Lothar Wolleh was a well-known German photographer. Until the end of the sixties, Lothar Wolleh worked as a commercial photographer, he took portraits of international contemporary painters and performance artists. Altogether, he photographed about 109 artists, including known personalities such as Georg Baselitz, Joseph Beuys, Dieter Roth, Jean Tinguely, René Magritte, Günther Uecker, Gerhard Richter, Edward Kienholz, Otto Piene, Niki de Saint Phalle, Christo. Lothar Wolleh was the first of four sons of the single worker Else Martha Wolleh born in Berlin-Wedding, he spent the war years in Berlin. The bombing of the Allies the death of the uncle's family as well as his participation "in the last squad" in the final battle for Berlin in April and May 1945 have left deep psychological traces throughout his life. In the years from 1946 to 1947 he studied "concrete painting" in the elementary school class at the Hochschule für angewandte Kunst in Berlin-Weißensee. From December 1947 to October 1949, he lived in “Boys Town” in Bad Vilbel, a camp run by the US Army for uprooted young Germans, based on the approach of Father Edward J. Flanagan.
A few months after his return to Berlin in July 1950, he was arrested by the Soviet occupying forces and sentenced by a special court "OSO" to 15 years in a forced labor camp for alleged espionage and diversion under Articles 58.6 and 58.9 of the USSR. Until 1956 Wolleh was in the GULAG labor camp Vorkutlag in the USSR, where he did forced labor in a coal mine. Wolleh was able to return to Berlin in 1956, due to Konrad Adenauer's successful negotiations on the return of German prisoners of war; the torture after the arrest and the hard detention and working conditions in coal mining left behind physical damage and post-traumatic disorders. At the same time, the GULAG labor camp Vorkutlag established his first contact with photography and a mythical worship of light. After his return from prison, from 1956 to 1957 Wolleh obtained an education in the Lette-Verein, a continuation school for photography and fashion in Berlin, he took part in a regular monthly recovery program of the World Council of Churches for war-disabled youth.
This program made it possible for him to visit the Swedish island of Gotland in 1958, a motivation for his lifelong strong affinity towards Sweden, its culture and people. From 1962 until his death he worked in Düsseldorf as a freelance photographer, he worked in advertising and turned to his artistic work. In 1964 he married his wife Karin, his son Oliver was born in 1965, his daughter Anouchka in 1966. In 1979 Lothar Wolleh died after an asthma attack in London, his grave is on Gotland. As a freelancer for the advertising agency TEAM, which included Helmut Newton, Wolleh became one of the most famous and expensive fashion and portrait photographers in the Federal Republic of Germany, his clients included well-known companies such as the Deutsche Tchibo or Volkswagen. In 1965 he portrayed Chancellor Ludwig Erhard for the campaign for the general election. In the years 1962 to 1965 Wolleh photographed the Second Vatican Council in Rome. With the help of Father Emil Schmitz SJ, Wolleh's first photo book Das Konzil, II Vatikanisches Konzil published in 1965 by the publisher Belser.
In 1975 he photographed the Jubilee celebration, published the photographic folios Apostolorum Limina. This work, with its blurring, represents a radical evolution of Wolleh´s color photography, as suggested by the first book Das Konzil, II Vatikanisches Konzil. In 1969, Wolleh traveled for several months through the Soviet Union; the photographs taken on this journey found their way into the 1970 illustrated book USSR - The Soviet State and its People, which he published together with Heinrich Böll and Valentin Katajew with Belser publisher. In the late 1960s, at the request of his friend the German painter Günther Uecker, Wolleh began to systematically portray more than one hundred international well known painters and Actionists. From the 1970s Wolleh hardly worked as a commercial photographer and devoted himself exclusively to his series of artist portraits, in which he first photographed the well-known artists of the Düsseldorf scene, including Heinz Mack, Otto Piene, Joseph Beuys and Gerhard Richter.
