Edward Emerson Barnard was an American astronomer. He was known as E. E. Barnard, was recognized as a gifted observational astronomer, he is best known for his discovery of the high proper motion of Barnard's Star in 1916, named in his honor. Barnard was born in Nashville, Tennessee, to Reuben Barnard and Elizabeth Jane Barnard, had one brother, his father died three months before his birth, so he grew up in an impoverished family and did not receive much in the way of formal education. His first interest was in the field of photography, he became a photographer's assistant at the age of nine, he developed an interest in astronomy. In 1876 he purchased a 5-inch refractor telescope, in 1881 he discovered his first comet, but failed to announce his discovery, he found his second comet the same year and a third in 1882. While he was still working at a photography studio he was married to the English-born woman Rhoda Calvert in 1881. In the 1880s, Hulbert Harrington Warner offered US$200 per discovery of a new comet.
Barnard discovered a total of five, used the money to build a house for himself and his wife. With his name being brought to the attention of amateur astronomers in Nashville, they collectively raised enough money to give Barnard a fellowship to Vanderbilt University, he never graduated from the school, but did receive the only honorary degree Vanderbilt has awarded. He joined the staff of the Lick Observatory in 1887, though he clashed with the director, Edward S. Holden, over access to observing time on the larger instruments and other issues of research and management. Barnard saw the gegenschein in 1882, not aware of earlier papers by Theodor Brorsen and T. W. Backhouse. In 1889 he observed; as he watched Iapetus pass through the space between Saturn's innermost rings and the planet itself, he saw a shadow pass over the moon. Although he did not realize it at the time, he had discovered proof of the "spokes" of Saturn, dark shadows running perpendicular to the circular paths of the rings.
These spokes were doubted at first, but confirmed by the spacecraft Voyager 1. In 1892 he made observations of a nova and was the first to notice the gaseous emissions, thus deducing that it was a stellar explosion; the same year he discovered Amalthea, the fifth moon of Jupiter. He was the first to discover a new moon of Jupiter since Galileo Galilei in 1609; this was the last satellite discovered by visual observation. In 1895 he joined the University of Chicago as professor of astronomy. There he was able to use the 40-inch telescope at Yerkes Observatory. Much of his work during this period was taking photographs of the Milky Way. Together with Max Wolf, he discovered that certain dark regions of the galaxy were clouds of gas and dust that obscured the more distant stars in the background. From 1905, his niece Mary R. Calvert worked as his computer; the faint Barnard's Star is named for Edward Barnard after he discovered in 1916 that it had a large proper motion, relative to other stars. This is the second nearest star system to the Sun, second only to the Alpha Centauri system.
He was a pioneering astrophotographer. His Barnard Catalogue lists a series of dark nebulae, known as Barnard objects, giving them numerical designations akin to the Messier catalog, they begin with Barnard 1 and end with Barnard 370. He published his initial list with the 1919 paper in the Astrophysical Journal, "On the Dark Markings of the Sky with a Catalogue of 182 such Objects", he died on February 6, 1923 in Williams Bay and was buried in Nashville. After his death, many examples from his exceptional collection of astronomical photographs were published in 1927 as A Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way, this work having been finished by Mary R. Calvert, Edwin B. Frost director of Yerkes Observatory. Between 1881 and 1892, he discovered 15 comets, three of which were periodic, co-discovered two others: C/1881 did not announce C/1881 S1 C/1882 R2 D/1884 O1 C/1885 N1 C/1885 X2 C/1886 T1 Barnard-Hartwig C/1887 B3 C/1887 D1 C/1887 J1 C/1888 U1 C/1888 R1 C/1889 G1 177P/Barnard C/1891 F1 Barnard-Denning C/1891 T1 D/1892 T1 – First comet to be discovered by photography.
The Immortal Fire Within: The Life and Work of Edward Emerson Barnard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Biography Edward Emerson Barnard Papers at Vanderbilt University Special Collections and University Archives Edward Emerson Barnard's Photographic Atlas of Selected Regions of the Milky Way National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir Portraits of Edward Emerson Barnard from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections
Peter Seisenbacher is a judo coach and retired judoka from Austria. He competed in the middleweight category at the 1980, 1984 and 1988 Olympics and won two gold medals, in 1984 and 1988, he won a world title in 1985 and European title in 1986. After retiring from competitions, Seisenbacher worked as a judo coach, in Austria and Azerbaijan. Under his guidance, the Georgian team won 2 gold, 3 silver, 4 bronze medals at European championships, one bronze medal at world championships, an Olympic gold medal in 2012. After years of circulating rumors, in June 2014 a number of women filed criminal complaints against Seisenbacher for alleged sexual misconduct against them when they were still minors or children. On October 5, 2016, Seisenbacher was formally indicted by the Vienna Prosecutor's Office for statutory rape of two girls who at the time were less than 14 years of age, for attempted sexual assault of one girl who at the time was 16 years old; the first indictment involved a girl, 11 when in 1999 she was sexually assaulted at multiple occasions by Seisenbacher lasting until 2001.
