Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Salem is a historic coastal city in Essex County, located in the North Shore region. It is a New England bedrock of history and is considered one of the most significant seaports in Puritan American history; the city is home to the House of Seven Gables, Salem State University, the headquarters of The Satanic Temple, Salem Willows, Pioneer Village, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, the Peabody Essex Museum. It features historic residential neighborhoods in the Federal Street District and the Charter Street Historic District. Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, Downtown Salem District, the Point, South Salem, North Salem, Blubber Hollow, Witchcraft Heights, the McIntire Historic District named after Salem's famous architect Samuel McIntire. Much of the city's cultural identity reflects its role as the location of the infamous Salem witch trials of 1692, as featured in Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a public elementary school is known as Witchcraft Heights, the Salem High School athletic teams are named the Witches.
In 2012, the Retailers Association of Massachusetts chose Salem for their inaugural "Best Shopping District" award. On January 10, 2013, President Obama signed executive order HR1339 designating Salem as the birthplace of the U. S. National Guard; the city's population was 41,340 at the 2010 census. Salem is located at the mouth of the Naumkeag River at the site of an Indian village and trading center. European colonists first settled it in 1626, when a company of fishermen arrived from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant. Conant's leadership provided the stability to survive the first two years, but John Endecott replaced him by order of the Massachusetts Bay Company. Conant graciously was granted 200 acres of land in compensation; these "New Planters" and the "Old Planters" agreed to cooperate, in large part due to the diplomacy of Conant and Endecott. In recognition of this peaceful transition to the new government, the name of the settlement was changed to Salem, a hellenized form of the Hebrew word for "peace".
In 1628, Endecott ordered that the Great House be moved from Cape Ann, reassembling it on Washington Street north of Church Street. Francis Higginson wrote that "we found a faire house newly built for the Governor", remarkable for being two stories high. A year the Massachusetts Bay Charter was issued creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony with Matthew Craddock as its governor in London and Endecott as its governor in the colony. John Winthrop was elected Governor in late 1629, arrived with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, one of the many events that began the Puritan Great Migration. In 1639, Endecott was one of the signers on the building contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the first church in Salem; this document remains part of the town records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life. Samuel Skelton was the first pastor of the First Church of Salem, the original Puritan church in America. Endecott had a close relationship with Skelton, having been converted by him, Endecott considered him as his spiritual father.
One of the most known aspects of Salem is its history of witchcraft allegations, which started with Abigail Williams, Betty Parris, their friends playing with a Venus glass and egg. The Salem Witchcraft Trials began in 1692, 20 people were executed as a result of the accusations of witchcraft. Salem is significant in legal history as the site of the Dorothy Talbye Trial, where a mentally ill woman was hanged for murdering her daughter because Massachusetts made no distinction at the time between insanity and criminal behavior. William Hathorne was a prosperous businessman in early Salem and became one of its leading citizens of the early colonial period, he led troops to victory in King Philip's War, served as a magistrate on the highest court, was chosen as the first speaker of the House of Deputies. He was a zealous advocate of the personal rights of freemen against royal agents, his son Judge John Hathorne came to prominence in the late 17th century when witchcraft was a serious felony. Judge Hathorne is the best known of the witch trial judges, he became known as the "Hanging Judge" for sentencing witches to death.
On February 26, 1775, patriots raised the drawbridge at the North River on present-day North Street, preventing British Colonel Alexander Leslie and his 300 troops of the 64th Regiment of Foot from seizing stores and ammunition hidden in North Salem. Both parties came to an agreement and no blood was shed that day. A few months in May 1775, after war broke out at Lexington and Concord, a group of prominent merchants with ties to Salem, including Francis Cabot, William Pynchon, Thomas Barnard, E. A. Holyoke, William Pickman, felt the need to publish a statement retracting what some interpreted as Loyalist leanings and to profess their dedication to the American cause. During the American Revolutionary War, the town became a center for privateering. Although the documentation is incomplete, about 1,700 Letters of Marque, issued on a per-voyage basis, were granted during that time. Nearly 800 vessels were commissioned as privateers, are credited with capturing or destroying about 600 British ships.
