Leonora Carrington OBE was a British-born Mexican artist, surrealist painter, novelist. She lived most of her adult life in Mexico City and was one of the last surviving participants in the Surrealist movement of the 1930s. Carrington was a founding member of the Women's Liberation Movement in Mexico during the 1970s. Carrington was born in Clayton Green, Lancashire, England, her father was a wealthy textile manufacturer, her mother, was Irish. She had three brothers: Patrick and Arthur. Educated by governesses and nuns, she was expelled from two schools, including New Hall School, for her rebellious behaviour, until her family sent her to Florence, where she attended Mrs Penrose's Academy of Art, she briefly, attended St Mary's convent school in Ascot. In 1927, at the age of ten, she saw her first Surrealist painting in a Left Bank gallery in Paris and met many Surrealists, including Paul Éluard, her father opposed her career as an artist. She returned to England and was presented at Court, but according to her, she brought a copy of Aldous Huxley's Eyeless in Gaza to read instead.
In 1935, she attended the Chelsea School of Art in London for one year, with the help of her father's friend Serge Chermayeff, she was able to transfer to the Ozenfant Academy of Fine Arts established by the French modernist Amédée Ozenfant in London. She became familiar with Surrealism from a copy of Herbert Read's book, given to her by her mother, but she received little encouragement from her family to forge an artistic career; the Surrealist poet and patron Edward James was the champion of her work in Britain. Some works are still hanging at James' former family home West Dean College in West Dean, West Sussex. In 1936, Leonora saw the work of the German surrealist Max Ernst at the International Surrealist Exhibition in London and was attracted to the Surrealist artist before she met him. In 1937, Carrington met Ernst at a party held in London; the artists returned together to Paris, where Ernst promptly separated from his wife. In 1938, leaving Paris, they settled in Saint Martin d'Ardèche in southern France.
The new couple supported each other's artistic development. The two artists created sculptures of guardian animals to decorate their home in Saint Martin d'Ardèche. In 1939, Carrington painted a Portrait of Max Ernst as a capture of some ambivalences in their relationship; this portrait was not her first Surrealist work though. Before that, between 1937–38, Leonora painted Self-portrait called The Inn of the Dawn Horse, it is now exhibited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Sporting white jodhpurs and a wild mane of hair, Carrington is perched on the edge of a chair in this curious, dreamlike scene, with her hand outstretched toward the prancing hyena and her back to the tailless rocking horse flying behind her. With the outbreak of World War II Ernst, German, was arrested by the French authorities for being a "hostile alien". With the intercession of Paul Éluard, other friends, including the American journalist Varian Fry, he was discharged a few weeks later. Soon after the Nazis invaded France, Ernst was arrested again, this time by the Gestapo, because his art was considered by the Nazis to be "degenerate".
He managed to escape and, leaving Carrington behind, fled to America with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, a sponsor of the arts. After Ernst's arrest, Carrington was fled to Spain. Paralyzing anxiety and growing delusions culminated in a final breakdown at the British Embassy in Madrid, her parents had her hospitalised. She was given "convulsive therapy" and was treated with the drugs cardiazol, a powerful anxiolytic drug, Luminal, a barbiturate. After being released into the care of a nurse who took her to Lisbon, Carrington ran away and sought refuge in the Mexican Embassy. Meanwhile, Ernst had married Peggy Guggenheim in New York in 1941; that marriage ended a few years later. Ernst and Carrington never resumed their relationship. Three years after being released from the asylum and with the encouragement of André Breton, Carrington wrote about her psychotic experience in her novel Down Below. In this, she explained how she had a nervous breakdown, didn't want to eat, left Spain; this is. She illustrates all, done to her: ruthless institutional therapies, sexual assault, hallucinatory drugs, unsanitary conditions.