Soon, his project expanded beyond the borders of the Rhineland to the whole of Europe, focusing on the Zero group or the Nouveau Réalisme with its members like Niki de Saint Phalle and Jean Tinguely. Out of this project several comprehensive photobook-projects evolved: 1970- UdSSR 1972- Art Scene Düsseldorf 1972- Apostolorum Limina 1973- Das Unterwasserbuch Several book and art portfolio projects remained unfinished, so a volume to Lucio Fontana, Jan Schoonhoven, The illustrated book "Men of Management", in which company founders and managers of the leading German companies were portrayed not to be released because of feared attacks by the Red Army faction. Further projects were the underwater book, which Beuys and Wolleh had planned together and created the 51 format-filling pictures for the book; the photographs were taken during the construction of the Beuys exhibition at the Moderna Museet in Stockholm in 1971. Between 1977 and 1979 there were several stays in Poland. In the Wolleh until his death at the unfinished photo volumes The black Madonna of Czestochowa and Wawel Castle worked.
During this time, numerous portraits of the Polish avant-garde emerged. Wolleh's photograph of René Magritte and his wife is said to have inspired Paul Simon to compose the ballad "Rene And Georgette Magritte With Their Dog After The War"
Smithsonian American Art Museum
The Smithsonian American Art Museum is a museum in Washington, D. C. part of the Smithsonian Institution. Together with its branch museum, the Renwick Gallery, SAAM holds one of the world's largest and most inclusive collections of art, from the colonial period to the present, made in the United States; the museum has more than 7,000 artists represented in the collection. Most exhibitions take place in the museum's main building, the old Patent Office Building, while craft-focused exhibitions are shown in the Renwick Gallery; the museum provides electronic resources to schools and the public through its national education program. It maintains seven online research databases with more than 500,000 records, including the Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture that document more than 400,000 artworks in public and private collections worldwide. Since 1951, the museum has maintained a traveling exhibition program; the Smithsonian American Art Museum has had many names over the years—Smithsonian Art Collection, National Gallery of Art, National Collection of Fine Arts, National Museum of American Art.
The museum adopted its current name in October 2000. The collection, begun in 1829, was first on display in the original Smithsonian Building, now nicknamed the "Castle"; the collection grew as the Smithsonian buildings grew, the collection was housed in one or more Smithsonian buildings on the National Mall. By the 1920s, space had become critical: "Collections to the value of several millions of dollars are in storage or temporarily on exhibition and are crowding out important exhibits and producing a congested condition in the Natural History, Industrial Arts, Smithsonian Buildings". In 1924, architect Charles A. Platt – who designed the 1918 Freer Gallery for the Smithsonian – drew up preliminary plans for a National Gallery of Art to be built on the block next to the Natural History Museum. However, this building was never constructed; the Smithsonian American Art Museum first opened to the public in its current location in 1968 when the Smithsonian renovated the Old Patent Office Building in order to display its collection of fine art.
American Art's main building, the Old Patent Office Building, is a National Historic Landmark located in Washington, D. C.'s downtown cultural district. It is considered an example of Greek Revival architecture in the United States, it was designed by architects Robert Mills, Thomas U. Walter. During the 1990s, the Smithsonian Institution worked on restoring the building; the Smithsonian completed another renovation of the building in July 1, 2006. The 2000-2006 renovation restored many of the building’s exceptional architectural features: restoring the porticos modeled after the Parthenon in Athens, a curving double staircase, vaulted galleries, large windows, skylights as long as a city block. During the renovation, the Lunder Conservation Center, the Luce Foundation Center for American Art, Nan Tucker McEvoy Auditorium, the Robert and Arlene Kogod Courtyard were added to the building. In 2008, the American Alliance of Museums awarded reaccreditation to the Smithsonian American Art Museum; the Smithsonian American Art Museum shares the historic Old Patent Office building with the National Portrait Gallery, another Smithsonian museum.