The attempted sexual assault of the 16-year old occurred during a training camp in Croatia in 2001. The formal indictment came after a lengthy judicial investigation following earlier police complaints filed in 2013 by several former pupils, as reported by numerous newspapers in June 2014. However, in December 2016 Seisenbacher failed to show up for his trial in court for two days in a row and instead fled the country, after which he became a fugitive from justice on worldwide warrant. While Interpol searched for him in Europe, the United States and Dubai, Seisenbacher was able to remain on the run for 200 days. Considered dangerous, he was arrested by a SWAT team on August 2, 2017 in Kiev and was handed over to Austria on September 12th, 2019; the trial started on November 25th in Vienna, on December 2nd Seisenbacher was found guilty and sentenced to 5 years in prison
Fort Jackson was an American Civil War-era fortification in Virginia that defended the southern end of the Long Bridge, near Washington, D. C. Long Bridge connected Washington, D. C. to Northern Virginia and served as a vital transportation artery for the Union Army during the war. Fort Jackson was named for Jackson City, a seedy suburb of Washington, established on the south side of the Long Bridge in 1835, it was built in the days following the Union Army's occupation of Northern Virginia in May 1861. The fort was armed with four cannon used to protect the bridge, but these were removed after the completion of the Arlington Line, a line of defenses built to the south. After 1862, the fort lacked weapons except for small arms and consisted of a wooden palisade backed by earthworks. Two cannon were restored to the fort in 1864 following the Battle of Fort Stevens; the garrison consisted of a single company of Union soldiers who inspected traffic crossing the bridge and guarded it from potential saboteurs.
Following the final surrender of the Confederate States of America in 1865, Fort Jackson was abandoned. The lumber used in its construction was promptly salvaged for firewood and construction materials and, due to its proximity to the Long Bridge, the earthworks were flattened in order to provide easier access to Long Bridge. In the early 20th century, the fort's site was used for the footings and approaches to several bridges connecting Virginia and Washington. Today, no trace of the fort remains, though the site of the fort is contained within Arlington County's Long Bridge Park, a National Park Service 2004 survey of the site indicated some archaeological remnants may still remain beneath the park. Before the outbreak of the Civil War, Alexandria County, the county in Virginia closest to Washington, D. C. was a predominantly rural area. Part of the original ten-mile-square District of Columbia, the land now comprising the county was retroceded to Virginia in a July 9, 1846, act of Congress that took effect in 1847.
Most of the county is hilly, at the time, most of the county's population was concentrated in the city of Alexandria, at the far southeastern corner of the county. In 1861, the rest of the county consisted of scattered farms, the occasional house, fields for grazing livestock, Arlington House, owned by Mary Custis, wife of Robert E. Lee; the county was connected to nearby Washington via the Long Bridge. On the river flats of the Virginia side of the river was Jackson City, a seedy entertainment district named after President Andrew Jackson and home to several racetracks, gambling halls, saloons. Following the surrender of Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, on April 14, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln declared that "an insurrection existed", called for 75,000 troops to be called up to quash the rebellion; the move sparked resentment in many other southern states, which promptly moved to convene discussions of secession. The Virginia State Convention passed "an ordinance of secession" and ordered a May 23 referendum to decide whether or not the state should secede from the Union.
The U. S. Army responded by creating the Department of Washington, which united all Union troops in the District of Columbia and Maryland under one command. Brigadier General J. F. K. Mansfield, commander of the Department of Washington, argued that Northern Virginia should be occupied as soon as possible in order to prevent the possibility of the Confederate Army mounting artillery on the hills of Arlington and shelling government buildings in Washington, he urged the erection of fortifications on the Virginia side of the Potomac River to protect the southern terminuses of the Chain Bridge, Long Bridge, Aqueduct Bridge. His superiors approved these recommendations, but decided to wait until after Virginia voted for or against secession. On May 23, 1861, Virginia voted by a margin of 3 to 1 in favor of leaving the Union; that night, U. S. Army troops began crossing the bridges linking Washington, D. C. to Virginia. The march, which began at 10 p.m. on the night of the 23rd, was described in colorful terms by the New York Herald two days later: There can be no more complaints of inactivity of the government.
The forward march movement into Virginia, indicated in my despatches last night, took place at the precise time this morning that I named, but in much more imposing and powerful numbers. About ten o'clock last night four companies of picked men moved over the Long Bridge, as an advance guard, they were sent to reconnoitre, if assailed were ordered to signal, when they would have been reinforced by a corps of regular infantry and a battery.... At twelve o'clock the infantry regiment and cavalry corps began to muster and assume marching order; as fast as the several regiments were ready they proceeded to the Long Bridge, those in Washington being directed to take that route. The troops quartered at Georgetown, the Sixty-ninth, Fifth and Twenty-eighth New York regiments, proceeded across what is known as the chain bridge, above the mouth of the Potomac Aqueduct, under the command of General McDowell, they took possession of the heights in that direction. The imposing scene was at the Long Bridge.