It has been suggested that the events of the book should not be taken given Carrington's state at the time of her institutionalization. She created art to depict her experience, such as her Portrait of Dr. Morales and Map of Down Below. Following the escape to Lisbon, Carrington arranged passage out of Europe with Renato Leduc, a Mexican Ambassador. Leduc was a friend of Pablo Picasso, agreed to a marriage of convenience with Carrington so that she would be accorded the immunity given to a diplomat's wife. Leduc spirited Carrington away to Mexico, which she grew to love and where she lived, on and off, for the rest of her life; the pair divorced in 1943. Events from this period continued to inform her work. After spending part of the 1960s in New York City, Carrington worked in Mexico once again. While in Mexico, she was a
Daniel James (businessman)
Daniel James was one of the three founder partners of Phelps, Dodge & Co. a New York trading organisation established in 1833/4, exporting cotton to England and importing manufactured goods in return such as tin, tin plate and copper. James was born in America but was to live in Liverpool for 47 years running the British side of the business called Phelps, James & Co; the company was to dominate the export market of tinplate from the United Kingdom for three-quarters of a century at a time when Wales was the centre of world production. Daniel James, born in Truxton, New York, was a wholesale grocer who in 1829 married Elizabeth Woodbridge Phelps daughter of merchant Anson Greene Phelps. In 1831, Daniel moved to Liverpool with his wife to replace Anson Phelps's existing partner – Elisha Peck – who had spent fifteen years in the job and wanted to return to America; the Phelps, Peck & Co partnership ended in 1833, when the building housing their New York warehouse collapsed. To revive the business Phelps set up the partnership with his two sons-in-law Daniel James and William Earle Dodge, Sr. forming Phelps, Dodge & Co. in the US and Phelps, James & Co. in England.
Phelps was the senior partner in this arrangement with a two-thirds interest and the remainder split between the sons-in-law. In 1837 Phelps's daughter Caroline, whose fiancé, Josiah Stokes, had been killed in the building collapse, married his brother James and he would be the third son-in-law of Anson G Phelps to join the organisation as a partner with a 15% share, he would leave in 1878 to enter the banking business. The American side of the business was to remain in family control into the next century, although in Britain Daniel James made his assistant - Thomas Morris Banks - a partner in Phelps, James & Co; when their father-in-law Phelps died in 1853, Daniel James and William Earle Dodge Sr. purchased his holdings and absorbed his son's share when he died some years later. James would continue to live in England but was said to have gone to America for extended holidays and consultation with his partners. From about 1835 Phelps, Dodge & Co. were involved with selling timber extracted from lands they had purchased in Pennsylvania and it became their largest subsidiary operation.
Daniel James's brother, joined this business in about 1842, ran the outlet operation for Phelps, Dodge from Baltimore under the company name of Henry James & Co. In the first few years of business Daniel James faced difficult times in Liverpool. A recession that started in 1837 in both America and Britain brought the company to the point of ruin and lasted several years, his wife died in 1847 and his eldest son was killed in a carriage accident whilst visiting his grandfather in America. Daniel remarried in 1849 to Sophia Hitchcock. At this time his surviving son - Daniel Willis James - moved to America to further his education and become a member of Phelps, Dodge & Co. Daniel and Sofia had three children: Frank Linsly, John Arthur and William Dodge who all grew up and were educated in Britain. Linsly became an explorer and was killed in Africa by a wounded elephant in 1890. Both Arthur and William married into British society and lived in English country houses on the inherited wealth of their father.
Arthur's main residence was Coton House near Rugby and William's was West Dean House, West Sussex. The death of Frank came as a terrible blow to his brother William; as a memorial, he and Arthur funded the building of a hospital for mariners in the town of East Cowes, Isle of Wight, named the Frank James Memorial Hospital. Sophia Hall Hitchcock died in 1870 and in 1871, Daniel James married his children’s former governess Ruth Lancaster Dickinson. In 1866 Daniel James took British citizenship in order to buy the house that became his final home - Beaconsfield, Liverpool. In 1862 the import of cotton to the UK dried up due to the blockade of the Confederate ports by the Union's navy during the civil war; this resulted in great hardship for the workers and families associated with the cotton manufacturing industry. Relief funds were set up in the northern states of America to support the UK cotton workers. Donation were made by American businesses and individuals amounting to $350,000, this was used to purchase foodstuffs in America including flour and preserved meats.
Daniel James was appointed the chairman of the Liverpool committee, responsible for receiving the shipments and distributing the food. In addition he negotiated with transport companies and government agencies to exempt charges and duties where possible in the UK. In December 1872, Daniel James arrived at his office to be greeted by a newspaper article that read: Phelps, Dodge & Co. New York. — This great firm have had their books and papers seized by the United States for alleged frauds on the revenue to the amount of $1,750,000. The shock was such that there were concerns for his health and a year he had not recovered; the events that led up to this involved a Phelps Dodge employee in New York who noticed a discrepancy in the declaration made to the Customs House. This resulted in an underpayment of import duty, he removed the pages from the ledger and took them to an agent of the Custom House called B. G. Jayne, he was empowered in law to seize the entire value of the import from Phelps Dodge if the case against them was proven.
