Royal Academy of Arts
The Royal Academy of Arts is an art institution based in Burlington House on Piccadilly in London. The Royal Academy of Arts was founded through an act of King George III on 10 December 1768 with a mission to promote the arts of design in Britain through education and exhibition. Supporters wanted to foster a national school of art and to encourage appreciation, fashionable taste in 18th-century Britain was based on continental and traditional art forms, providing contemporary British artists little opportunity to sell their works. From 1746 the Foundling Hospital, through the efforts of William Hogarth, the success of this venture led to the formation of the Society of Artists of Great Britain and the Free Society of Artists. Both these groups were primarily exhibiting societies, their success was marred by internal factions among the artists. The combined vision of education and exhibition to establish a school of art set the Royal Academy apart from the other exhibiting societies. It provided the foundation upon which the Royal Academy came to dominate the art scene of the 18th and 19th centuries, supplanting the earlier art societies.
Sir William Chambers, a prominent architect, used his connections with George III to gain royal patronage and financial support of the Academy, the painter Joshua Reynolds was made its first president. Francis Milner Newton was elected the first secretary, a post he held for two decades until his resignation in 1788, the instrument of foundation, signed by George III on 10 December 1768, named 34 founder members and allowed for a total membership of 40. William Hoare and Johann Zoffany were added to this list by the King and are known as nominated members, among the founder members were two women, a father and daughter, and two sets of brothers. The Royal Academy was initially housed in cramped quarters in Pall Mall, although in 1771 it was given temporary accommodation for its library and schools in Old Somerset House, a royal palace. In 1780 it was installed in purpose-built apartments in the first completed wing of New Somerset House, located in the Strand and designed by Chambers, the Academy moved in 1837 to Trafalgar Square, where it occupied the east wing of the recently completed National Gallery.
These premises soon proved too small to house both institutions, in 1868,100 years after the Academys foundation, it moved to Burlington House, where it remains. Burlington House is owned by the British Government, and used rent-free by the Royal Academy, the first Royal Academy exhibition of contemporary art, open to all artists, opened on 25 April 1769 and ran until 27 May 1769. 136 works of art were shown and this exhibition, now known as the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition, has been staged annually without interruption to the present day. In 1870 the Academy expanded its programme to include a temporary annual loan exhibition of Old Masters. The range and frequency of these exhibitions have grown enormously since that time. Britains first public lectures on art were staged by the Royal Academy, led by Reynolds, the first president, a program included lectures by Dr. William Hunter, John Flaxman, James Barry, Sir John Soane, and J. M. W. Turner
Quakers are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements generally known as the Religious Society of Friends. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity, to differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers, in 2012, there were 377,055 adult Quakers. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry, the first Quakers lived in mid-17th century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, some of these early Quaker ministers were women. They emphasized a personal and direct experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity, in the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, and teetotalism. & J.
Clark and the big three British confectionery makers Cadbury and Frys, and philanthropic efforts, including abolition of slavery, prison reform and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man named George Fox was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered. Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, and Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith, the central theme of his Gospel message was that Christ has come to teach his people himself. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, in 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to George Foxs autobiography, Bennet was the first that called us Quakers and it is thought that George Fox was referring to Isaiah 66,2 or Ezra 9,4.
Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing George Foxs admonition, Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, and the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. This was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689, with the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for women and Fell viewed the Quaker mother as essential to developing holy conversation in her children and husband. Quaker women were responsible for the spirituality of the larger community, coming together in meetings that regulated marriage. The persecution of Quakers in North America began in 1656 when English Quaker missionaries Mary Fisher and they were considered heretics because of their insistence on individual obedience to the Inner Light. They were imprisoned and banished by the Massachusetts Bay Colony and their books were burned, and most of their property was confiscated. They were imprisoned in terrible conditions, deported, in 1660, English Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged on Boston Common for repeatedly defying a Puritan law banning Quakers from the colony
Alpine Club (UK)
The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and is the worlds first mountaineering club. It is UK mountaineerings acknowledged senior club, on 22 December 1857 a group of British mountaineers met at Ashleys Hotel in London. All were active in the Alps and instrumental in the development of alpine mountaineering during the age of alpinism. It was at this meeting that the Alpine Club, under the chairmanship of E. S. Kennedy, was born, John Ball was the first president and Kennedy, the first vice-president, succeeded him as president of the club from 1860 to 1863. It moved its headquarters to the Metropole Hotel, for climbing, a rope was required which would be both strong and light so that lengths of it could be carried easily. A committee of the club tested samples from suppliers and prepared a specification, the official Alpine Club Rope was made by John Buckingham of Bloomsbury. It was made from three strands of manila hemp, treated to be rot proof and marked with a red thread of worsted yarn.
