Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon was an English statesman who served as Lord Chancellor to King Charles II from 1658, two years before the Restoration of the Monarchy, until 1667. He was loyal to the king, built up the royalist cause, served as the chief minister after 1660, he was one of the most important historians of England, as author of the most influential contemporary history of the Civil War, The History of the Rebellion. He was the maternal grandfather of Queen Mary II and Queen Anne. Hyde was the third son of Henry Hyde of Dinton and Purton, both in Wiltshire, by his wife, Mary Langford, daughter and co-heiress of Edward Langford of Trowbridge. Henry's brother was Attorney General; the family of Hyde was long established at Norbury in Cheshire. Hyde was fond of his mother and idolised his father, whom he called "the best father, the best friend, the wisest man I have known." Clarendon's two cousins, Richard Rigby, Secretary of Jamaica, his son, Richard Rigby, Chief Secretary of Ireland and Paymaster of the Army, were successful politicians in the succeeding generations.

He was educated at Gillingham School, in 1622 entered Magdalen Hall, having been rejected by Magdalen College and graduated BA in 1626. Intended for holy orders in the Church of England, the death of two elder brothers made him his father's heir, on 1 February 1625/26 he entered the Middle Temple to study law, his abilities were more conspicuous than his industry, at the bar his time was devoted more to general reading and to the society of eminent scholars and writers than to the study of law treatises. This time was not wasted. In years, Clarendon declared that "next the immediate blessing and providence of God Almighty" he "owed all the little he knew and the little good, in him to the friendships and conversation... of the most excellent men in their several kinds that lived in that age." These included Ben Jonson, John Selden, Edmund Waller, John Hales and Lord Falkland, who became his best friend. From their influence and the wide reading in which he indulged, he doubtless drew the solid learning and literary talent which afterwards distinguished him.

The diarist Samuel Pepys wrote thirty years that he never knew anyone who could speak as well as Hyde. He was one of the most prominent members of the famous Great Tew Circle, a group of intellectuals who gathered at Lord Falkland's country house Great Tew, Oxfordshire. On 22 November 1633 he was called to the bar and obtained a good position and practice. Both his marriages gained him influential friends, in December 1634 he was made keeper of the writs and rolls of the Court of Common Pleas, his able conduct of the petition of the London merchants against Lord Treasurer Portland earned him the approval of Archbishop William Laud, with whom he developed a friendship. Hyde in his History explained that he admired Laud for his integrity and decency, excused his notorious rudeness and bad temper because of Laud's humble origins and because Hyde recognised the same weaknesses in himself. In April 1640, Hyde was elected Member of Parliament for both Shaftesbury and Wootton Bassett in the Short Parliament and chose to sit for Wootton Bassett.

In November 1640 he was elected MP for Saltash in the Long Parliament, Hyde was at first a moderate critic of King Charles I, but became more supportive of the king after he began to accept reforming bills from Parliament. Hyde opposed legislation restricting the power of the King to appoint his own advisors, viewing it unnecessary and an affront to the royal prerogative, he moved over towards the royalist side, championing the Church of England and opposing the execution of the Earl of Strafford, Charles's primary adviser. Following the Grand Remonstrance of 1641, Hyde became an informal adviser to the King, he rejoined the king at York. In February 1643, Hyde was knighted and was appointed to the Privy Council. Despite his own previous opposition to the King, he found it hard to forgive anyone a friend, who fought for Parliament, he severed many personal friendships as a result. With the possible exception of John Pym, he detested all the Parliamentary leaders, describing Oliver Cromwell as "a brave bad man" and John Hampden as a hypocrite, while Oliver St. John's "foxes and wolves" speech, in favour of the attainder of Strafford, he considered to be the depth of barbarism.

His view of the conflict and of his opponents was undoubtedly coloured by the death of his best friend Lord Falkland at the First Battle of Newbury in September 1643. Hyde mourned his death, which he called "a loss most infamous and execrable to all posterity", to the end of his own life, he was severe in his judgments of those Royalist commanders who in his view had contributed to the King's defeat. Indeed, his harshest words of all were reserved for George Goring, Lord Goring, whose loyalty to Charles I was not in doubt, whatever his other faults. Hyde described Goring as a man who would "without hesitation have broken any trust, or performed any act of treachery, to satisfy an ordinary passion or appetite, in truth wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit and courage and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God

Rancho San Luis Gonzaga

Rancho San Luis Gonzaga was a 48,821-acre Mexican land grant in the Diablo Range, in present-day Santa Clara County and Merced County, California given in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena to Juan Perez Pacheco and José Maria Mejía. The grant was bounded by Francisco Pacheco's Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe on the west, the San Joaquin River and San Joaquin Valley on the east, Los Baños Creek on the south. A grant was first made in 1841 to Francisco Jose Rivera of Monterey, but he returned to Mexico soon after and did not occupy the grant; the eleven square league grant was made to Juan Perez Pacheco and José Maria Mejía in 1843. Three days Captain Mejia gave his half of the grant to Pacheco. Juan Perez Pacheco was the son of grantee of Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe; the rancho lay at a great crossroad where the road from Pacheco Pass into the San Joaquin Valley crossed the El Camino Viejo that lay along the west side of the valley. Its lands included the land and adobe ranch house of the old Spanish Rancho de Centinela first established by pioneering stockmen from San Juan Bautista and Monterey as place to raise horses in 1810 and subsequently abandoned in the 1820s.