The Custom House received 50% of any money recovered in this way and the remainder was split between Jayne, his associates and the informer. This system was referred to as Moiety. Jayne made an unannounced visit to the Phelps Dodge offic
René François Ghislain Magritte was a Belgian Surrealist artist. He became well known for creating a number of thought-provoking images. Depicting ordinary objects in an unusual context, his work is known for challenging observers' preconditioned perceptions of reality, his imagery has influenced Pop art and conceptual art. René Magritte was born in Lessines, in the province of Hainaut, Belgium, in 1898, he was the oldest son of Léopold Magritte, a tailor and textile merchant, Régina, a milliner before she got married. Little is known about Magritte's early life, he began lessons in drawing in 1910. On 12 March 1912, his mother committed suicide by drowning herself in the River Sambre; this was not her first attempt at taking her own life. One day she escaped, was missing for days, her body was discovered a mile or so down the nearby river. According to a legend, 13-year-old Magritte was present when her body was retrieved from the water, but recent research has discredited this story, which may have originated with the family nurse.
When his mother was found, her dress was covering her face, an image, suggested as the source of several of Magritte's paintings in 1927–1928 of people with cloth obscuring their faces, including Les Amants. Magritte's earliest paintings, which date from about 1915, were Impressionistic in style. From 1916 to 1918, he studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, under Constant Montald, but found the instruction uninspiring; the paintings he produced during the years 1918–1924 were influenced by Futurism and by the figurative Cubism of Metzinger. From December 1920 until September 1921, Magritte served in the Belgian infantry in the Flemish town of Beverlo near Leopoldsburg. In 1922, Magritte married Georgette Berger, whom he had met as a child in 1913, it was during that year that the poet Marcel Lecomte showed Magritte a reproduction of Giorgio de Chirico's "The Song of Love". The work brought Magritte to tears. In 1926, Magritte produced his first surreal painting, The Lost Jockey, held his first solo exhibition in Brussels in 1927.
Critics heaped abuse on the exhibition. Depressed by the failure, he moved to Paris where he became friends with André Breton and became involved in the Surrealist group. An illusionistic, dream-like quality is characteristic of Magritte's version of Surrealism, he became a leading member of the movement, remained in Paris for three years. In 1929 he exhibited at Goemans Gallery in Paris with Salvador Dalí, Jean Arp, de Chirico, Max Ernst, Joan Miró, Picabia and Yves Tanguy. On 15 December 1929 he participated in the last publication of La Revolution Surrealiste No. 12, where he published his essay "Les mots et les images", where words play with images in sync with his work The Treachery of images. Galerie Le Centaure closed at the end of 1929. Having made little impact in Paris, Magritte returned to Brussels in 1930 and resumed working in advertising, he and his brother, formed an agency which earned him a living wage. In 1932, Magritte joined the Communist Party, which he would periodically leave and rejoin for several years.
In 1936 he had his first solo exhibition in the United States at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York, followed by an exposition at the London Gallery in 1938. During the early stages of his career, the British surrealist patron Edward James allowed Magritte to stay rent-free in his London home, where Magritte studied architecture and painted. James is featured in two of Magritte's works painted in 1937, Le Principe du Plaisir and La Reproduction Interdite, a painting known as Not to Be Reproduced. During the German occupation of Belgium in World War II he remained in Brussels, which led to a break with Breton, he adopted a colorful, painterly style in 1943–44, an interlude known as his "Renoir period", as a reaction to his feelings of alienation and abandonment that came with living in German-occupied Belgium. In 1946, renouncing the violence and pessimism of his earlier work, he joined several other Belgian artists in signing the manifesto Surrealism in Full Sunlight. During 1947 -- 48, Magritte's "Vache period," he painted in crude Fauve style.