During the War of 1812, privateering resumed. Following the American Revolution, many ships used as privateers were too large for short voyages in the coasting trade, their owners determined to open new avenues of trade to distant countries; the young men of the town, fresh f
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
Order of the Sacred Treasure
The Order of the Sacred Treasure is a Japanese order, established on 4 January 1888 by Emperor Meiji as the Order of Meiji. Awarded in eight classes, since 2003 it has been awarded in six classes, the lowest two medals being abolished that year; the most conferred Japanese order, it is awarded to those who have made distinguished achievements in research fields, business industries, social work, state/local government fields or the improvement of life for handicapped/impaired persons. A male-only decoration, the order has been made available to women since 1919; the Order can be awarded in any of six classes. Conventionally, a diploma is prepared to accompany the insignia of the order, in some rare instances, the personal signature of the emperor will have been added; as an illustration of the wording of the text, a translation of a representative 1929 diploma says: "By the grace of Heaven, Emperor of Japan, seated on the throne occupied by the same dynasty from time immemorial,We confer the Second Class of the Imperial Order of Meiji upon Henry Waters Taft, a citizen of the United States of America and a director of the Japan Society of New York, invest him with the insignia of the same class of the Order of the Double Rays of the Rising Sun, in expression of the good will which we entertain towards him."In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hand and caused the Grand Seal of State to be affixed at the Imperial Palace, this thirteenth day of the fifth month of the fourth year of Shōwa, corresponding to the 2,589th year from the accession to the throne of Emperor Jimmu."
The insignia of the order incorporates symbols for the three imperial treasures: the Yata Mirror, so sacred that not the Emperor is allowed to look at it. The star for the Grand Cordon and Second Class is similar to the badge as described above, but with two sets of Maltese crosses, one in gilt and one placed diagonally in silver, it is worn on the left chest on the right chest by the 2nd class. The badge for the first through sixth classes is a Maltese cross, in gilt and silver and silver, with white enameled rays; the central disc is blue, bearing an eight-pointed silver star, surrounded by a wreath with red-enameled dots. The badge is suspended on a ribbon, worn as a sash on the right shoulder by the Grand Cordon, as a necklet by males of the 2nd and 3rd classes, on the left chest by the 4th to 6th classes. For females of the 2nd to 6th classes, the ribbon is a bow worn on the left shoulder; until 2003, when it was abolished, the badge of the seventh and eighth classes was an eight-pointed silver medal gilded for the 7th class, with representations of just the mirror and the jewel.
The badge is suspended on a ribbon, worn by men on the left chest. For women, the ribbon is a bow worn on the left shoulder; until 2003, the ribbon of the order was pale blue with a gold stripe near the borders. When the ribbon is worn alone, the ribbon for the Fourth Class and above incorporates a blue-and-gold rosette, with a solid gold bar for the Grand Cordon, a gold and silver bar for the Second Class, a solid silver bar for the Third Class and only the rosette for the Fourth Class; the ribbon for the Fifth and Sixth Classes has a centered blue disc with gold rays radiating from its center, eight rays for the Fifth Class and six rays for the Sixth Class. The ribbon for the Seventh and Eighth Classes had a centered pale blue disc with gold rays radiating from its center, four rays for the Seventh Class and three rays for the Eighth Class. In 2003 the lowest two classes of the Order were abolished. Moreover, the badges of the Order will from now on be suspended from three white-enamelled paulownia leaves.
