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Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667. He was loyal to the king, built up the royalist cause, served as the chief minister after 1660, he was one of the most important historians of England, as author of the most influential contemporary history of the Civil War, The History of the Rebellion. He was the maternal grandfather of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne. Hyde was the third son of Henry Hyde of Dinton and Purton, both in Wiltshire, by his wife, Mary Langford, daughter and co-heiress of Edward Langford of Trowbridge. Henry's brother was Attorney General; the family of Hyde was long established at Norbury in Cheshire. Hyde was fond of his mother and idolised his father, whom he called "the best father, the best friend, the wisest man I have known." Clarendon's two cousins, Richard Rigby, Secretary of Jamaica, his son, Richard Rigby, Chief Secretary of Ireland and Paymaster of the Army, were successful politicians in the succeeding generations.

He was educated at Gillingham School, in 1622 entered Magdalen Hall, having been rejected by Magdalen College and graduated BA in 1626. Intended for holy orders in the Church of England, the death of two elder brothers made him his father's heir, on 1 February 1625/26 he entered the Middle Temple to study law, his abilities were more conspicuous than his industry, at the bar his time was devoted more to general reading and to the society of eminent scholars and writers than to the study of law treatises. This time was not wasted. In years, Clarendon declared that "next the immediate blessing and providence of God Almighty" he "owed all the little he knew and the little good, in him to the friendships and conversation... of the most excellent men in their several kinds that lived in that age." These included Ben Jonson, John Selden, Edmund Waller, John Hales and Lord Falkland, who became his best friend. From their influence and the wide reading in which he indulged, he doubtless drew the solid learning and literary talent which afterwards distinguished him.

The diarist Samuel Pepys wrote thirty years that he never knew anyone who could speak as well as Hyde. He was one of the most prominent members of the famous Great Tew Circle, a group of intellectuals who gathered at Lord Falkland's country house Great Tew, Oxfordshire. On 22 November 1633 he was called to the bar and obtained a good position and practice. Both his marriages gained him influential friends, in December 1634 he was made keeper of the writs and rolls of the Court of Common Pleas, his able conduct of the petition of the London merchants against Lord Treasurer Portland earned him the approval of Archbishop William Laud, with whom he developed a friendship. Hyde in his History explained that he admired Laud for his integrity and decency, excused his notorious rudeness and bad temper because of Laud's humble origins and because Hyde recognised the same weaknesses in himself. In April 1640, Hyde was elected Member of Parliament for both Shaftesbury and Wootton Bassett in the Short Parliament and chose to sit for Wootton Bassett.

In November 1640 he was elected MP for Saltash in the Long Parliament, Hyde was at first a moderate critic of King Charles I, but became more supportive of the king after he began to accept reforming bills from Parliament. Hyde opposed legislation restricting the power of the King to appoint his own advisors, viewing it unnecessary and an affront to the royal prerogative, he moved over towards the royalist side, championing the Church of England and opposing the execution of the Earl of Strafford, Charles's primary adviser. Following the Grand Remonstrance of 1641, Hyde became an informal adviser to the King, he rejoined the king at York. In February 1643, Hyde was knighted and was appointed to the Privy Council. Despite his own previous opposition to the King, he found it hard to forgive anyone a friend, who fought for Parliament, he severed many personal friendships as a result. With the possible exception of John Pym, he detested all the Parliamentary leaders, describing Oliver Cromwell as "a brave bad man" and John Hampden as a hypocrite, while Oliver St. John's "foxes and wolves" speech, in favour of the attainder of Strafford, he considered to be the depth of barbarism.

His view of the conflict and of his opponents was undoubtedly coloured by the death of his best friend Lord Falkland at the First Battle of Newbury in September 1643. Hyde mourned his death, which he called "a loss most infamous and execrable to all posterity", to the end of his own life, he was severe in his judgments of those Royalist commanders who in his view had contributed to the King's defeat. Indeed, his harshest words of all were reserved for George Goring, Lord Goring, whose loyalty to Charles I was not in doubt, whatever his other faults. Hyde described Goring as a man who would "without hesitation have broken any trust, or performed any act of treachery, to satisfy an ordinary passion or appetite, in truth wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit and courage and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God