Although the two museums' names have not changed, they are collectively known as the Donald W. Reynolds Center for American Art and Portraiture. Under the auspices of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, the Renwick Gallery is a smaller, historic building on Pennsylvania Avenue across the street from the White House; the building housed the collection of the Corcoran Gallery of Art. In addition to displaying a large collection of American contemporary craft, several hundred paintings from the museum’s permanent collection — hung salon style: one-atop-another and side-by-side — are featured in special installations in the Grand Salon. Part of the Smithsonian Institution, the museum has a broad variety of American art, with more than 7,000 artists represented, that covers all regions and art movements found in the United States. SAAM contains the world's largest collection of New Deal art. Among the significant artists represented in its collection are Nam June Paik, Jenny Holzer, David Hockney, Georgia O'Keeffe, John Singer Sargent, Albert Pinkham Ryder, Albert Bierstadt, Edmonia Lewis, Thomas Moran, James Gill, Edward Hopper, John William "Uncle Jack" Dey, Karen LaMonte and Winslow Homer.
SAAM describes itself as being "dedicated to collecting and enjoying American art. The museum celebrates the extraordinary creativity of artists whose works reflect the American experience and global connections." The American Art's main building contains public spaces. The museum has two innovative public spaces; the Luce Foundation Center for American Art is a visible art storage and study center, which allows visitors to browse more than 3,300 works of the collection. The Lunder Conservation Center is "the first art conservation facility to allow the public permanent behind-the-scenes views of the preservation work of museums"; the Luce Foundation Center, which opened in July 2000, is the first visible art storage and study center in Washington, D. C. and the fourth center to bear the Luce Family
Documenta is an exhibition of contemporary art which takes place every five years in Kassel, Germany. It was founded by artist and curator Arnold Bode in 1955 as part of the Bundesgartenschau which took place in Kassel at that time, was an attempt to bring Germany up to speed with modern art, both banishing and repressing the cultural darkness of Nazism; this first documenta featured many artists who are considered to have had a significant influence on modern art. The more recent documentas feature art from all continents; every documenta is limited to 100 days of exhibition, why it is referred to as the "museum of 100 days". Documenta is not a selling exhibition, it coincides with the three other major art world events: the Venice Biennale, Art Basel and Skulptur Projekte Münster, but in 2017, all four were open simultaneously. The name of the exhibition is an invented word; the term is supposed to demonstrate the intention of every exhibition to be a documentation of modern art, not available for the German public during the Nazi era.
Rumour spread from those close to Arnold Bode that it was relevant for the coinage of the term that the Latin word documentum could be separated into docere and mens and therefore thought it to be a good word to describe the intention and the demand of the documenta. Each edition of documenta has commissioned its own visual identity, most of which have conformed to the typographic style of using lowercase letters, which originated at the Bauhaus. Art professor and designer Arnold Bode from Kassel was the initiator of the first documenta. Planned as a secondary event to accompany the Bundesgartenschau, this attracted more than 130,000 visitors in 1955; the exhibition centred less on "contemporary art“, art made after 1945: instead, Bode wanted to show the public works, known as "Entartete Kunst" in Germany during the Nazi era: Fauvism, Cubism, Blauer Reiter and Pittura Metafisica. Therefore, abstract art, in particular the abstract paintings of the 1920s and 1930s, was the focus of interest in this exhibition.
Over time, the focus shifted to contemporary art. At first, the show was limited to works from Europe, but soon covered works by artists from the Americas and Asia. 4. Documenta, the first to turn a profit, featured a selection of Pop Art, Minimal Art, Kinetic Art. Adopting the theme of Questioning Reality – Pictorial Worlds Today, the 1972 documenta radically redefined what could be considered art by featuring minimal and conceptual art, marking a turning point in the public acceptance of those styles, it devoted a large section to the work of Adolf Wolfli, the great Swiss outsider unknown. Joseph Beuys performed under the auspices of his utopian Organization for Direct Democracy. Additionally, the 1987 documenta show signaled another important shift with the elevation of design to the realm of art – showing an openness to postmodern design. Certain key political dates for wide-reaching social and cultural upheavals, such as 1945, 1968 or 1976/77, became chronological markers of documenta X, along which art's political, social and aesthetic exploratory functions were traced.