One hundred and fifty years later, the Alpine Club continues, and its members remain active in the Alps. For many years it had the characteristics of a London-based Gentlemens club, however, it still requires prospective members to be proposed and seconded by existing members. These higher technical standards were often to be found in such as the Alpine Climbing Group. The club has produced a suite of guidebooks which cover some of the more popular Alpine mountaineering regions and it holds extensive book and photo libraries as well as an archive of historical artifacts which are regularly lent out to exhibitions. The clubs history has recently been documented by George Band in his book Summit,150 Years of the Alpine Club and its members activities are recounted annually in the clubs publication the Alpine Journal. As of 2009, the subscription costs between £39 and £60 per year, with a £27 rate for younger members. In 1895 the club moved to 23 Savile Row, and in June 1907, from 1937 to 1990 the club was based at 74, South Audley Street, in Mayfair, London.
In 1936–1937 the surveying firm of Pilditch and Company had converted the ground floor of the building into premises for the club. The clubs library was at the back of the building, in what was once the picture gallery of Sir William Cuthbert Quilter. In 1990 the club sold its lease of 74, South Audley Street and briefly shared quarters with the Ski Club of Great Britain at 118, Eaton Square. In 1991 the Alpine Club acquired the freehold of a five-storey Victorian warehouse at 55, Charlotte Road, on the edge of the City of London, the clubs lecture room, bunk-house and archives are all housed there
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
German Alpine Club
The German Alpine Club is the worlds largest climbing association, and the eighth-largest sports union in Germany. The association enjoyed a large clientele from the beginning, with a number of 1070 members after only 10 months, the German and the Austrian societies merged in 1873 to form the German and Austrian Alpine Club. Already in the late 19th century, the policies were increasingly characterized by nationalism and antisemitism. In 1899 the Brandenburg section amended an Aryan paragraph to exclude non-Christian members, followed by the Vienna section in 1905, the Donauland members were officially ousted in 1924. Jews were even banned from visiting the DÖAV mountain huts, after World War II, the DAV was dissolved by the Allied authorities. Its assets were held by the Austrian Alpine Club as trustee, the German Alpine Club was re-established in 1952. It joined the Deutscher Sportbund organization in 1992, the DAV is an umbrella organization of 355 legally independent regional sections with a total of around 939,000 members.
Every section is a voluntary association in its own right. The collective body of the sections is represented by the assembly, association council. Main task of the Club is the maintenance of mountain huts, the sections currently provide 325 alpine club huts to hikers and mountaineers, as well as 180 indoor climbing gyms. It runs the Alpine Museum on Prater Island in Munich, in recent years, the Clubs policies have turned to habitat conservation of fauna and flora of the Alps. Der Deutsche und Österreichische Alpenverein von der Gründung bis zum Ende des Ersten Weltkrieges, mountains and Modernity, A Cultural History of German and Austrian Mountaineering, 1900-1945. Nicholas Mailänder, Im Zeichen des Edelweiß
Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse
Louis III, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine was Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine from 1848 until his death in 1877. He was the son of Grand Duke Louis II of Hesse and he succeeded as Grand Duke in 1848 upon the abdication of his father during the March Revolution in the German states. He was succeeded by his nephew, Louis IV, on 13 June 1877, in Munich, on 26 December 1833, he married Princess Mathilde Caroline of Bavaria, eldest daughter of Ludwig I of Bavaria. The marriage produced no children and the Grand Duke remarried, royal Genealogies Part 46 World Roots
Duchy of Carinthia
The Duchy of Carinthia was a duchy located in southern Austria and parts of northern Slovenia. It was separated from the Duchy of Bavaria in 976, and was the first newly created Imperial State after the original German stem duchies. Carinthia remained a State of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, a constituent part of the Habsburg Monarchy and of the Austrian Empire, it remained a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary until 1918. By the Carinthian Plebiscite in October 1920, the area of the duchy formed the Austrian state of Carinthia. In the seventh century the area was part of the Slavic principality of Carantania, the Bavarian stem duchy was incorporated into the Carolingian Empire when Charlemagne deposed Odilos son Duke Tassilo III in 788. In the 843 partition by the Treaty of Verdun, Carinthia became part of East Francia under King Louis the German, after Berthold became Duke of Bavaria in 938, both territories were ruled by him. Duke Henrys son Henry II the Quarreller from 974 onwards, revolted against his cousin Emperor Otto II, at the same time Emperor Otto II created a sixth duchy in addition to the original stem duchies, the new Duchy of Carinthia.