Yoshimasa Hirata, awarded 1987 Langdon Warner, awarded 1955 Momofuku Ando, awarded in 1982 Chozaburo Kusumoto, 1906 Hannah Riddell, awarded 1924 Mary Cornwall Legh, awarded 1939 Ted Tsukiyama awarded 2001His Majesty Ariki Tuheitia of New Zealand, awarded 2015 While established with the original induction of the First 6 classes, Class 7 has never been issued or given an official designation or design. The Medal and its designation were abolished in 2003, there are no known recipients or issuances of this Medal in its original design from 1887. While established with the original induction of the First 6 classes, Class 8 has never been issued or designated a design, like Class 7 Before it; the Medal and its designation were abolished in 2003, there are no known recipients or issuances of this Medal in its original design from 1887. Order of the Sacred Treasure Order of the British Empire National Order of Merit Order of Civil Merit Order of the Star of Italy Order of Service Merit Order of the Crown of Thailand Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria (Grand Decoration in Silver with Sash, in Silver with Star, in Silver, Decoration of Honour in Silver, Decoration of Merit in Silver
Anthropology is the scientific study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present. Social anthropology and cultural anthropology study the values of societies. Linguistic anthropology studies. Biological or physical anthropology studies the biological development of humans. Archaeology, which studies past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States and Canada, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right or grouped under other related disciplines, such as history; the abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history. Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Otto Casmann, their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combining forms of the Greek words ánthrōpos and lógos. It began to be used in English via French Anthropologie, by the early 18th century. In 1647, the Bartholins, founders of the University of Copenhagen, defined l'anthropologie as follows: Anthropology, to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily and with reason into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, Psychology, which speaks of the soul.
Sporadic use of the term for some of the subject matter occurred subsequently, such as the use by Étienne Serres in 1839 to describe the natural history, or paleontology, of man, based on comparative anatomy, the creation of a chair in anthropology and ethnography in 1850 at the National Museum of Natural History by Jean Louis Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau. Various short-lived organizations of anthropologists had been formed; the Société Ethnologique de Paris, the first to use Ethnology, was formed in 1839. Its members were anti-slavery activists; when slavery was abolished in France in 1848 the Société was abandoned. Meanwhile, the Ethnological Society of New York the American Ethnological Society, was founded on its model in 1842, as well as the Ethnological Society of London in 1843, a break-away group of the Aborigines' Protection Society; these anthropologists of the times were liberal, anti-slavery, pro-human-rights activists. They maintained international connections. Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century.
Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild. Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859; when he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became "the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, in relation to the rest of nature".
Broca, being what today would be called a neurosurgeon, had taken an interest in the pathology of speech. He wanted to localize the difference between man and the other animals, which appeared to reside in speech, he discovered the speech center of the human brain, today called Broca's area after him. His interest was in Biological anthropology, but a German philosopher specializing in psychology, Theodor Waitz, took up the theme of general and social anthropology in his six-volume work, entitled Die Anthropologie der Naturvölker, 1859–1864; the title was soon translated as "The Anthropology of Primitive Peoples". The last two volumes were published posthumously. Waitz defined anthropology as "the science of the nature of man". By nature he meant matter animated by "the Divine breath". Following Broca's lead, Waitz points out that anthropology is a new field, which would gather material from other fields, but would differ from them in the use of comparative anatomy and psychology to differentiate man from "the animals nearest to him".
He stresses. The history of civilization, as well as ethnology, are to be brought into the comparison, it is to be presumed fundamentally that the species, man, is a unity, that "the same laws of thought are applicable to all men". Waitz was influential among the British ethnologists. In 1863 the explorer Richard Francis Burton and the speech therapist James Hunt broke away from the Ethnological Society of London to form the Anthropological Society of London, which henceforward would follow the path of the new anthropology rather than just ethnology, it was the 2nd society dedicated to general anthropology in existence. Representatives from the French Société were present. In his keynote address, printed in the first volume of its new publication, The Anthropological Review, Hunt stressed the work of Waitz, adopting his definitions as a standard. Among the first associates were the young Edward Burnett Tylor, inventor of cultural anthropology, his brother Alfred Tylor, a geologist. Edward had referred to himself as an ethnologist.
