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Edward II of England

Edward II called Edward of Carnarvon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327. He was the sixth king of the House of Plantagenet; the fourth son of Edward I, Edward became the heir apparent to the throne following the death of his elder brother Alphonso. Beginning in 1300, Edward accompanied his father on campaigns to pacify Scotland. In 1306, he was knighted in a grand ceremony at Westminster Abbey. Following his father's death, Edward succeeded to the throne in 1307, he married Isabella, the daughter of the powerful King Philip IV of France, in 1308, as part of a long-running effort to resolve tensions between the English and French crowns. Edward had a close and controversial relationship with Piers Gaveston, who had joined his household in 1300; the precise nature of their relationship is uncertain. Edward's relationship with Gaveston inspired Christopher Marlowe's 1592 play Edward II, along with other plays, films and media. Gaveston's power as Edward's favourite provoked discontent among both the barons and the French royal family, Edward was forced to exile him.

On Gaveston's return, the barons pressured the king into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms, called the Ordinances of 1311. The newly empowered barons banished Gaveston, to which Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite. Led by Edward's cousin, Thomas, 2nd Earl of Lancaster, a group of the barons seized and executed Gaveston in 1312, beginning several years of armed confrontation. English forces were pushed back in Scotland, where Edward was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Widespread famine followed, criticism of the king's reign mounted; the Despenser family, in particular Hugh Despenser the Younger, became close friends and advisers to Edward, but Lancaster and many of the barons seized the Despensers' lands in 1321, forced the king to exile them. In response, Edward led a short military campaign and executing Lancaster. Edward and the Despensers strengthened their grip on power, formally revoking the 1311 reforms, executing their enemies and confiscating estates.

Unable to make progress in Scotland, Edward signed a truce with Robert. Opposition to the regime grew, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty in 1325, she turned against Edward and refused to return. Instead, she allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, invaded England with a small army in 1326. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled to Wales, where he was captured in November; the king was forced to relinquish his crown in January 1327 in favour of his 14-year-old son, Edward III, he died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September murdered on the orders of the new regime. Edward's contemporaries criticised his performance as king, noting his failures in Scotland and the oppressive regime of his years, although 19th-century academics argued that the growth of parliamentary institutions during his reign was a positive development for England over the longer term. Debate over his perceived failures has continued into the 21st century. Edward II was the fourth son of Edward I, King of England, Lord of Ireland, ruler of Gascony in south-western France, Eleanor, Countess of Ponthieu in northern France.

Eleanor was from the Castilian royal family. Edward I proved a successful military leader, leading the suppression of the baronial revolts in the 1260s and joining the Ninth Crusade. During the 1280s he conquered North Wales, removing the native Welsh princes from power and, in the 1290s, he intervened in Scotland's civil war, claiming suzerainty over the country, he was considered an successful ruler by his contemporaries able to control the powerful earls that formed the senior ranks of the English nobility. The historian Michael Prestwich describes Edward I as "a king to inspire fear and respect", while John Gillingham characterises him as an efficient bully. Despite Edward I's successes, when he died in 1307 he left a range of challenges for his son to resolve. One of the most critical was the problem of English rule in Scotland, where Edward I's long but inconclusive military campaign was ongoing when he died, his control of Gascony created tension with the French kings. They insisted. Edward I faced increasing opposition from his barons over the taxation and requisitions required to resource his wars, left his son debts of around £200,000 on his death.

Edward II was born in Caernarfon Castle in north Wales on 25 April 1284, less than a year after Edward I had conquered the region, as a result is sometimes called Edward of Caernarfon. The king chose the castle deliberately as the location for Edward's birth as it was an important symbolic location for the native Welsh, associated with Roman imperial history, it formed the centre of the new royal administration of North Wales. Edward's birth brought predictions of greatness from contemporary prophets, who believed that the Last Days of the world were imminent, declaring him a new King Arthur, who would lead England to glory. David Powel, a 16th-century clergyman, suggested that the baby was offered to the Welsh as a prince "that was borne in Wales and could speake never a word of English", but there is no evidence to support this account. Edward's name was English in origin, linking him to the Anglo-Saxon saint Edward the Confessor, was chosen by his father instead of the more traditional Norman and Castilian names selected for Edward's brothers: John and H

Shout: The Very Best of Tears for Fears

Shout: The Very Best of Tears for Fears is a 2001 compilation album released by the British new wave band Tears for Fears. The album contains the greatest hits of the band from their first album, The Hurting, to the much Elemental; the liner notes contain various photographs which were researched by Jason Pastori and coordinated by Ryan Null. In an AllMusic review, Jose F. Promis says "Shout: The Very Best of Tears for Fears provides an excellent overview of the band's key tracks" with the set improving upon their previous compilation by including an additional five tracks, he concludes by stating it "stands as the definitive Tears for Fears collection". Ben Varkentine of PopMatters says "this one scores above it's predecessors by including the rare single'The Way You Are', which bridged their first two albums" and believes "this is the most definitive to date." Adapted from AllMusic. Roland Orzabalguitar, vocals Curt Smithbass, vocals Ian Stanleykeyboards Manny Eliasdrums Chris Hughes – background vocals, drums Oleta Adams – vocals John Baker – background vocals Mel Collinssaxophone Phil Collins – drums Randy Jacobs – guitar Manu Katché – drums Mark O'Donoughue – Wurlitzer Caroline Orzabal – background vocals Pino Palladino – bass Simon Phillips – drums Neil Taylor – guitar