During this time, Magritte supported himself through the production of fake Picassos, de Chiricos—a fraudulent repertoire he was to expand into the printing of forged banknotes during the lean postwar period. This venture was undertaken alongside his brother Paul and fellow Surrealist and "surrogate son" Marcel Mariën, to whom had fallen the task of selling the forgeries. At the end of 1948, Magritte returned to the style and themes of his pre-war surrealistic art. In France, Magritte's work has been showcased in a number of retrospective exhibitions, most at the Centre Georges Pompidou. In the United States his work has been featured in three retrospective exhibitions: at the Museum of Modern Art in 1965, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1992, again at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2013. An exhibition entitled "The Fifth Season" at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2018 focused on the work of his years. Politically, Magritte stood to the left, r
Christ Church, Oxford
Christ Church is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Christ Church is a joint foundation of the college and the cathedral of the Oxford diocese, which serves as the college chapel and whose dean is ex officio the college head. Founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII, it is one of the larger colleges of the University of Oxford with 629 students in 2016, it is the second wealthiest college with an endowment of £550m as of 2018. Christ Church has a number of architecturally significant buildings including Tom Tower, Tom Quad, the Great Dining Hall, the seat of the parliament assembled by King Charles I during the English Civil War; the buildings have inspired replicas throughout the world in addition to being featured in films such as Harry Potter and The Golden Compass. This has helped Christ Church become the most popular Oxford college for tourists with half a million visitors annually. Christ Church has many notable alumni including thirteen British prime ministers, King Edward VII, King William II of the Netherlands, seventeen Archbishops, writers Lewis Carroll and W.
H. Auden, philosopher John Locke, scientist Robert Hooke. Christ Church is partly responsible for the creation of University College Reading, which gained its own Royal Charter and became the University of Reading; the first female undergraduates matriculated at Christ Church in 1980. In 1525, at the height of his power, Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor of England and Cardinal Archbishop of York, suppressed the Priory of St Frideswide in Oxford and founded Cardinal College on its lands, using funds from the dissolution of Wallingford Priory and other minor priories, he planned the establishment on a magnificent scale, but fell from grace in 1529, with the buildings only three-quarters complete, as they were to remain for 140 years. In 1531 the college was itself suppressed, but it was refounded in 1532 as King Henry VIII's College by Henry VIII, to whom Wolsey's property had escheated. In 1546 the King, who had broken from the Church of Rome and acquired great wealth through the dissolution of the monasteries in England, refounded the college as Christ Church as part of the reorganisation of the Church of England, making the demolished priory church the cathedral of the created Diocese of Oxford.
Christ Church's sister college in the University of Cambridge is Trinity College, founded the same year by Henry VIII. Since the time of Queen Elizabeth I the college has been associated with Westminster School; the dean remains to ex officio member of the school's governing body. Major additions have been made to the buildings through the centuries, Wolsey's Great Quadrangle was crowned with the famous gate-tower designed by Sir Christopher Wren. To this day the bell in the tower, Great Tom, is rung 101 times at 9 pm at the former Oxford time every night, for the 100 original scholars of the college. In former times this was done at midnight, signalling the close of all college gates throughout Oxford. Since it took 20 minutes to ring the 101, Christ Church gates, unlike those of other colleges, did not close until 12:20; when the ringing was moved back to 9:00 pm, Christ Church gates still remained open until 12.20, 20 minutes than any other college. Although the clock itself now shows GMT/BST, Christ Church still follows Oxford time in the timings of services in the cathedral.
King Charles I made the Deanery his palace and held his Parliament in the Great Hall during the English Civil War. In the evening of 29 May 1645, during the second siege of Oxford, a "bullet of IX lb. weight" shot from the Parliamentarians warning-piece at Marston fell against the wall of the north side of the Hall. Several of Christ Church's deans achieved high academic distinction, notably Owen under the Commonwealth and Fell in the Restoration period and Gaisford in the early 19th century and Liddell in the high Victorian era. For over four centuries Christ Church admitted men only. Christ Church, formally titled "The Dean and Students of the Cathedral Church of Christ in Oxford of the Foundation of King Henry the Eighth", is the only academic institution in the world, a cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of Oxford; the Visitor of Christ Church is the reigning British sovereign, the Bishop of Oxford is unique among English bishops in not being the Visitor of his own cathedral. The head of the college is the Dean of Christ Church, an Anglican cleric appointed by the crown as dean of the cathedral church.
There are a senior and a junior censor the former of whom is responsible for academic matters, the latter for undergraduate discipline. A censor theologiae is appointed to act as the dean's deputy; the form "Christ Church College" is considered incorrect, in part because it ignores the cathedral, an integral part of the unique dual foundation. The governing body of Christ Church consists of the dean and chapter of the cathedral, together with the "Students of Christ Church", who are not junior members but rather the equivalent of the fellows of the other colleges; until the 19th century, the students differed from fellows in that they had no governing powers in their own college, these residing with the dean and chapter. Christ Church si
Kurt Julian Weill was a German Jewish composer, active from the 1920s in his native country, in his years in the United States. He was a leading composer for the stage, best known for his fruitful collaborations with Bertolt Brecht. With Brecht, he developed productions such as his best-known work The Threepenny Opera, which included the ballad "Mack the Knife". Weill held the ideal of writing music that served a useful purpose, he wrote several works for the concert hall. He became a United States citizen on August 27, 1943. Weill was born on the third of four children to Albert Weill and Emma Weill, he grew up in a religious Jewish family in the "Sandvorstadt", the Jewish quarter in Dessau in Saxony, where his father was a cantor. At the age of twelve, Weill started taking piano lessons and made his first attempts at writing music. Jewish Wedding Song. In 1915, Weill started taking private lessons with Albert Bing, Kapellmeister at the "Herzogliches Hoftheater zu Dessau", who taught him piano, music theory, conducting.