Eight thousand infantry, two regular cavalry companies and two sections of Sherman's artillery battalion, consisting of two batteries, were in line this side of the Long Bridge at two o'clock. The occupation of Northern Virginia was peaceful, with the exception of the town of Alexandria. There, as Colonel Elmer E. Ellsworth, commander of the New York Fire Zouaves, entered a local hotel to remove the Confederate flag flying above it, he was shot and killed by James
Light flyweight known as junior flyweight or super strawweight, is a weight class in boxing. The weight limit at light flyweight in professional boxing is 108 pounds; when New York legalized boxing in 1920, the law stipulated a "junior flyweight" class, with a weight limit of 99 pounds. When the National Boxing Association was formed in 1921, it recognized this weight class. However, on January 19, 1922, the NBA decided to withdraw recognition of the junior flyweight division. On December 31, 1929, the New York State Athletic Commission abolished the junior flyweight class. No champion had been crowned in this division prior to its abolition; the World Boxing Council decided to resurrect this division in the 1970s. The first champion in this division was Franco Udella, who won the WBC title in 1975; the World Boxing Association crowned its first champion in 1975, when Jaime Rios defeated Rigoberto Marcano via fifteen-round decision. The first International Boxing Federation champion was Dodie Boy Penalosa, who won the belt in 1983.
The first light flyweight "superfight" took place on March 13, 1993, when Michael Carbajal, the IBF champion, knocked out WBC champion Humberto González to unify the championship. Their rematch, on February 19, 1994, was the first time a light flyweight fighter made a million dollar purse. Yuh Myung-woo holds the record for most consecutive title defenses at this division, with 17 defenses of the WBA title. Current champions At the Summer Olympic Games, the division is defined as up to 49 kilograms. 1968 – Francisco Rodríguez 1972 – György Gedó 1976 – Jorge Hernández 1980 – Shamil Sabirov 1984 – Paul Gonzales 1988 – Ivailo Marinov 1992 – Rogelio Marcelo 1996 – Daniel Petrov 2000 – Brahim Asloum 2004 – Yan Bartelemí Varela 2008 – Zou Shiming 2012 – Zou Shiming 2016 – Hasanboy Dusmatov 1969 – György Gedó 1971 – György Gedó 1973 – Vladislav Sasypko 1975 – Aleksandr Tkachenko 1977 – Henryk Średnicki 1979 – Shamil Sabirov 1981 – Ismail Mustafov 1983 – Ismail Mustafov 1985 – René Breitbarth 1987 – Nszan Munczian 1989 – Ivailo Marinov 1991 – Ivailo Marinov 1993 – Daniel Petrov 1996 – Daniel Petrov 1998 – Sergey Kazakov 2000 – Valeriy Sydorenko 2002 – Sergey Kazakov 2004 – Sergey Kazakov 2006 – David Ayrapetyan 2008 – Hovhannes Danielyan 2010 – Paddy Barnes 2011 – Salman Alizade 2013 – David Ayrapetyan 1971 – Rafael Carbonell 1975 – Jorge Hernández 1979 – Hector Ramírez 1983 – Rafael Ramos 1987 – Luis Román Rolón 1991 – Rogelio Marcelo 1995 – Edgar Velázquez 1999 – Maikro Romero 2003 – Yan Bartelemí Varela 2007 – Luis Yáñez 2011 – Joselito Velazquez Iván Calderon Michael Carbajal Jung-Koo Chang Luis Estaba Leo Gamez Humberto Gonzalez Yoko Gushiken Louisa Hawton Yuh Myung-woo Donnie Nietes Saman Sorjaturong
A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature is a collection of biographies of writers by John William Cousin, published in 1910. Most of the entries consist of only one paragraph but some entries, like William Shakespeare's, are quite lengthy; the book was the 5,000th e-book provided by the Distributed Proofreaders project to Project Gutenberg, where it was released on August 21, 2004. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature at Project Gutenberg A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature at Internet Archive This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cousin, John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource
Lincoln Paul McIlravy from Philip, South Dakota is a businessman notable for his collegiate and Olympic wrestling accolades. McIlravy wrestled for Philip High School in Philip, SD where he won 5 state titles, going on to wrestle in college for the University of Iowa under celebrated coach Dan Gable, he was a three-time NCAA Division I champion, winning in 1993, 1994 and 1997. He was a runner-up in 1995, losing to Steve Marianetti of University of Illinois. McIlravy competed for the United States in the 1998 and 1999 World Championships, 1999 Pan Am Games, the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, where he won the bronze medal in the Freestyle Welterweight competition; as a competitor, McIlravy was known for his aggressive and innovative attacks, including the so-called "boot scoot" technique. For his numerous accolades and example of a student-athlete, McIlravy was inducted into the National High School Hall of Fame. Zavoral, Nolan. 1997. A Season on the Mat. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-84787-0 Hammond, Jairus K. 2005.