Rancho San Luis Gonzaga

Rancho San Luis Gonzaga was a 48,821-acre Mexican land grant in the Diablo Range, in present-day Santa Clara County and Merced County, California given in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena to Juan Perez Pacheco and José Maria Mejía. The grant was bounded by Francisco Pacheco's Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe on the west, the San Joaquin River and San Joaquin Valley on the east, Los Baños Creek on the south. A grant was first made in 1841 to Francisco Jose Rivera of Monterey, but he returned to Mexico soon after and did not occupy the grant; the eleven square league grant was made to Juan Perez Pacheco and José Maria Mejía in 1843. Three days Captain Mejia gave his half of the grant to Pacheco. Juan Perez Pacheco was the son of grantee of Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe; the rancho lay at a great crossroad where the road from Pacheco Pass into the San Joaquin Valley crossed the El Camino Viejo that lay along the west side of the valley. Its lands included the land and adobe ranch house of the old Spanish Rancho de Centinela first established by pioneering stockmen from San Juan Bautista and Monterey as place to raise horses in 1810 and subsequently abandoned in the 1820s.

With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored. As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho San Luis Gonzaga was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, the grant was patented to Juan Perez Pacheco in 1871; when Juan Perez Pacheco died in 1855, the property went to Francisco Pacheco. In 1858, the rancho became a stage station for the Butterfield Overland Mail. Upon Francisco Pacheco's death in 1860, his only surviving child, Ysidora Pacheco inherited most of the Pacheco holdings. In 1850, Ysidora married Mariano Malarin of Rancho Chualar; when María Ysidora Pacheco died in 1892, her estate consisted of Rancho San Luis Gonzaga and half of Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe. Paula Fatjo, a great granddaughter of Ysidora and Mariano Malarin, inherited 16,000 acres of the ranch land in 1948, used it to raise horses and cattle; the majority of her property was condemned by the state of California in 1962 to create the San Luis Reservoir, the original 1846 ranch house, which she had restored, was destroyed in an attempt to move it away from the area flooded by the new lake.

Fatjo died on December 30, 1992, leaving the remaining 6,890 acres to the California Parks System, where it forms what is now Pacheco State Park

Vienna Institute of Demography

The Vienna Institute of Demography is a research institute of the division for humanities and social sciences within the Austrian Academy of Sciences and part of the three "pillar institutions" of the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital. After some groundwork by researchers interested in having a population studies institute in Austria, among them Wilhelm Winkler and Gustav Feichtinger, the Institut für Demographie was established in November 1975 as a non-university research institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in close cooperation with the Austrian Statistical Central Office. Founding director was Lothar Bosse, a German-born philosopher and economist who remained at the head of IfD for twelve years. In the first few years, research activities were limited by budget restrictions and focussed on theory and basic research as well as applied demography. From the beginning, there was an emphasis on informing the public about population issues and research results, by publications such as "Demographische Informationen".

Bosse was succeeded by Richard Gisser who headed the institute 1987–1989 and again 1993–2001 and continues to be the institute’s deputy director and a leader of the research group on Demography of Austria. In the period of 1985 to 2000, the institute and the research topic of demography received increasing attention, though there was some competition for scientific staff with the newly founded Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. After positive independent evaluations and the commitment of special funds, the ÖAW decided to expand and internationalise the institute in 2001. Under the designated new director Wolfgang Lutz, the IfD changed its name and working language, employed more scientific and administrative staff, expanded its research agenda as well as its publication efforts and moved to new and successively larger premises in the 4th district. Research activity at VID continued to expand and received favourable attention by policy-makers and scientific peers, which showed in VID members participating in or coordinating major research projects, for instance within the European Union’s Framework Programmes, obtaining recognition by being awarded sizeable grants from the European Research Council.

Director Wolfgang Lutz received the Wittgenstein Award in 2010 and, with the 1.5 million euro prize money, established the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital. At its 40th anniversary in 2015, VID moved to the WU campus in Vienna’s 2nd district, celebrating this and other occasions with a symposium on "Demography that Matters". In 2016 Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, head of the Institute of Mathematical Methods in Economics at the Vienna University of Technology and long-time leader of the VID research group on Population Economics became executive director. VID employs about 40 researchers, most of them from the fields of economics, mathematics/statistics, health studies and sociology, to cover the major research topics of demography or population science: fertility and migration as well as a number of other fields of interest. Over time, the institute’s research focus has expanded from its core competences in Austrian and European demography to a global perspective on the relevant issues of population and human capital development.

