each earned £50,000. For the first series, the show was hosted by Ian Wright and Kirsty Gallacher with original Referee John Anderson returning. For the second series Ian Wright was joined by Caroline Flack due to Kirsty Gallacher not wanting to return. Another change was the removal of John Anderson due to the producers wanting to give the show its own feel and cut ties with the original series, he was replaced by well known boxing referee John Coyle for series two. The show was cancelled in May 2009. Series one featured 32 contenders. Men and women competed in separate tournaments, with two men and two women competing in each episode. Contenders took part in events against the Gladiators, trying to earn as many points as possible before the final event, the Eliminator.

In that event, each point separating the contenders translated into a half-second advantage. The four events leading up to the final were selected from a total of eleven events; the grand prize in Series 1 was £50,000 per winning contender. The show featured a lineup of new Gladiators, with new costumes. However, Panther and Warrior share names with gladiators from the original UK series and several others share names with those from international series. Many of the Gladiator costumes were noticeably more revealing than in the original series, with male Gladiators Atlas and Oblivion in particular wearing little. Due to Sky1's greater advertising requirements, contestant interviews prior to each of the events starting, the number of events before the Eliminator was cut from five to four; the revival featured new music. The new Gladiators studio set meant that there was only room for 11 events, 9 events from the original series: Duel, Hang Tough, Hit & Run, Pursuit, The Wall and Suspension Bridge.

The two new events were Earthquake and Rocketball, which originated in the first and second American Gladiators series respectively. Notable changes from the original series include Duel, Hang Tough, Hit & Run and Suspension Bridge now being played over water; the revised Eliminator featured a swimming section, a climb to the top of the Pyramid and two Travelators. Wolf returned to be the Gladiators' "Leader of the Pack", he featured in all episodes of series 2. His real name is Michael Van Wijk. Male winner: Simon Wray Female winner: Anna Miller Male winner: David Staff Female winner: Kathryn Evans Male winner: David Staff Female winner: Anna Miller All the music to the new series was specially composed by British composer Paul Farrer known for his music for The Weakest Link and Dancing on Ice. Other artists' music has been used in certain events. According to reports, at least one contestant has had to withdraw from the opening episode, while one of the Gladiators slipped on a bridge and had to leave the set.

Another Gladiator had Enigma suffered from an injured ankle. In addition, Enigma was involved in an incident on Gauntlet where a contender kicked a ram rod into her face, resulting in a confrontation and the contender being disqualified. Contenders suffered injuries including a broken toe suffered by Nicola Trench, a damaged knee suffered by Gavin Sunshine, a neck injury, as well as Greg Kirk suffering a broken arm in the quarter finals. One contender, Gavin Sunshine, was so badly injured that he refused to start after his whistle and the other contender won the show by default. Sky1 responded to say that health and safety is their number one issue, they want to minimise the injuries, but pointed out that. It's not Family Fortunes!" In the second episode of "Gladiators: The Legends Strike Back" female legend Scorpio suffered an ankle fracture while participating in The Wall. In the fourth episode a female contestant, Gemma Green had to pull out due to sustaining a knee injury just before the Eliminator.

David Staff broke his nose during the semi-finals while on Earthquake with Doom. However he went on to score points, he went on to win the eliminator and went on to win the series as Male champion. He competed on the champion of champions special, aired on 5 April 2009, won. Gladiator Warrior sustained an injury during gauntlet where the contender clash and hit his head, cut just above his eye, he was taken off and fellow gladiator “The Big O” Oblivion took his spot. Advertised as Gladiators: G-Force, this short ten-minute program profiled a selection of the gladiators, including Spartan and Atlas. With a 2min profile of Oblivion, not shown, appearing as part of a repeat run. In May 2009, Sky1's director of programmes Stuart Murphy announced. Speaking to Broadcastnow, Murphy said, "Gladiators has done a great job for Sky 1 over two seasons, resonating with our young audience and showcasing our entertainment credentials, but now we need to prioritise and allow for both new entertainment formats and genres not seen on Sky 1 such as comedy."