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Congregational churches are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism, as defined by the Pew Research Center, is estimated to represent 0.5 per cent of the worldwide Protestant population. The report defines it narrowly, encompassing denominations in the United States and the United Kingdom, which can trace their history back to nonconforming Protestants, Separatists, English religious groups coming out of the English Civil War, other English dissenters not satisfied with the degree to which the Church of England had been reformed. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand, various island nations in the Pacific region, it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society. A number of evangelical Congregational churches are members of the World Evangelical Congregational Fellowship.
In the United Kingdom, many Congregational churches claim their descent from Protestant denominations formed on a theory of union published by the theologian and English separatist Robert Browne in 1582. Ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. In England, the early Congregationalists were called Separatists or Independents to distinguish them from the Calvinistic Presbyterians, whose churches embrace a polity based on the governance of elders. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, led by a bishop. Congregationalism in the United States traces its origins to the Puritans of New England, who wrote the Cambridge Platform of 1648 to describe the autonomy of the church and its association with others. Within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York into the Old North West, further.
With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in many social reform movements, including abolitionism and women's suffrage. Modern Congregationalism in the United States is split into three bodies: the United Church of Christ, the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches and the Conservative Congregational Christian Conference, the most theologically conservative. Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfills the description of the early church and allows people the most direct relationship with God. Congregationalism is more identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation; the idea that each distinct congregation constitutes the visible Body of the church can, however, be traced to John Wycliffe and the Lollard movement, which followed Wycliffe's removal from teaching authority in the Roman Catholic Church. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church.
They believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were a reciprocal influence on the Baptists, they differed in counting the children of believers in some sense members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member followed by baptism. King Henry VIII made himself Supreme Head of the Church without allowing a change in doctrine or liturgy during his lifetime, he was not excommunicated but broke with Rome to legitimize his marriage to Anne Boleyn in 1533 after trying unsuccessfully to have his marriage with his wife, Catherine of Aragon annulled. Henry forced Parliament to approve the Act of Supremacy in 1534 which made him "the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England"; the title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England in 1559. Still in effect; the Church of England ceased to be subject to the Church of Rome. However, it continued as before with the same episcopal ecclesiastical structure, Canon Law, Apostolic Succession.
It saw itself as the continuing Church in England without break. However its worship life was changed." The whole story of the English Reformation which produced the Church of England is a tale of retreat from the Protestant advance of 1550..." Pope Saint Pius V regretfully excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I. From the beginning of her reign a small but vocal party of radical Reformers Calvinists who represented less than 10% of the population pressed for the abolition of episcopacy - the 3-fold order of bishop priest and deacon - church music, the old canon law and liturgical and doctrinal practices they regarded as hangovers from Catholicism, they got nowhere. The persistence of the government's religious program and time had defeated them: England 80% Catholic in 1558 with a Catholic clergy evolved under Elizabeth. By 1600 the country was 20 % Catholic, 70 % Protestant C of 10 % Radicals; the great majority of Catholics had gone over to the Settlement as the Catholic-trained clergy ministered to them in the early years "with the vestments and movements of the old mass," Christopher Haigh, English Reformations p. 289, were replaced over four decades by new clergy weaned on the Prayer Book.
Frustrated at these leftovers from an earlier Ag
Percival Lawrence Lowell was an American businessman, author and astronomer who fueled speculation that there were canals on Mars. He founded the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff and formed the beginning of the effort that led to the discovery of Pluto 14 years after his death. Percival Lowell was born on March 13, 1855, in Boston, the first son of Augustus Lowell and Katherine Bigelow Lowell. A member of the Brahmin Lowell family, his siblings included the poet Amy Lowell, the educator and legal scholar Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Elizabeth Lowell Putnam, an early activist for prenatal care, they were the great-grandchildren of John Lowell and, on their mother's side, the grandchildren of Abbott Lawrence. Percival graduated from the Noble and Greenough School in 1872 and Harvard University in 1876 with distinction in mathematics. At his college graduation, he gave a speech, considered advanced for its time, on the nebular hypothesis, he was awarded honorary degrees from Amherst College and Clark University.
