Godalming is a historic market town, civil parish and administrative centre of the Borough of Waverley in Surrey, England, 4 miles SSW of Guildford. The town traverses the banks of the River Wey in the Greensand Ridge – a hilly wooded part of the outer London commuter belt and Green Belt. In 1881, it became the first place in the world to have a public electricity supply and electric street lighting. Godalming is 30.5 mi southwest of London and shares a three-way twinning arrangement with the towns of Joigny in France and Mayen in Germany. Friendship links are with Moscow. James Oglethorpe of Godalming was the founder of the colony of Georgia. Godalming is regarded as an expensive residential town due to its visual appeal, favourable transport links and high proportion of private housing. In 2006 it was ranked the UK's third most desirable property hotspot, in 2007 it was voted the fourth best area of the UK in which to live; the borough of Waverley, which includes Godalming, was judged in 2013 to have the highest quality of life in Great Britain, in 2016 to be the most prosperous place in the UK.
The town has existed since Saxon times, earlier. It is mentioned in the will of King Alfred the Great in 899 and the name itself has Saxon origins,'Godhelms Ingus' translated as "the family of Godhelm", referring to one of the first lords of the manor. Godalming grew in size because its location is halfway between Portsmouth and London, which encouraged traders to set up stalls and inns for travellers to buy from and rest in. Godalming Parish Church has a Norman tower. Godalming appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Godelminge, it was held by William the Conqueror. Its domesday assets were: 2 churches worth 12s, 3 mills worth £2 1s 8d, 25 ploughs, 40 acres of meadow, woodland worth 103 hogs, it rendered £34. Its population was 400 people. At the time, its manor belonged to the King, but a few hundred years ownership transferred to the Bishop of Salisbury, under a charter granted by King Edward I of England. In the year 1300, the town was granted the right to hold an annual fair, its major industry at the time was woollen cloth, which contributed to Godalming’s prosperity over the next few centuries, until a sudden decline in the 17th century.
Instead, its people applied their skills to the latest knitting and weaving technology and began producing stockings in a variety of materials, to leatherwork. A willingness to adapt from one industry to another meant. For example, papermaking was adopted in the 17th century, paper was still manufactured there in the 20th century; the quarrying of Bargate stone provided an important source of income, as did passing trade - Godalming was a popular stopping point for stagecoaches and the Mail coach between Portsmouth and London. In 1764, trade received an additional boost when early canalisation of the river took place, linking the town to Guildford, from there to the River Thames and London on the Wey and Godalming Navigations. In 1726 a Godalming maidservant called Mary Toft hoaxed the town into believing that she had given birth to rabbits; the foremost doctors of the day came to witness the freak event and for a brief time the story caused a national sensation. Toft was found out after a porter was caught smuggling a dead rabbit into her chamber, she confessed to inserting at least 16 rabbits into herself and faking their birth.
Mary Toft died and was buried in Godalming in 1763. Court testimony of 1764 attests to how purchasing one of the mills in Godalming and dealing in corn and flour brought a substantial income. So successful was Godalming that in the early 19th century it was larger than Guildford, by 1851 the population had passed 6,500, it was becoming a popular residence for commuters, for it had been connected to London by railway in 1849 and to Portsmouth in 1859. Today the town is served by Godalming railway station on the Portsmouth Direct Line; the first mayor of Godalming was Henry Marshall. Godalming came to world attention in September 1881, when it became the first town in the world to have installed a public electricity supply, it was Calder & Barnet who installed a Siemens AC Alternator and dynamo which were powered by a waterwheel, at Westbrook Mill, on the River Wey. There were a number of supply cables, some of which were laid in the gutters, that fed seven arc lights and 34 Swan incandescent lights.