He reverted the possession of the territories to the Luitpoldings, when he split Carinthia from the Bavarian lands, over the centuries, the name Carinthia gradually replaced former Carantania. The realm of the Carinthian dukes initially comprised a vast territory including the marches of Styria and Istria, though Henry once again managed to regain the ducal title in 985, Carinthia upon his death in 989 fell back to the Imperial Ottonian dynasty in Bavaria. Adalbero was removed from office in 1035 after he had out of favour with the Salian Emperor Conrad II. In 1039 Carinthia was inherited by Emperor Henry III himself, who split off the Carniolan march the following year and granted it to Margrave Poppo of Istria. In 1077, the duchy was given to Luitpold, again a member of the Eppensteiner family, upon his death the duchy was further reduced in area, a large part of the Eppenstein lands in what is today Upper Styria passed to Margrave Ottokar II of Styria. The remainder of Carinthia passed from Duke Henry III to his godchild Henry from the House of Sponheim, the most outstanding of the Spanheim dukes was Bernhard, the first Carinthian duke who was actually described and honoured in documents as prince of the land.
The last Spanheim duke was Ulrich III, he signed a treaty with his brother Archbishop Philip of Salzburg. In spite of being supported by the Habsburg king Rudolf I of Germany, the duchy was seized by Rudolph and Philip died a year in 1279. Rudolf, after being elected King of the Romans and defeating King Ottokar II, the Habsburgs would continue to rule Carinthia until 1918. As with the component parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, Carinthia remained a semi-autonomous state with its own constitutional structure for a long time. The Habsburgs divided up their territories within the family twice, according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, each time, the Duchy of Carinthia became part of Inner Austria and was ruled jointly with the adjacent duchies of Styria and Carniola
The Berner Oberland, is the higher part of the canton of Bern, Switzerland, in the southern end of the canton, and one of the cantons five administrative regions. The mountain range in the Berner Oberland south of the Aare, the flag of the Berner Oberland consists of a black eagle in a gold field over two fields in the cantonal colours of red and black. The Swiss German dialects spoken in the Berner Oberland are Highest Alemannic German, contrasting with the High Alemannic Bernese German spoken in Bern, in the short-lived Helvetic Republic, the Berner Oberland had been a separate canton. Prehistorically the Berner Oberland was crossed by hunters or traders, the Romans settled along the river and the lakes. They used a number of alpine passes including, the Brünig, Grimsel, Lötschen, Rawil, during the High Middle Ages, a number of Berner Oberland villages grew around valley parish churches which were religious and cultural centers within each surrounding valley. During Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland first belonged to the Kingdom of Burgundy followed by the Dukes of Zähringen, after the extinction of the Zähringen line, the Berner Oberland was ruled by a number of local Barons.
For a time, some of the Walser barons ruled portions of the Berner Oberland, the Saanen valley was ruled by the Counts of Gruyères. Portions of the passes were held, until the 19th century. The expansionist policy of the city of Bern led them into the Berner Oberland, through conquest, mortgage or marriage politics Bern was able to acquire the majority of the Berner Oberland from the indebted local barons between 1323 and 1400. Under Bernese control, the five valleys enjoyed extensive rights and far-reaching autonomy in the Bäuerten and Talverbänden, throughout the Late Middle Ages, the Berner Oberland, as a whole or in part, revolted several times against Bernese authority. During the Middle Ages, the settlement pattern in the Berner Oberland was somewhat consistent, a main settlement grew on the valley floor below an elevation near 1,100 m. This main settlement had a market and often a castle or other fortifications and this market town was surrounded by scattered villages and individual farm houses to an elevation of 1,600 m.