There are seven main areas of research, assigned to different research groups though there is considerable permeability and cooperation: Demography of Austria Comparative European Demography Population Dynamics and Forecasting Population Economics Health and Longevity Migration and Education Human Capital Data Lab In addition to the individual contributions of VID researchers to a number of scientific journals, the institute issues the following regular publications: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research —since 2003, the "Yearbook" features peer-reviewed research articles addressing population trends as well as a broad range of theoretical and methodological issues in population research taking the form of the proceedings of last year’s VID/Wittgenstein conference, always dedicated to a particular demographic topic. Besides that, the VYPR publishes Demographic Debates with invited contributions on topics related to the ongoing scientific arguments in the field. Contributions on Data & Trends map long-term developments as well as recent trends in various components of population change in Austria and in Europe.

Demografische Forschung aus erster Hand—a newsletter in German language, for information of journalists and policymakers in Germany and Switzerland, approx. Four times a year VID Working Papers—occasional articles in English by VID researchers Forschungsberichte —occasional articles in German and usually by VID researchers European Demographic Data Sheet—every other year, VID presents the relevant data on a selected topic on an A1-size poster with maps and figures Website of VID Online access to all volumes of the Vienna Yearbook of Population Research Website of Demografische Forschung aus erster Hand European Demographic Data Sheets, from 2006 onward

Butetown branch line

The Butetown branch line known as the Cardiff Bay Line, is a 1-mile-6-chain commuter railway line in Cardiff, Wales from Cardiff Bay and Cardiff Queen Street. The service pattern used to comprise a mixture of shuttle services along the branch and through trains along the Rhymney Line to Caerphilly, or the Coryton Line to Coryton, but since December 2005 is a shuttle service from Queen Street station. A portion of the Taff Vale Railway's main line to Cardiff's Bute Docks, in 1922, it was absorbed, along with the neighbouring Rhymney Railway, into the enlarged Great Western Railway. With the decline of coal traffic and the closure of the Bute Docks, it now sees only passenger services, is regarded as a branch from the line through to Cardiff Central. At privatisation in 1995, services were operated by the Cardiff Railway Company, which traded as Valley Lines; this was subsumed by the new Wales & Borders franchise in 2001, subsequently awarded to Arriva UK Trains in December 2003 and operated as Arriva Trains Wales.

In October 2018, Transport for Wales took over the franchise from Arriva Trains Wales. The December 2005 timetable introduced a further increase in services to 4 trains per hour 18 hours a day, a Sunday service for the first time. In December 2005, Arriva employed a single car Class 153 to "shuttle" along the Butetown Line, upgrading from the 2 car Class 143'Pacers' used for the service. Since the service frequency has been increased more – there are now 5 trains per hour on the line every day of the week, which equates to one train every 12 minutes. In July 2006 the service was due to be provided by a 1950s Class 121 "Bubble car" DMU; the unit entered service on 17 August 2006, only to be withdrawn for repairs two days later. The unit re-entered service on 14 September 2006. Below is the passenger volume from the year beginning April 2002 to the year beginning April 2015. Comparing the two years, Cardiff Queen Street's usage has increased by 44% whilst Cardiff Bay has increased 569%. On 16 July 2012, plans to electrify the line were announced by the government, as part of a £9.4bn package of investment of the railways in England and Wales.

The announcement was made as an extension of the electrification of the South Wales Main Line from Cardiff to Swansea and the electrification of the south Wales Valley Lines at a total cost of £350 million. It was proposed to start between 2014 and 2019. In June 2018 it was announced by the new operator Transport for Wales Rail that the line was to be re-integrated into Valley Lines services, with 6 trains per hour to operate from Merthyr Tydfil and Treherbert. New stations will be constructed at Loudoun Square and on a short extension from the current station closer to Cardiff Bay, opening in December 2023; the current Cardiff Bay station will close at the same time. Stadler Citylink tram-trains will replace the Class 153s; these will switch to battery power on the branch. List of railway stations in Cardiff Cardiff Riverside Branch

Siegfried Barth

Siegfried Barth was a German bomber pilot in the Luftwaffe during World War II and commander of the fighter-bomber wing Jagdbombergeschwader 32 of the German Air Force. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, awarded by Nazi Germany to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership; as a Bundeswehr officer, he served at the NATO Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe from 1969 to 1972. Barth was born 23 January 1916 in Augsburg and joined the military service in 1936, he was trained as a pilot before World War II and been a member of Kampfgeschwader 255 "Edelweiß", renamed Kampfgeschwader 51 on 1 May 1939. When II. Gruppe was formed on 1 April 1940, Barth joined the 4. Staffel holding the rank of Leutnant, he flew his first combat missions in the Battle of France, bombing airfields and shipping off Dunkirk for which he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class on 17 July 1940. KG 51 was relocated to airfields at Étampes-Mondésir and to Paris-Orly in France.