Documenta11 was organized around themes like migration and the post-colonial experience, with documentary photography and video as well as works from far-flung locales holding the spotlight. In 2012, documenta was described as "rdently feminist and multimedia in approach and including works by dead artists and selected bits of ancient art". Documenta gives its artists at least two years to conceive and produce their projects, so the works are elaborate and intellectually complex. However, the participants are not publicised before the opening of the exhibition. At documenta, the official list of artists was not released until the day. Though curators have claimed to have gone outside the art market in their selection, participants have always included established artists. In the documenta, for example, art critic Jerry Saltz identified more than a third of the artists represented by the renowned Marian Goodman Gallery in the show; the first four documentas, organized by Arnold Bode, established the exhibition's international credentials.
Since the fifth documenta, a new artistic director has been named for each documenta exhibition by a committee of experts. Documenta 8 was put together in two years instead of the usual five; the original directors, Edy de Wilde and Harald Szeemann, stepped down. They were replaced by Manfred Schneckenburger, Edward F. Fry, Wulf Herzogenrath, Armin Zweite, Vittorio Fagone. Coosje van Bruggen helped select artists for the 1982 edition. Documenta IX's team of curators consisted of Jan Hoet, Piero Luigi Tazzi, Denys Zacharopoulos, Bart de Baere. For documenta X Catherine David was chosen as the first woman and the first non-German speaker to hold the post, it is the first and unique time that its website Documenta x was conceived by a curator as a part of the exhibition. The first non-European director was Okwui Enwezor for Documenta11; the salary for the artistic director of documenta is around €100,000 a year. 2012's edition was organized around a central node, the trans-Atlantic melding of two distinct individuals who first encountered each other in the "money-soaked deserts of the United Arab Emirates".
As an organizing principle it is a commentary on the romantic potentials of glob
Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam
The Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, colloquially known as the Stedelijk, is a museum for modern art, contemporary art, design located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The 19th century building was designed by Adriaan Willem Weissman and the 21st century wing with the current entrance was designed by Benthem Crouwel Architects, it is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, where it is close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Rijksmuseum, the Concertgebouw. The collection comprises modern and contemporary art and design from the early 20th century up to the 21st century, it features artists such as Vincent van Gogh, Wassily Kandinsky, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Marc Chagall, Henri Matisse, Jackson Pollock, Karel Appel, Andy Warhol, Willem de Kooning, Marlene Dumas, Lucio Fontana, Gilbert & George. In 2015, the museum had an estimated 675,000 visitors; the Stedelijk Museum, opened on 14 September 1895 as an initiative of the local authority and private individuals. The Dutch Neo-Renaissance style museum building was designed by Dutch architect Adriaan Willem Weissman as part of a modernization project spearheaded by local citizens starting in 1850.
The construction of the building was funded in 1890 by Sophia Adriana de Bruyn. It was built under the Vereeniging tot het Vormen van een Verzameling van Hedendaagsche Kunst, founded in 1874, to house de Bruyn's collection of art and antiques that she donated to the city along with a considerable sum of money; the Van Eeghen family contributed to the construction costs and donated paintings from the collection of Christiaan Pieter van Eeghen. The building was constructed between 1891 and 1895 at Paulus Potterstraat, a short walking distance from the Rijksmuseum; the museum's original collection included militaria of the Amsterdam militia, Asiatic art, artifacts from the Museum of Chronometry and the Medical-Pharmaceutical Museum. In 1905, Cornelis Baard was appointed curator of the Stedelijk and promoted to museum director in 1920. During his time as curator, the local authority began building its own collection of modern art; the Great Depression in the Netherlands led to municipal cutbacks and an increased need for policy reviews in the first half of the 1930s.