During the 14th-16th centuries, the Berner Oberland villages began extensive trading with the Bernese grain producing towns in the lowlands. This allowed the villages to renounce self-sufficiency in grain and focus on raising cattle in the high alpine pastures. They exported cattle over the passes into Italy and into the Bernese lowlands, around 1500, in addition to the seven medieval markets, eleven new cattle markets opened to allow the Berner Oberland villagers to sell their cattle. After the Napoleonic invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the old Bernese order was fractured, within this new canton, historic borders and traditional rights were not considered. As there had no previous separatist feeling amongst the conservative population. In 1729, Albrecht von Haller published the poem Die Alpen about his travels through the alpine regions and this combined with other reports and alpine paintings started the tourism industry in the Berner Oberland
The small town of Berg is famous as the site where King Ludwig II of Bavaria was found dead in the lake in 1886. Because of its associations with the Wittelsbach royal family, the lake is known as Fürstensee. It is mentioned in T. S. Eliots poem The Waste Land. The lake, lying in a zungenbecken or glacial hollow, was created by ice age glaciers from the Alps and it has a single small island, the Roseninsel, and a single outlet, the Würm river. Its major inflow comes from a river called the Steinbach or Ostersee-Ach, which flows through a chain of small lakes to the south. Bronze fish-hooks and a dating to the 9th or 8th century BCE have been discovered at the lake. Hikers and cyclists can circumnavigate the lake using a path approximately 49 kilometres long, access to the lakeshore is not everywhere possible, since it is mostly private property. Passenger ferries and excursion ships have operated on the lake since 1851, today they are operated by the Bayerische Seenschifffahrt company, using modern engine-driven ships.
The earliest surviving mention of the lake, as Uuirmseo, is in an 818 document referring to Holzhausen and this name became Wirmsee, already recorded during the reign of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Bavarian. This name is derived from the Wirm, now spelt Würm, the river which flows out of the lake, at Starnberg, in the 19th century. In the late 19th century, a connection between Munich and Starnberg made the lake an accessible destination for trips from the city. Der Starnberger See—Natur und Vorgeschichte einer bayerischen Landschaft, der Starnberger See und seine Umgebung vom Würmtal bis zum Alpenrand. Das Starnberger-SeeBuch—eine Tour um den See, kleiner Führer, beschreibung des Wurm- oder Starenbergersees und der umherliegenden Schlösser, samt einer Landkarte. ISBN 3-89251-367-8 Oskar Weber and Josef Wahl, am Starnberger See und die Würm entlang. ISBN 3-89251-202-7 Media related to Lake Starnberg at Wikimedia Commons Nixdorf, Starnberger See, Dokumentation von Zustand und Entwicklung der wichtigsten Seen Deutschlands, Umweltbundesamt, p.75 Pictures of Lake Starnberg
The Eiger is a 3, 970-metre mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland of Switzerland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m, constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1, 800-metre-high north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand and this huge face towers over the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys. The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren and Irishman Charles Barrington, the north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition. The Eiger has been publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand.
They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe, the two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand and Eismeer, at around 3,000 metres. The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, the three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin, the Monk, and the Ogre. The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning sharp or pointed, the Eiger is located within the Bernese Oberland region of the canton of Bern, between the valleys and municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald. It is located 2.2 km northeast of the Mönch and 5.6 km northeast of the Jungfrau, the nearest settlements are Grindelwald and Wengen. The Eiger has three faces, north and southeast, the east ridge from the summit to the Ostegg, named Mittellegi, is the longest on the Eiger. The north face overlooks the pass and resort of Kleine Scheidegg, or more precisely the region east of it, the latter mountain pass lies between the valleys of Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald and connects the lower Männlichen-Tschuggen range to the Eiger.
All the aforementioned localities are connected to Interlaken via mountain railways, all sides of the mountain feed the same river, the Lütschine, through the Weisse Lütschine on the west side and through the Schwarze Lütschine on the east side. Although the north face of the Eiger is almost free of ice, on the east side, the Eismeer flows from the Mönch down to 1,300 m through the Lower Grindelwald Glacier system, which feeds the Schwarze Lütschine. The massive wall of the Jungfrau, Mönch and Eiger itself constitutes an emblematic sight of the Swiss Alps and is visible from many places on the Swiss Plateau. The higher Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn, which are located about 10 km to the south, are less visible. The whole area, the Jungfrau-Aletsch, comprising the highest summits, in July 2006, a piece of the Eiger amounting to approximately 700,000 cubic metres of rock fell from the east face. As it had been noticeably cleaving for several weeks and fell into an area, there were no injuries
The Glaspalast was a glass and iron exhibition building located in the Old botanical garden - Munich in Munich modeled after The Crystal Palace in London. The Glaspalast opened for the Erste Allgemeine Deutsche Industrieausstellung on July 15,1854, following other examples around Europe, the Glaspalast was ordered by Maximilian II, King of Bavaria, in order to hole the Erste Allgemeine Deutsche Industrieausstellung on July 15,1854. Originally it was planned to erect the building on Maximilianplatz, the relevant Commission decision preferred an area near the railway station. Designed by architect August von Voit and built by MAN AG, following the completion of 1853 Schrannenhalle and the planned and conservatory of Munich Residence, a glass with cast iron design was used, using existing experience for this modern building. As with the Crystal Palace in London, initial designs were relatively complex, due to the short time available for construction, the design was significantly simplified and relied on use of standard components.
