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Edward Lhuyd

Edward Lhuyd was a Welsh naturalist, linguist and antiquary. He is known by the Latinized form Eduardus Luidius. Lhuyd was born in Loppington, the illegitimate son of Edward Lloyd of Llanforda and Bridget Pryse of Llansantffraid, near Talybont, Cardiganshire, he attended and taught at Oswestry Grammar School. His family belonged to the gentry of south-west Wales. Though well-established, the family was not well-off, his father experimented with agriculture and industry in a manner that brought him into contact with the new science of the day. Lhuyd attended grammar school in Oswestry and went up to Jesus College, Oxford in 1682, but dropped out before graduation. In 1684, he was appointed assistant to Robert Plot, the Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum and replaced him as Keeper in 1690, holding the post until his death in 1709. While at the Ashmolean, he travelled extensively. A visit to Snowdonia in 1688 allowed him to construct for John Ray's Synopsis Methodica Stirpium Britannicorum a list of flora local for that region.

After 1697, Lhuyd visited every county in Wales travelled to Scotland, Ireland and Brittany and the Isle of Man. In 1699, financial aid from his friend Isaac Newton allowed him to publish Lithophylacii Britannici Ichnographia, a catalogue of fossils collected around England Oxford, now held in the Ashmolean. In 1701, Lhuyd received a MA honoris causa from the University of Oxford, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1708, he was responsible for the first scientific description and naming of what we would now recognize as a dinosaur: the sauropod tooth Rutellum implicatum. In the late 17th century, Lhuyd was contacted by a group of scholars, led by John Keigwin of Mousehole, who were trying to preserve and further the Cornish language, he accepted their invitation to travel there to study it. Early Modern Cornish was the subject of a paper published by Lhuyd in 1702. In 1707, having been assisted in his research by fellow Welsh scholar Moses Williams, he published the first volume of Archaeologia Britannica: an Account of the Languages and Customs of Great Britain, from Travels through Wales, Bas-Bretagne and Scotland.

This is an important source for its linguistic description of Cornish, but more so for its understanding of historical linguistics. Some of the ideas attributed to linguists of the 19th century have their roots in this work by Lhuyd, "considerably more sophisticated in his methods and perceptions than Jones". Lhuyd noted the similarity between the two linguistic families: P -- Celtic, he argued that the Brythonic languages originated in Gaul, the Goidelic languages in the Iberian Peninsula. He concluded that as the languages were of the people who spoke them were Celts. From the 18th century, the peoples of Brittany, Ireland, Isle of Man and Wales were known as Celts, are regarded to this day as the modern Celtic nations. During his travels, Lhuyd developed asthma, which led to his death from pleurisy in Oxford in 1709; the Snowdon lily was for a time called Lloydia serotina after Lhuyd. Cymdeithas Edward Llwyd, the National Naturalists' Society of Wales, is named after him. On 9 June 2001, a bronze bust of Lhuyd was unveiled by Dafydd Wigley, the former leader of Plaid Cymru, outside the University of Wales's Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies in Aberystwyth, adjacent to the National Library of Wales.

The sculptor was John Meirion Morris. Delair, Justin B. and William A. S. Sarjeant. "The earliest discoveries of dinosaurs: the records re-examined." Proceedings of the Geologists' Association 113: 185–197 Emery, Frank. Edward Lhuyd. 1971 Evans, Dewi W. and Brynley F. Roberts Archæologia Britannica: Texts and Translations. Celtic Studies Publications 10. 2007. Description Gunther, R. T; the Life and Letters of Edward Lhuyd. 1945 Roberts, Brynley F. Edward Lhuyd, the Making of a Scientist. 1980 Williams, Derek R. Prying into every hole and corner: Edward Lhuyd in Cornwall in 1700. 1993 Williams, Derek R. Edward Lhuyd, 1660–1709: A Shropshire Welshman. 2009 "Never at rest" A biography of Isaac Newton by Richard S. Westfall ISBN 0521274354 581 pp. Archaeologia Britannica. Downloadable pdf at The Internet Archive Biography of Edward Lhuyd from the Canolfan Edward Llwyd, a centre for the study of science through Welsh Lithophylacii Britannici ichnographia – full digital facsimile from Linda Hall Library

Bangalore (1792 ship)

Bangalore was built at Calcutta in 1792 and took on British registry in 1797 after having made a voyage from Bengal to London under charter to the British East India Company. She traded between London and India, she was wrecked in 1802 in the Flores Sea. On 20 August 1792 Bangalore was under the command of Captain Wilson when a heavy gale drove her across the tail of the Saugor Sand. Charts that described water depths enabled Wilson to navigate into Channel Creek and to safety in Randall's Cove. Under the command of Captain James Frayer, Bangalore was at Calcutta on 15 February 1796 and left Bengal on 22 March, she reached Saint Helena on 4 July and Crookhaven on 27 November, before arriving at Blackwall on 17 December. Bangalore was admitted to the Registry of Great Britain on 17 February 1797, she enters Lloyd's Register in 1798 with J. Friar and Tullock, owner. One record has Bangalore sailing to Bengal and return between 16 January 1797 and 19 December 1798; the New Oriental Register... in 1802 gave her owner as Francis Lynch.