In the Battle of Britain he bombed British ports and London and Portsmouth. Barth was promoted to Oberleutnant and following Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, flew in the southern sector of the Eastern Front, he bombed airfields, railway stations as well as tank and troop concentrations in the Proskurov, Lvov and Taganrog areas. He was wounded in action on 25 June 1941 when his Junkers Ju 88 A-5 was hit by anti-aircraft fire in the vicinity of Darachow. Barth was appointed Gruppenkommandeur on 1 February 1944 of the IV./KG 51, based at Hildesheim at the time. Here he was responsible for the tactical training of replacement crews, they flew the Messerschmitt Me 410 the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 and lastly the Messerschmitt Me 262, the first operational jet fighter-bomber. He was promoted to Major on 1 May 1944; the Gruppe was renamed to IV./Ergänzungskampfgeschwader 1. Barth stayed in this position until 31 March 1945 before being appointed Geschwaderkommodore of KG 51 on 19 April 1945.

He led the Geschwader in Upper Bavaria. Barth, commander of Jagdbombergeschwader 32, was removed of his command by the Minister of Defence, Franz-Josef Strauß for the 1961 F-84 Thunderstreak incident, he was after a number of investigations and complaints, reinstated. On 14 September 1961, two F-84F Thunderstreak of 32 Fighter Bomber Wing crossed into East German airspace due to a navigational error landing at Berlin Tegel Airport, evading a large number of Soviet fighter planes; the event came at a difficult time during the Cold War, one month after the construction of the Berlin Wall. Barth took his case to the Wehrdienstsenat des Bundesdisziplinarhofs, the highest court of German troops, to have him cleared of the charges brought against him; the court in Munich processed Barth's complaint on 20 December. The court invited as witnesses the generals Josef Kammhuber, Martin Harlinghausen, Werner Panitzki and Werner Streib as well as the lieutenant colonels Walter Krupinski and Walter Grasemann.

However, the Federal Minister of Defence made it known through his Secretary of State, Volkmar Hopf, before the court, that the Minister sees himself unable to give the witness the testimony rights. Strauß' conduct in dismissing Barth was found to be at fault, the latter was reinstated in his position. Strauß however ignored this decision until Hellmuth Heye, Ombudsman for the Military, forced him to accept it. Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class Ehrenpokal der Luftwaffe on 4 May 1942 as Oberleutnant and pilot German Cross in Gold on 27 July 1942 as Oberleutnant in the 4./KG 51 Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 2 October 1942 as Hauptmann and Staffelkapitän of the 4./KG 51

Cloud Cock OO Grand

Cloud Cock OO Grand is an album by the Japanese noise musician Merzbow. It was showcases his then-new harsh noise style, it was reissued in the Merzbox. "Autopussy Go No Go" was included on the Merzbox Sampler. For the European tour of 1989, Masami Akita could only bring simple and portable equipment, this led to the harsh noise style that Merzbow became known for in the 1990s. Cloud Cock OO Grand was the first example of this new style, Merzbow's first digital recording, the first recorded for the CD format, it includes live material from the European tour. But when I started live in late 1980s I didn't like to use tape on stage. I like only live electronics. So, my studio works changed to more live composition style. I'm still using many tapes in studio works. Before, I used tapes as overdubbing concept, but now tapes are crashing together, no static overdub. I found that style on Cloud Cock OO Grand. All music is composed by Masami Akita. Masami Akita – materials, mixing Reiko Azuma – performer on live material on "Modular" Peter Duimelinks – recorded live material on "Modular" "Modular" includes material recorded live at V2, s'Hertogenbosch and Diogenes, Nijmegen during the Dutch tour in 1989.

"Modular" and "Postfix" are listed as separate tracks, but only have one index track. This was fixed on the Merzbox