With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican-American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored. As required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho San Luis Gonzaga was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, the grant was patented to Juan Perez Pacheco in 1871; when Juan Perez Pacheco died in 1855, the property went to Francisco Pacheco. In 1858, the rancho became a stage station for the Butterfield Overland Mail. Upon Francisco Pacheco's death in 1860, his only surviving child, Ysidora Pacheco inherited most of the Pacheco holdings. In 1850, Ysidora married Mariano Malarin of Rancho Chualar; when María Ysidora Pacheco died in 1892, her estate consisted of Rancho San Luis Gonzaga and half of Rancho Ausaymas y San Felipe. Paula Fatjo, a great granddaughter of Ysidora and Mariano Malarin, inherited 16,000 acres of the ranch land in 1948, used it to raise horses and cattle; the majority of her property was condemned by the state of California in 1962 to create the San Luis Reservoir, the original 1846 ranch house, which she had restored, was destroyed in an attempt to move it away from the area flooded by the new lake.

Fatjo died on December 30, 1992, leaving the remaining 6,890 acres to the California Parks System, where it forms what is now Pacheco State Park

Vienna Institute of Demography

The Vienna Institute of Demography is a research institute of the division for humanities and social sciences within the Austrian Academy of Sciences and part of the three "pillar institutions" of the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital. After some groundwork by researchers interested in having a population studies institute in Austria, among them Wilhelm Winkler and Gustav Feichtinger, the Institut für Demographie was established in November 1975 as a non-university research institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in close cooperation with the Austrian Statistical Central Office. Founding director was Lothar Bosse, a German-born philosopher and economist who remained at the head of IfD for twelve years. In the first few years, research activities were limited by budget restrictions and focussed on theory and basic research as well as applied demography. From the beginning, there was an emphasis on informing the public about population issues and research results, by publications such as "Demographische Informationen".

Bosse was succeeded by Richard Gisser who headed the institute 1987–1989 and again 1993–2001 and continues to be the institute’s deputy director and a leader of the research group on Demography of Austria. In the period of 1985 to 2000, the institute and the research topic of demography received increasing attention, though there was some competition for scientific staff with the newly founded Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, Germany. After positive independent evaluations and the commitment of special funds, the ÖAW decided to expand and internationalise the institute in 2001. Under the designated new director Wolfgang Lutz, the IfD changed its name and working language, employed more scientific and administrative staff, expanded its research agenda as well as its publication efforts and moved to new and successively larger premises in the 4th district. Research activity at VID continued to expand and received favourable attention by policy-makers and scientific peers, which showed in VID members participating in or coordinating major research projects, for instance within the European Union’s Framework Programmes, obtaining recognition by being awarded sizeable grants from the European Research Council.

Director Wolfgang Lutz received the Wittgenstein Award in 2010 and, with the 1.5 million euro prize money, established the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital. At its 40th anniversary in 2015, VID moved to the WU campus in Vienna’s 2nd district, celebrating this and other occasions with a symposium on "Demography that Matters". In 2016 Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, head of the Institute of Mathematical Methods in Economics at the Vienna University of Technology and long-time leader of the VID research group on Population Economics became executive director. VID employs about 40 researchers, most of them from the fields of economics, mathematics/statistics, health studies and sociology, to cover the major research topics of demography or population science: fertility and migration as well as a number of other fields of interest. Over time, the institute’s research focus has expanded from its core competences in Austrian and European demography to a global perspective on the relevant issues of population and human capital development.

There are seven main areas of research, assigned to different research groups though there is considerable permeability and cooperation: Demography of Austria Comparative European Demography Population Dynamics and Forecasting Population Economics Health and Longevity Migration and Education Human Capital Data Lab In addition to the individual contributions of VID researchers to a number of scientific journals, the institute issues the following regular publications: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research —since 2003, the "Yearbook" features peer-reviewed research articles addressing population trends as well as a broad range of theoretical and methodological issues in population research taking the form of the proceedings of last year’s VID/Wittgenstein conference, always dedicated to a particular demographic topic. Besides that, the VYPR publishes Demographic Debates with invited contributions on topics related to the ongoing scientific arguments in the field. Contributions on Data & Trends map long-term developments as well as recent trends in various components of population change in Austria and in Europe.

Demografische Forschung aus erster Hand—a newsletter in German language, for information of journalists and policymakers in Germany and Switzerland, approx. Four times a year VID Working Papers—occasional articles in English by VID researchers Forschungsberichte —occasional articles in German and usually by VID researchers European Demographic Data Sheet—every other year, VID presents the relevant data on a selected topic on an A1-size poster with maps and figures Website of VID Online access to all volumes of the Vienna Yearbook of Population Research Website of Demografische Forschung aus erster Hand European Demographic Data Sheets, from 2006 onward