Bangalore wrecked on 12 April 1802. She was nine days out from Amboyna. Survivors in the pinnace and jolly boats reached Sourabaya; the Dutch received them kindly and sent them on to Batavia. The wreck may have occurred on "Jagger's Reef" around 7°40′S 121°13′E in the Flores Sea. Although the wrecking occurred in 1802, Lloyd's Register carried an entry for her to 1805, the Register of Shipping did so to 1806. Notes Citations References Bowditch, Nathaniel The New American Practical Navigator... Exemplified in a Journal Kept from Boston to Madeira...: With an Appendix..... Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7. Mason, Herbert B. ed. Encyclopaedia of Ships and Shipping.. New Oriental Register and East India Directory for 1802.. Phipps, John, A Collection of Papers Relative to Ship Building in India...: Also a Register Comprehending All the Ships... Built in India to the Present Time..... Select Committee on Petitions Relating to East-India-Built Shipping, House of Commons, Parliament of Great Britain Minutes of the Evidence Taken Before the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Petitions Relating to East-India-built Shipping


"Ísjaki" is a song written and recorded by Icelandic post-rock band Sigur Rós for their seventh studio album Kveikur. It appears as the third track on the album. "Ísjaki" was released to Icelandic contemporary hit radio as a promotional single from Kveikur on April 24, 2013. It was released early on the Kveikur album listing on iTunes on April 25, 2013. A lyric video for the song was released on April 24, 2013. Adapted from Kveikur liner notes. Sigur RósJón Þór Birgisson – vocals, guitar Georg Hólmbass Orri Páll Dýrason – drumsAdditional musiciansEiríkur Orri Ólafsson - brass arrangement Daníel Bjarnason - string arrangement Sigrún Jónsdóttir - brass Eiríkur Orri Ólafsson - brass Bergrún Snæbjörnsdóttir - brass Borgar Magnason - strings Margrét Árnadóttir - strings Pálína Árnadóttir - strings Una Sveinbjarnardóttir - strings Þórunn Ósk Marinósdóttir - stringsAdditional personnelTed Jensen - mastering Rich Costey - mixing Alex Somers - mixing, recording Elisabeth Carlsson - assistant mixing Eric Isip - assistant mixing Chris Kasych - assistant mixing Laura Sisk - assistant mixing Birgir Jón Birgisson - recording Valgeir Sigurdsson - recording

Woodbridge, Tasmania

Woodbridge is a town in southern Tasmania, Australia 38 kilometres south of the state capital, Hobart. Named Peppermint Bay, it is located on the D'Entrecasteaux Channel. First European settlement was in 1847. Peppermint Bay Post Office opened on May 15, 1854 and the town was renamed Woodbridge in 1881. At the 2006 census, Woodbridge had a population of 271. Richard Deodatus Poulett-Harris - educationalist Lily Poulett-Harris - founder of women's cricket in Australia Henry Vere Poulett-Harris - Tasmanian and Western Australian State-level cricketer Woodbridge School


This article is about the ancient site and holy tree north of historical Hebron. For the Russian Orthodox monastery at Hebron and the ancient tree within, see Abraham's Oak Holy Trinity Monastery and Oak of MamreMamre, full Hebrew name Elonei Mamre, refers to an ancient cultic shrine focused on a single holy tree, belonging to Canaan, Talmudic sources refer to the site as Beth Ilanim or Botnah, where it was one of the three most important "fairs", or market places, in Judea. Mamre lies halfway between Halhul and historical Hebron, 4 kilometres north of the latter. Genesis 13:18 has Abraham settling by'the great trees of Mamre'; the original Hebrew tradition appears, to judge from a textual variation conserved in the Septuagint, to have referred to a single great oak tree, which Josephus called Ogyges. Mamre may have been a tribal chieftain after whom a grove of trees was named. Genesis connected it with Hebron or a place nearby that city. Mamre has been associated with the Cave of the Patriarchs.

According to one scholar, there is considerable confusion in the Biblical narrative concerning not only Mamre, but Machpelah and Kiryat Arba, all four of which are aligned repeatedly. In Genesis, Mamre is identified with Hebron itself; the tradition of identifying the unwalled ruins of what Arabic tradition records called Rāmet el-Ḥalīl, with the Old Testament Mamre goes back to the earliest Christian pilgrims in the 4th century CE. Elsewhere it is called'the Terebinths of Mamre the Amorite'. Mamre being the name of one of the three Amorite chiefs who joined forces with those of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer to save Lot; the supposed discrepancy is explained as reflecting the discordance between the different scribal traditions behind the composition of the Pentateuch, the former relating to the Yahwist, the latter to the Elohist recension, according to the documentary hypothesis of modern scholarship. The exact site of Mamre, mention of, made only in Book of Genesis, as well as Book of Pseudo-Jasher Chapter 13, is not clear.