Weill performed publicly both as an accompanist and soloist. The following years he composed numerous Lieder to the lyrics of poets such as Joseph von Eichendorff, Arno Holz, Anna Ritter, as well as a cycle of five songs titled Ofrahs Lieder to a German translation of a text by Yehuda Halevi. Weill graduated with an Abitur from the Oberrealschule of Dessau in 1918, enrolled at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik at the age of 18, where he studied composition with Engelbert Humperdinck, conducting with Rudolf Krasselt, counterpoint with Friedrich E. Koch, attended philosophy lectures by Max Dessoir and Ernst Cassirer; the same year, he wrote his first string quartet. Weill's family experienced financial hardship in the aftermath of World War I, in July 1919, Weill abandoned his studies and returned to Dessau, where he was employed as a répétiteur at the Friedrich-Theater under the direction of the new Kapellmeister, Hans Knappertsbusch. During this time, he composed an orchestral suite in E-flat major, a symphonic poem of Rainer Maria Rilke's The Lay of the Love and Death of Cornet Christopher Rilke as well as Schilflieder, a cycle of five songs to poems by Nikolaus Lenau.
In December 1919, through the help of Humperdinck, Weill was appointed as Kapellmeister at the newly founded Stadttheater in Lüdenscheid, where he directed opera and singspiel for five months, composed a cello sonata and Ninon de Lenclos, a now lost one-act operatic adaptation of a play by Ernst Hardt. From May to September 1920, Weill spent a couple of months in Leipzig, where his father had become the new director of a Jewish orphanage. Before he returned to Berlin, in September 1920, he composed Sulamith, a choral fantasy for soprano, female choir, orchestra. Back in Berlin, Weill had an interview with Ferruccio Busoni in December 1920. After examining some of Weill's compositions, Busoni accepted him as one of five master students in composition at the Preußische Akademie der Künste in Berlin. From January 1921 to December 1923, Weill studied music composition with him and counterpoint with Philipp Jarnach in Berlin. During his first year he composed his first symphony, Sinfonie in einem Satz, as well as the lieder Die Bekehrte and two Rilkelieder for voice and piano.
To support his family in Leipzig, he worked as a pianist in a Bierkeller tavern. In 1922, Weill joined the November Group's music faction; that year he composed a psalm, a divertimento for orchestra, Sinfonia Sacra: Fantasia and Hymnus for Orchestra. On November 18, 1922, his children's pantomime Die Zaubernacht premiered at the Theater am Kurfürstendamm. Out of financial need, Weill taught music theory and composition to private students from 1923 to 1925. Among his students were Claudio Arrau, Maurice Abravanel, Heinz Jolles, Nikos Skalkottas. Arrau and Jolles remained members of Weill's circle of friends thereafter, Jolles's sole surviving composition predating the rise of the Nazi regime in 1933 is a fragment of a work for four pianos he and Weill wrote jointly. Weill's compositions during his last year of studies included Quodlibet, an orchestral suite version of Die Zaubernacht, seven medieval poems for soprano, viola, French horn, bassoon, Recordare for choir and children's choir to words from the Book of Lamentations.