Conventional construction methods were not possible due to the amount of building materials required. The two-storied building was 234 meters long,67 meters wide and 25 meters high, the building was built entirely of glass and cast iron, load-bearing walls were completely omitted. The 1,700 tons of prefabricated iron parts were made by Cramer-Klett in Nuremberg, for this construction, the glass was produced in the more traditional Schmidsfelden glass works. Construction was a six months, beginning December 31,1853 and ending June 7,1854. The total cost of construction was 800,000 guldens, the Erste Allgemeine Deutsche Industrieausstellung opened five weeks later, only three years after the completion of the Crystal Palace in London, which served as its model. Just three years after the completion of the Crystal Palace in London, which served as a model, however the opening was overshadowed as first the staff and the exhibition guests were affected by cholera. In 1882 die erste elektrisch beleuchtete Internationale Elektrotechnische Ausstellung took place in the Glass Palace, the German engineer Oskar von Miller had built a 2000 volt DC overhead power line from Miesbach,50 km distant, to bring power to Munich.
At the exhibition, an electrically powered pump for an artificial waterfall demonstrated the feasibility of bringing electrical power over long distances, mit einer elektrischen Pumpe für einen künstlichen Wasserfall demonstrierte Miller hier die Möglichkeit, elektrische Energie über große Entfernungen zu übertragen. In 1858, the First German general and historical art exhibition organized in the palace, from 1889, the Crystal Palace was almost exclusively used for art exhibitions. This affected the forum and place of the art trade. When it was planned, following the exhibition, it was assumed that the Glaspalast would be used as a greenhouse. However it was almost exclusively used for art exhibitions and artist festivals. The building was destroyed in a fire on June 6,1931, the cause of the fire was determined to be arson
The Moselle is a river flowing through France and Germany. It is a tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is drained by the Moselle through the Sauer, the Moselle twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germanys most beautiful river valleys. It flows through a region that has influenced by mankind since it was first cultivated by the Romans. Today, its hillsides are covered by terraced vineyards where some of the best Rieslings grow, Traben-Trarbach with its art nouveau architecture and Bernkastel-Kues with its traditional market square are two of the many popular tourist attractions on the Moselle river. The name Moselle is derived from the Celtic name form, via the Latin Mosella, a form of Mosa, the Latin description of the Meuse. So the Mosella was the Little Meuse, the Moselle is first recorded by Tacitus in Book 13 of his Annals and in Book 4 of his Histories. The Roman poet, Decimius Magnus Ausonius, made it a theme as early as the 4th century.
In his poem dated A. D. Ausonius describes flourishing and rich landscapes along the river and in the valley of the Moselle, the river subsequently gave its name to two French republican départements and Meurthe-et-Moselle. The source of the Moselle is at 715 metres above sea level on the Col de Bussang on the slopes of the Ballon dAlsace in the Vosges. After 544 kilometres it discharges into the Rhine at the Deutsches Eck in Koblenz at a height of 59 metres above NHN. The length of the river in France is 314 kilometres, for 39 kilometres it forms the border between Germany and Luxembourg, and 208 kilometres are solely within Germany, the Moselle flows through the Lorraine region, west of the Vosges. Further downstream, in Germany, the Moselle valley forms the division between the Eifel and Hunsrück mountain regions. The average flow rate of the Moselle at its mouth is 328 m³/s, making it the second largest tributary of the Rhine by volume after the Aare and bigger than the Main and Neckar. The section of the Moselle from the Franco-German-Luxembourg tripoint to its confluence with the Saar near Konz shortly before Trier is in Germany known as the Upper Moselle.
The section from Trier to Pünderich is the Middle Moselle, the section between Pünderich and its mouth in Koblenz as the Lower Moselle or Terraced Moselle. Characteristic of the Middle and Lower Moselle are its wide meanders cut deeply into the highlands of the Rhenish Massif, typical are its vineyard terraces. From the tripoint the Moselle marks the entire Saarland-Luxembourg, the catchment area of the Moselle is 28,286 km² in area