In 1932, a purchasing committee was established with two members from the VVHK and two from the local authority. These four figures oversaw all art purchases for the museum, notably works of Hague and Amsterdam Impressionism and pieces by international contemporaries; the museum began acquiring art in 1930. In 1933, M. B. B. Nijkerk's collection of books came to the Stedelijk, expanded to include aesthetic book design and typography; the Museum of Applied Art opened on the ground floor of the west wing on 15 December 1934. This collection included furniture, glass and china, graphic design and posters, small sculptures and masks, batik and stained glass with an emphasis on Dutch work from around the turn of the century. In 1936, David Röell, who had worked at the Rijksmuseum and was secretary of the VVHK, took over as museum director. Röell appointed Willem Sandberg as the new curator in January 1938. Sandberg took over as director of the museum in 1945. By 1962, the VVHK handed over most of its collection, including works by George Hendrik Breitner, Paul Cézanne, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet, Vincent van Gogh, Johan Jongkind.
Under the direction of Sandberg, the Stedelijk started a department of applied art in 1945 and a department of prints and drawings in 1954. At the start of 1950, the Stedelijk began to present modern music and films; the annex known as the Sandberg Wing was built in 1954 to accommodate experimental art. By 1956, a reading room, print room, a museum restaurant and garden, a new auditorium for film screenings and musical performances was added. Sandberg acquired a group of works by Russian artist Kazimir Malevich in 1958. In the same year, Sandberg began acquiring photography for the museum's collection; the collection includes seminal photographers of both the Dutch and international avant-garde in the interbellum period, an extensive selection of post-war Dutch photographers, artist portraits and autonomous fine art photography from the 1970s onward. During World War II, the Stedelijk collection and that of the Amsterdam Museum were transferred for safekeeping to a bunker in the sand-hills near Santpoort.
Museum staff took. Sandberg only just managed to evade arrest. Despite the upheavals of war, the Stedelijk continued to hold exhibitions. Works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Henri Matisse were added to the collection at the end of the 1940s and 1950s. During this time, the Stedelijk acquired artworks by De Stijl and related international movements such as Russian Constructivism and Bauhaus. Edy de Wilde, who had run the Van Abbe Museum in Eindhoven, took over as director from 1963 to 1985, he began the first collection of American contemporary art at the Stedelijk. Under his direction, in 1971, debates about the museum's social and educational functions sparked the formation of a communications department. In the early 1970s, the museum made its first acquisitions of video art by European artists including Dibbets and Gilbert & George. Today, the collection of video art contains around 900 works an
Outsider art is art by self-taught or naïve art makers. Those labeled as outsider artists have little or no contact with the mainstream art world or art institutions. In many cases, their work is discovered only after their deaths. Outsider art illustrates extreme mental states, unconventional ideas, or elaborate fantasy worlds; the term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut, a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture. Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category; the term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people who are outside the mainstream "art world" or "art gallery system", regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work. A more specific term, "outsider music", was adapted for musicians. Interest in the art of the mentally ill, along with that of children and the makers of "peasant art", was first demonstrated by "Der Blaue Reiter" group: Wassily Kandinsky, Auguste Macke, Franz Marc, Alexej Jawlensky, others.
What the artists perceived in the work of these groups was an expressive power born of their perceived lack of sophistication. Examples of this were reproduced in 1912 in the first and only issue of their publication, Der Blaue Reiter Almanac. During World War I, Macke was killed at Champagne in 1914 and Marc was killed at Verdun in 1916. Interest in the art of insane asylum inmates continued to grow in the 1920s. In 1921, Dr. Walter Morgenthaler published his book Ein Geisteskranker als Künstler about Adolf Wölfli, a psychotic mental patient in his care. Wölfli had spontaneously taken up drawing, this activity seemed to calm him, his most outstanding work was an illustrated epic of 45 volumes in which he narrated his own imaginary life story. With 25,000 pages, 1,600 illustrations, 1,500 collages, it is a monumental work. Wölfli produced a large number of smaller works, some of which were sold or given as gifts, his work is on display at the Adolf Wölfli Foundation in the Museum of Bern. A defining moment was the publication of Bildnerei der Geisteskranken in 1922, by Dr. Hans Prinzhorn.