Further premieres that year included a performance of his Divertimento for Orchestra by the Berlin Philharmonic under the direction of Heinz Unger on April 10, 1923, the Hindemith-Amar Quartet's rendering of Weill's String Quartet, Op. 8, on June 24, 1923. In December 1923, Weill finished his studies with Busoni. In 1922 he joined the Novembergruppe, a group of leftist Berlin artists that included Hanns Eisler and Stefan Wolpe. In February 1924 the conductor Fritz Busch introduced him to the dramatist Georg Kaiser, with whom Weill would have a long-lasting creative partnership resulting in several one-act operas. At Kaiser's house in Grünheide, Weill first met singer/actress Lotte Lenya in the summer of 1924; the couple were married twice: in 1926 and again in 1937. She took great care to support Weill's work, after his death she took it upon herself to increase awareness of his music, forming the Kurt Weill Foundation. From November 1924 to May 1929, Weill wrote hundreds of reviews for the influential and comprehensive radio program guide Der
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
Mary Jane "Mae" West was an American actress, playwright, screenwriter and sex symbol whose entertainment career spanned seven decades, known for her lighthearted bawdy double entendres and breezy sexual independence. West was active in vaudeville and on the stage in New York City before moving to Hollywood to become a comedian and writer in the motion picture industry, as well as appearing on radio and television; the American Film Institute named her 15th among the greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Using a husky contralto voice, West was one of the more controversial movie stars of her day and encountered many problems censorship, she bucked the system, making comedy out of conventional mores, the Depression-era audience admired her for it. When her cinematic career ended, she wrote books and plays and continued to perform in Las Vegas, in the United Kingdom, on radio and television and to record rock and roll albums, she was once asked about the various efforts to impede her career, to which she replied: "I believe in censorship.
I made a fortune out of it." Mary Jane West was born on August 1893, in Kings County, New York. She was delivered at home by an aunt, a midwife, she was the eldest surviving child of Mathilde "Tillie" Delker. Tillie and her five siblings emigrated with their parents and Christiana Doelger from Bavaria in 1886. West's parents married on January 18, 1889, in Brooklyn, to the pleasure of the groom's parents and the displeasure of the bride's parents and raised their children as Protestants, although John West was of mixed Catholic–Protestant descent and Tillie was of at least partial Jewish descent. West's father was a prizefighter known as "Battlin' Jack West" who worked as a "special policeman" and had his own private investigations agency, her mother was a former fashion model. Her paternal grandmother, Mary Jane, for whom she was named, was of Irish Catholic descent and West's paternal grandfather, John Edwin West, was of English–Scots descent and a ship's rigger, her eldest sibling, died in infancy.
Her other siblings were Mildred Katherine West known as Beverly, John Edwin West II. During her childhood, West's family moved to various parts of Woodhaven, as well as the Williamsburg and Greenpoint neighborhoods of Brooklyn. In Woodhaven, at Neir's Social Hall, West first performed professionally. West was five when she first entertained a crowd at a church social, she started appearing in amateur shows at the age of seven, she won prizes at local talent contests. She began performing professionally in vaudeville in the Hal Clarendon Stock Company in 1907 at the age of 14. West first performed under the stage name "Baby Mae", tried various personas, including a male impersonator, she used the alias "Jane Mast" early in her career. Her trademark walk was said to have been inspired or influenced by female impersonators Bert Savoy and Julian Eltinge, who were famous during the Pansy Craze, her first appearance in a Broadway show was in a 1911 revue A La Broadway put on by her former dancing teacher, Ned Wayburn.
The show folded after eight performances, but at age 18, West was singled out and discovered by The New York Times. The Times reviewer wrote that a "girl named Mae West, hitherto unknown, pleased by her grotesquerie and snappy way of singing and dancing". West next appeared in a show called Vera Violetta. In 1912, she appeared in the opening performance of A Winsome Widow as a "baby vamp" named La Petite Daffy, she was encouraged as a performer by her mother, according to West, always thought that anything Mae did was fantastic. Other family members were less encouraging, including her paternal grandmother, they are all reported as having disapproved of her choices. In 1918, after exiting several high-profile revues, West got her break in the Shubert Brothers revue Sometime, opposite Ed Wynn, her character Mayme danced the shimmy and her photograph appeared on an edition of the sheet music for the popular number "Ev'rybody Shimmies Now". She began writing her own risqué plays using the pen name Jane Mast.
Her first starring role on Broadway was in a 1926 play she entitled Sex, which she wrote and directed. Although conservative critics panned the show, ticket sales were strong; the production did not go over well with city officials, who had received complaints from some religious groups, the theater was raided, with West arrested along with the cast. She was taken to the Jefferson Market Court House, where she was prosecuted on morals charges, on April 19, 1927, was sentenced to 10 days for "corrupting the morals of youth". Though West could have paid a fine and been let off, she chose the jail sentence for the publicity it would garner. While incarcerated on Welfare Island, she dined with his wife. West got great mileage from this jail stint, she served eight days with two days off for "good behavior". Media attention surrounding the incident enhanced her career, by crowning her the darling "bad girl" who "had climbed the ladder of success wrong by wrong", her next play, Th