Ramat el-Khalil, in one interpretation of the biblical account, was the Mamre site where Abraham pitched the tents for his camp, built an altar, was brought divine tidings, in the guise of three angels, of Sarah's pregnancy,Khirbet es-Sibte, the present-day site of the Oak of Mamre, two kilometres southwest of Ramat el-Khalil, has been considered since the 19th century as the place where Abraham pitched his tents and saw the angels. Bronze age pottery shards found at the Ramat el-Khalil site may indicate that the cultic shrine was in use from 2600-2000 BCE, though there is no archaeological evidence for the site being occupied from the first half of the second millennium down to the end of the Iron Age. Josephus' terebinth tree is distinct from the modern Oak of Mamre and stands at a different locationJosephus records a tradition according to which the terebinth at Mamre was as old as the world itself; the site was soaked in legend. Jews and Pagans made sacrifices on the site, burning animals, the tree was considered immune to the flames of the sacrifices.

Constantine the Great was still attempting, without success. The 2 m thick stone wall enclosing area 60 m wide and 83 m long was constructed by Herod the Great as a cultic place of worship, it contained more than 5 m in diameter, referred to as Abraham's Well. The Herodian structure was destroyed by Simon bar Kokhba's army, only to be rebuilt by the Roman emperor Hadrian. Hadrian revived the fair, which had long been an important one as it took place at an intersection forming the transport and communications nub of the southern Judean mountains; this mercatus or "fair, market" was one of the sites, according to a Jewish tradition conserved in Jerome, chosen by Hadrian to sell remnants of Bar Kochba's defeated army into slavery. Due to the idolatrous nature of the rituals at the fair, Jews were forbidden to participate by their rabbis. According to the Jerusalem Talmud: They prohibited a fair only in the case of one of the character of that at Botnah; as it has been taught along these same lines in a Tannaitic tradition.

There are three fairs, the fair at Gaza, the fair at Acre, the fair at Botnah, the most debased of the lot of them is the fair of Botnah. Notwithstanding the rabbinic ban, by the time of Constantine the Great's reign, the market had become an informal interdenominational festival, in addition to its functions as a trade fair, frequented by Christians and pagans; the cultic shrine was made over for Christian use after Eutropia, Constantine's mother-in-law, visited it and was scandalised by its pagan character. Constantine, informed of these pagan practices, attempted without success to put an end to the festive rituals celebrated about the tree, he banned the pagan practices. The enclosure was consecrated, Constantine had a basilica built, dedicated to Saint George and the enclosure of the Terebinth of Mamre roofed over, the foundations of which are still visible; the 1957 plan and reconstruction of the site made after the excavation performed by German scholar A. E. Mader in 1926-1928, shows the Constantinian basilica along the eastern wall of the Haram Ramet el-Khalil enclosure, with a well and tree in the unroofed western part of the enclosure.

The venerated tree was destroyed by Christian visitors taking souvenirs, leaving only a stump which survived down to the seventh century. The fifth-century account by Sozomen is the most detai

Plaza del Caribe

Plaza del Caribe is an enclosed shopping mall located in Ponce, Puerto Rico. It is owned by Empresas Fonalledas and it is the largest mall in southern Puerto Rico; the mall is located at the intersection of Puerto Rico Highway 2 and Highway 12. The anchor stores are JCPenney, Macy's, Sears; the mall opened on September 11, 1992. At the time it had 140 stores and was anchored by three major department stores: Sears, J. C. Penney, Gonzalez Padin; this last one was in the mall until the company went bankrupt in 1995. The mall had a 6-screen cinema in the area of the food court. A freestanding Circuit City operated at the mall for a brief time in the mid to late 2000s but closed after the company went bankrupt, it was replaced by a CompUSA that also closed down. The space was occupied by TigerDirect until 2015. During the 2010 holiday season, the in-mall 6-screen cinema was replaced by a new 10-screen Caribbean Cinemas multiplex located on the mall property but physically detached from the main mall structure.

It is located south of the main mall complex on a lot bounded on the south by Autopista Luis A. Ferre. In late 2012, the mall began an expansion project increasing the number of restaurants in its food court from 13 to 18 establishments. A $2+ million P. F. Chang's opened on 13 May 2013; the 7,400 square feet structure has a capacity for 268 patrons. In the fall of 2013, LongHorn Steakhouse opened a restaurant in the mall. Sports Authority opened a store at this mall, its first one in Puerto Rico, in the fall of 2013; as of September 2014, Macy's was in the process of building a store at this location at a cost of $23 million. The enlarged 155,000 sf Macy's store opened in Fall 2015 and it will anchor a new concourse along with 19 new stores. After the 2015 renovation, the entire mall was renovated including new stores such as Victoria's Secret and Bath and Body Works. An annual artisans' fair is held at Plaza del Caribe showcasing wood-working handcrafted items, local music. On November 7, 2019, it was announced that Sears would be closing this location a part of a plan to close 96 stores nationwide.

The store will close in February 2020, leaving the mall with JCPenney & Macy's s their two main anchor stores. Plaza del Caribe is notable for its sophisticated design, featuring artwork scattered throughout the mall in its central atrium. Exterior entrances provide access to both its second floors. Jaime Fonalledas Plaza Las Americas Plaza del Caribe homepage