This was the first formal study of psychiatric works, based upon a compilation of thousands of examples from European institutions. The book and the art collection gained much attention from avant-garde artists of the time, including Paul Klee, Max Ernst, Jean Dubuffet. People with some formal artistic training as well as well-established artists are not immune from mental illness, may be institutionalized. For example, William Kurelek awarded the Order of Canada for his artistic life work, as a young man was admitted to the Maudsley Psychiatric Hospital where he was treated for schizophrenia. In hospital he painted, producing a dark depiction of his tortured youth, he was transferred from the Maudsley to Netherne Hospital from November 1953 to January 1955, to work with Edward Adamson, a pioneer of art therapy, creator of the Adamson Collection. French artist Jean Dubuffet was struck by Bildnerei der Geisteskranken and began his own collection of such art, which he called art brut or raw art.
In 1948 he formed the Compagnie de l'Art Brut along including André Breton. The collection he established became known as the Collection de l'art brut, it is now permanently housed in Lausanne, Switzerland. Dubuffet characterized art brut as: "Those works created from solitude and from pure and authentic creative impulses – where the worries of competition and social promotion do not interfere – are, because of these facts, more precious than the productions of professionals. After a certain familiarity with these flourishings of an exalted feverishness, lived so and so intensely by their authors, we cannot avoid the feeling that in relation to these works, cultural art in its entirety appears to be the game of a futile society, a fallacious parade." — Jean Dubuffet. Place à l'incivisme. Art and Text no.27. P.36 Dubuffet's writing on art brut was the subject of a noted program at the Art Club of Chicago in the early 1950s. Dubuffet argued that'culture', mainstream culture, managed to assimilate every new development in art, by doing so took away whatever power it might have had.
The result was to asphyxiate genuine expression. Art brut was his solution to this problem – only art brut was immune to the influences of culture, immune to being absorbed and assimilated, because the artists themselves were not willing or able to be assimilated; the interest in "outsider" practices among twentieth-century artists and critics can be seen as part of a larger emphasis on the rejection of established values within the modernist art milieu. The early part of the 20th century gave rise to Cubism and the Dada and Futurist movements in art, all of which involved a dramatic movement away from cultural forms of the past. Dadaist Marcel Duchamp, for example, abandoned "painterly" technique to allow chance operations a role in determining the form of his works, or to re-contextualize existing "readymade" objects as art. Mid
The Volksempfänger was a range of radio receivers developed by engineer Otto Griessing at the request of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. The purpose of the Volksempfänger-program was to make radio reception technology affordable to the general public. Joseph Goebbels realized the great propaganda potential of this new medium and thus considered widespread availability of receivers important; the original Volksempfänger VE301 model was presented on August 18, 1933, at the 10. Große Deutsche Funkausstellung in Berlin; the VE301 was available at a affordable price of 76 German Reichsmark, a cheaper 35 Reichsmark model, the DKE38 fitted with a multisection tube, was later produced, along with a series of other models under the Volksempfänger, Gemeinschaftsempfänger, KdF, DKE and other brands. The Volksempfänger was designed to be produced as cheaply as possible, as a consequence they lacked shortwave bands and did not follow the practice, common at the time, of marking the approximate dial positions of major European stations on its tuning scale.