Gladiators at Sky One website Gladiators at BBC Wear Warrior feature – Gladiator... Ready! Gladiators on IMDb


Bradeley is a village in Staffordshire, England, in the city of Stoke-on-Trent. It was mentioned in the Domesday Book but became more established as a mining community for the local coal pits in Norton and Chatterley Whitfield. A hostel existed on the east side of Chell Heath Road until the 1970s, where incoming miners from different parts of Britain and overseas would be housed. There were several farms around the village which sold for development; some former farmland is now used for recreation. In the 1960s there were three churches. Today there is a new non-denominational church called Emmanuel church on Chell Heath Road, close to the site of the original Church of England church. Nearby is The Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses. A Co-Op grocery store stood on Moorland View with an attached butchers shop. Moorland View boasts a public house called The Talbot Inn at the junction with Unwin Street and, at one time, Bradeley Workingmens Club on a site, awaiting redevelopment. On Unwin Street there was a post office, transferred to the shop on the corner of Chell Heath Road and Hayes Street but has since been closed.

There were a number of corner stores selling confectionery, ice cream, etc. A small store is located within the Bradeley Village retirement community located on Brammer Street, to serve the residents there. A public house named The Bradeley was built in the 1970s when housing was built and Stratheden Road opened up a link from Bradeley to High Lane and onwards to Burslem. Bradeley was known for brickmaking until the early 1970s - the Wilkinson Bros. factory was located at Acreswood, on the west side of the village, where clay was drawn from a pit and high quality bricks made. David Steele, international English cricketer, was born in Bradeley in 1941. Wilkinson Bros brick factory Miners' housing reference

John Goldsborough

Sir John Goldsborough was a sea-captain and administrator of the British East India Company. He was a native of Suffolk, he was in command of the East Indiaman Antelope when that ship was taken by a Dutch fleet, between Masulipatam and Madras on 22 August 1673. His account of the engagement is in the Bodleian Library, he commanded the Falcon in 1673–4, Bengal Merchant in 1676–7, 1683, 1686. The death of Sir John Child in February 1690 created a vacuum in power within the company's hierarchy in India, no officer succeeded Child. In January 1691, the Company directors resolved to appoint Gainsborough to act as the first member of council at the different settlements in India. In February, he was knighted, given the official title of ‘supervisor-commissary-general and chief governor' and set sail for India in March; the following year he was made ` commander-in-chief' based at Madras. He arrived at Fort St. George on 5 December 1692, his first instructions from the directors were to proceed with the construction of a steeple at a church at Fort George and to enlarge the town into a quadrangle.

He thereafter began investigating the quarrel between the late governor, Elihu Yale, his council. In June 1693 he went to Fort St. David, after a short stay there returned by land to Madras in July. On 29 July he embarked for the Bay of Bengal, arriving at Chatanati, just north of Calcutta on 12 August, he reported unfavourably of the late Job Charnock and the disorder that followed amongst the company's servants. He criticised Charnock's successor Francis Ellis as worsening the situation, noting that he was "a man too easy and weak to stand alone in the head of such an affairs as this" and that "he led too loose a life to give any good example or govern this place". Ellis was remanded to Fort St. George, Charles Eyre made his replacement. During his stay in Bengal, he criticised how everyone built as they pleased, without regulation, noted how the company would incur large costs rectifying factories poorly constructed on unsuitable land. To resolve the situation he ordered a suitable piece of land to be enclosed by mud walls, upon the approval of the local government, a factory was to be built on the land.

The factory was to become the Fort William. He ordered Eyre to relocate the administrators into the only brick building, along with the papers in their possessions, which were at the time housed in thatched huts and liable to the hazard of fire. While staying at Chatanati, Goldsborough was struck down by fever and died ‘within some few days after’ 28 November 1693. Before leaving London he made a will, dated 7 March 1691, wherein he described himself as ‘of Bethnall Green, in the county of Middlesex, being bound on a voyage to the East India beyond the seas in the shipp Berkly Castle’. Goldsborough was succeeded by Sir John Gayer, appointed General of India and based at Bombay. Following his death, his wife and children remained at Fort George, his widow Mary married Roger Braddyll, a member of Governor Pitt's council at Fort St. George, she died in India some time to 4 November 1702, on which day her husband administered to her estate at London