After graduation he ran a cotton mill for six years. In the 1880s, Lowell traveled extensively in the Far East. In August 1883, he served as a foreign secretary and counselor for a special Korean diplomatic mission to the United States, he lived there for about two months. He spent significant periods of time in Japan, writing books on Japanese religion and behavior, his texts are filled with observations and academic discussions of various aspects of Japanese life, including language, religious practices, travel in Japan, the development of personality. Books by Percival Lowell on the Orient include Noto: An Unexplored Corner of Japan and Occult Japan, or the Way of the Gods, the latter from his third and final trip to the region, his time in Korea inspired Chosön: The Land of the Morning Calm. The most popular of Lowell's books on the Orient, The Soul of the Far East, contains an early synthesis of some of his ideas, that in essence, postulated that human progress is a function of the qualities of individuality and imagination.
The writer Lafcadio Hearn called it a "colossal, godlike book." At his death he left with his assistant Wrexie Leonard an unpublished manuscript of a book entitled Peaks and Plateaux in the Effect on Tree Life. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1892, he moved back to the United States in 1893. Beginning in the winter of 1893–94, using his wealth and influence, Lowell dedicated himself to the study of astronomy, founding the observatory which bears his name. In 1904, Lowell received the Prix Jules Janssen, the highest award of the Société astronomique de France, the French astronomical society. For the last 23 years of his life astronomy, Lowell Observatory, his and others' work at his observatory were the focal points of his life. World War I much saddened Lowell, a dedicated pacifist. This, along with some setbacks in his astronomical work, undermined his health and contributed to his death from a stroke on November 12, 1916, aged 61. Lowell is buried on Mars Hill near his observatory.
Lowell claimed to "stick to the church" though at least one current author describes him as an agnostic. Lowell became determined to study Mars and astronomy as a full-time career after reading Camille Flammarion's La planète Mars, he was interested in the canals of Mars, as drawn by Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli, director of the Milan Observatory. In 1894 Lowell chose Arizona Territory, as the home of his new observatory. At an altitude of over 2,100 meters, with few cloudy nights, far from city lights, Flagstaff was an excellent site for astronomical observations; this marked the first time an observatory had been deliberately located in a remote, elevated place for optimal seeing. For the next fifteen years he studied Mars extensively, made intricate drawings of the surface markings as he perceived them. Lowell published his views in three books: Mars and Its Canals, Mars As the Abode of Life. With these writings, Lowell more than anyone else popularized the long-held belief that these markings showed that Mars sustained intelligent life forms.
His works include a detailed description of what he termed the'non-natural features' of the planet's surface, including a full account of the'canals,' single and double. He theorized that an advanced but desperate culture had built the canals to tap Mars' polar ice caps, the last source of water on an inexorably drying planet. While this idea excited the public, the astronomical community was skeptical. Many astronomers could not see these markings, few believed that they were as extensive as Lowell claimed; as a result and his observatory were ostracized. Although the consensus was that some actual features did exist which would account for these markings, in 1909 the sixty-inch Mount Wilson Observatory telescope in Southern California allowed closer observation of the structures Lowell had interpreted as canals, revealed irregular geological features the result of natural erosion; the existence of canal-like features was definitively disproved in the 1960s by NASA's Mariner missions. Mariner 4, 6, 7, the Mariner 9 orbiter, did not capture images of canals but instead showed a cratered Martian surface.
Today, the surface markings taken to be canals are regarded as an optical illusion. Psychologist Matthew J. Sharps has argued that perception of the canals by Lowell and others could have been the result of a combina