Maxima (comics)

Maxima is a fictional comic book character in DC Comics. She is known for searching for mates among Earth's superpowered male population. Morally ambiguous, she serves both as an adversary for Superman and a superheroine working as a member of the Justice League. Maxima first appeared in Action Comics #645 and was created by writer Roger Stern and artist George Pérez. Oldest child of the Royal family of the planet Almerac, the fiery-tempered Maxima came to Earth in search of a suitable mate to sire her heir, leaving behind Ultraa, her betrothed. Maxima's first appearance in Metropolis was not her but a simulacrum of her brought to Earth by her servant Sazu, who took it upon herself to convince Superman to be her mate; the simulacrum was destroyed and Sazu imprisoned. The real Maxima appeared to free Sazu and came face to face with Superman, she and Superman, were genetically compatible. She was infuriated. Maxima found herself reluctantly working with Brainiac who had destroyed Almerac with the Warworld.

She turned against him, helped Earth's heroes defeat him, subsequently joining a reformed Justice League for her own reasons. When the League helped her save Almerac from Starbreaker, the planet's ruling council exiled her; as a Leaguer, she helped in the fight against Doomsday, when that version of the League disbanded, she became a member of Captain Atom's Extreme Justice team. She considered Captain Atom as a potential mate. During the period of her flirtation with Captain Atom, a jilted Ultraa angrily attacked him. Maxima stopped the brawl and sent Ultraa back to Almerac, she had a brief fling with another teammate, Amazing-Man, which lasted until the team was dissolved. While part of the Extreme Justice team she joined with other heroes on a trip to Hell itself, mistakenly believing that Superman was trapped there. During the battle, Maxima fell and was lost in one of the'Nine rings', she was sent back to Earth when the current ruler of Hell, was subdued. She offered herself sexually to Superman again, hoping that her recent good deeds would offset her earlier ruthlessness.

Superman, now married to Lois Lane, was less interested in her proposal than before. Angry and humiliated, she joined the Superman Revenge Squad, she swore that Superman had rejected and humiliated her for the last time, threatened that the next time they meet, it would be war. However, in her next appearance, during the buildup to the Our Worlds at War crossover and the'Chosen People of Almerac', as she phrased it, showed up in Earth's solar system where they met up with Superman and fellow JLA member, Green Lantern. Superman and Green Lantern were just beginning to investigate the disturbing disappearance of Pluto and the more distressing ion engine trail associated with Warworld, when they stumbled across Maxima, her people, the supervillain Massacre. After a battle full of wounded pride, Maxima conceded her position when Almerac's rendezvous showed up using a Boom Tube, she explained that she was leading her people to safety from Imperiex, the force that conquered her world. Massacre had seemed to meet his death, somehow Maxima came across him and described her association in these words: "Massacre serves only me now."

To save her people, she allied herself with Darkseid's son, taking them to regions unknown. This was being undertaken without the knowledge of Darkseid. Maxima left Superman with the following words: "Mark my words, when Imperiex comes for your precious homeworld, you'll see alliances you've never dreamed of."All that Maxima warned came to fruition as she and a myriad of other characters formed alliances with Earth and Apokolips in an effort to destroy Imperiex. Maxima met her demise in a heroic effort to put her ship between the destructive beams of Brainiac 13's Warworld which would have resulted in the destruction of the entire universe, making amends with Superman prior to after he had rescued her despite her animosity over his constant rejection of her. In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline, a younger, revamped Maxima is introduced in Supergirl issue #36 as a distinguished member of the Crucible Academy, an intergalactic organization that trains some planets' finest specimens to become their planets' protectors.

She spends the next few issues bonding with Kara before revealing in issue #40 that she is and sexually attracted to Kara. An alternate, adult Maxima who resembles the more traditional pre-Flashpoint version of the character in both appearance and personality showed up as a villain; the adult Maxima is a former Almeracian soldier who kidnapped the younger Maxima and stole her name after believing that the girl's unwillingness to deny her homosexuality by taking on a male partner made her unworthy of her royal title and heritage. The new Maxima was defeated and imprisoned by the combined might of Supergirl and the younger Maxima. Overall, portrayal of Maxima varied by writer. In her appearances in the various Superman titles, Maxima was depicted as a haughty and shallow individual with only self-centered motivations, lacking any real depth as a character. By contrast, in her appearances in the comic book series Extreme Justice and Steel, Maxima was developed as an individual with a warrior's sense of honor and a strong counten