Only German and Austrian stations were marked and cheaper models only listed arbitrary numbers. Sensitivity was limited to reduce production costs further, so long as the set could receive Deutschlandsender and the local Reichssender it was considered sensitive enough, although foreign stations could be received after dark with an external antenna as stations such as the BBC European service increased transmission power during the course of the war. Listening to foreign stations became a criminal offence in Nazi Germany when the war began, while in some occupied territories, such as Poland, all radio listening by non-German citizens was outlawed. Penalties ranged from fines and confiscation of radios to later in the war, sentencing to a concentration camp or capital punishment; such clandestine listening was widespread in many Nazi-occupied countries and in Germany itself. The Germans attempted radio jamming of some enemy stations with limited success. Much has been said about the efficiency of the Volksempfänger as a propaganda tool.
Most famously, Hitler's architect and Minister for Armaments and War Production, Albert Speer, said in his final speech at the Nuremberg trials: The Volksempfänger "people's radio" concept has been compared to the Utility Radio or "Civilian Receiver" produced by Britain between 1944 and 1945. Unlike the Volksempfänger, the Utility Radio was produced to remedy a shortage of consumer radio sets caused by the British radio industry's switch from civilian to military radio production; these Utility Radios followed a standardized and government approved design, were built by a consortium of manufacturers using standard components. The album Radio-Activity, released in 1975, by German electronic music pioneers Kraftwerk prominently features a Volksempfänger, of the DKE brand, on its cover. German band Welle: Erdball has produced a song entitled Volksempfänger VE-301, which first appeared on their Die Wunderwelt der Technik album of 2002. While living in Berlin in the 1970s, the American artist Edward Kienholz produced a series of works entitled'Volksempfänger', using old radios, which at the time could be purchased cheaply at Berlin flea markets, a consequence of the large numbers, produced in the pre-war years.
Propaganda Freedom of information Censorship Utility Radio Volksflugzeug Diller, Ansgar. "Der Volksempfänger. Propaganda- und Wirtschaftsfaktor". Mitteilungen des Studienkreises Rundfunk und Geschichte. 9: 140–157. Hensle, Michael P.. Rundfunkverbrechen. Das Hören von "Feindsendern" im Nationalsozialismus. Berlin: Metropol. ISBN 3-936411-05-0. König, Wolfgang. "Der Volksempfänger und die Radioindustrie. Ein Beitrag zum Verhältnis von Wirtschaft und Politik im Nationalsozialismus". Vierteljahreshefte für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte. 90: 269–289. König, Wolfgang. "Mythen um den Volksempfänger. Revisionistische Untersuchungen zur nationalsozialistischen Rundfunkpolitik". Technikgeschichte. 70: 73–102. König, Wolfgang. Volkswagen, Volksempfänger, Volksgemeinschaft. "Volksprodukte" im Dritten Reich: Vom Scheitern einer nationalsozialistischen Konsumgesellschaft. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh. ISBN 3-506-71733-2. Latour, Conrad F.. "Goebbels' "außerordentliche Rundfunkmaßnahmen" 1939–1942". Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte.
11: 418–435. Mühlenfeld, Daniel. "Joseph Goebbels und die Grundlagen der NS-Rundfunkpolitik". Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft. 54: 442–467. Schmidt, Uta C.. "Der Volksempfänger. Tabernakel moderner Massenkultur". In Marßolek, Inge. Radiozeiten. Herrschaft, Gesellschaft. Potsdam: Vlg. f. Berlin-Brandenburg. Pp. 136–159. ISBN 3-932981-44-8. Steiner, Kilian J. L.. Ortsempfänger, Volksfernseher und Optaphon. Entwicklung der deutschen Radio- und Fernsehindustrie und das Unternehmen Loewe 1923–1962. Essen: Klartext Vlg. ISBN 3-89861-492-1. Volksempfänger schematics, various models Radiomuseum Fürth Antique Radio Transdiffusion Radiomusications "Hitlers Radio" Volksempfängers, various models, pictures "VE 301, DKE38, DAF 1011" Gray and Black Radio Propaganda against Nazi Germany Extensively illustrated paper describes the Volkse
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s