Floods in late 1881 caused problems and in the end Calder & Barnet withdrew from the contract. It was taken over by Siemens. Under Siemens the supply system grew and a number of technical problems were solved, but on in 1884 the whole town reverted to gas lighting as Siemens failed to tender for a contract to light the town. This was due to a survey they undertook in the town that failed to provide adequate support to make the business viable. Siemens had lost money on the scheme in the early years, but was prepared to stay on in order to gain experience. Electricity returned to the town in 1904. Guildford is 4 mi London is 30.5 mi northeast of Godalming. The next railway stations up and down the line are at Farncombe, which benefits from a single residential street connection to Godalming across a strip of Lammas lands, however is still part of the town and Milford, separ
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Chief Mkwavinyika Munyigumba Mwamuyinga, more known as Chief Mkwawa, was a Hehe tribal leader in German East Africa who opposed the German colonization. The name "Mkwawa" is derived from Mukwava, itself a shortened form of Mukwavinyika, meaning "conqueror of many lands". Mkwawa was born in Luhota and was the son of Chief Munyigumba, who died in 1879. In July 1891, the German commissioner, Emil von Zelewski, led a battalion of soldiers to suppress the Hehe. On 17 August, they were attacked by Mkwawa's 3,000-strong army at Lugalo, despite only being equipped with spears and a few guns overpowered the German force and killed Zelewski. On 28 October 1894, the Germans, under the new commissioner Colonel Freiherr Friedrich von Schele, attacked Mkwawa's fortress at Kalenga. Although they took the fort, Mkwawa managed to escape. Subsequently, Mkwawa conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare, harassing the Germans until 1898 when, on 19 July, he was surrounded and shot himself to avoid capture. After his death, German soldiers removed Mkwawa's head.
The skull was sent to Berlin and ended up in the Übersee-Museum Bremen. In 1918 the British Administrator of German East Africa H. A. Byatt proposed to his government that it should demand a return of the skull to Tanganyika in order to reward the Wahehe for their cooperation with the British during the war and in order to have a symbol assuring the locals of the definitive end of German power; the skull's return was stipulated in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles: ARTICLE 246. Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty... Germany will hand over to His Britannic Majesty's Government the skull of the Sultan Mkwawa, removed from the Protectorate of German East Africa and taken to Germany; the Germans disputed the removal of the said skull from East Africa and the British government took the position that the whereabouts could not be traced. However, after World War II the Governor of Tanganyika, Sir Edward Twining, took up the issue again. After enquiries he was directed to the Bremen Museum which he visited himself in 1953.
The Museum had a collection of 2000 skulls, 84 of which originated from the former German East Africa. He short-listed the ones; the skull was returned on 9 July 1954, now resides at the Mkwawa Memorial Museum in Kalenga, near the town of Iringa. Maji Maji Rebellion Martin Baer, Olaf Schröter: Eine Kopfjagd. Deutsche in Ostafrika. Berlin 2001. Doebold, Holger: Schutztruppe Deutsch-Ostafrika. Iliffe, John: A modern history of Tanganyika. Cambridge 1979. Nigmann, Ernst: Die Wahehe: Ihre Geschichte, Kult-, Rechts-, Kriegs- u. Jagd-Gebräuche. Berlin: Mittler 1908. Nigmann, Ernst: Geschichte der Kaiserlichen Schutztruppe für Deutsch-Ostafrika. Berlin: Mittler 1911. Patera, Herbert: Der weiße Herr Ohnefurcht: das Leben des Schutztruppenhaupmanns Tom von Prince. Berlin 1939. Prince, Tom von: Gegen Araber und Wahehe: Erinnerungen aus meiner ostafrikanischen Leutnantszeit 1890-1895. Berlin 1914. Redmayne, Alison Hope: The Wahehe people of Tanganyika. Oxford 1965. Redmayne, Alison: The Hehe. Tanzania Before 1900. Small wars & insurgencies.
London: Taylor & Francis, ISSN 1743-9558, Online-Resource. "The colonial wars of imperial Germany"
Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland. His political career spanned over half a century, from 1917 to 1973, he led the introduction of the Constitution of Ireland. Prior to de Valera's political career, he was a Commandant at Boland's Mill during the 1916 Easter Rising, an Irish revolution that would contribute to Irish independence, he was arrested, sentenced to death but released for a variety of reasons, including the public response to the British execution of Rising leaders. He returned to Ireland after being jailed in England and became one of the leading political figures of the War of Independence. After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, de Valera served as the political leader of Anti-Treaty Sinn Fein until 1926, when he, along with many supporters, left the party to set up Fianna Fáil, a new political party which abandoned the policy of abstentionism from Dáil Éireann. From there, de Valera would go on to be at the forefront of Irish politics until the turn of the 1960s.
He took over as President of the Executive Council from W. T. Cosgrave and Taoiseach, with the passing of Bunreacht Na hEireann in 1937, he would serve as Taoiseach on 3 occasions. He remains the longest serving Taoiseach by total days served in the post, he resigned in 1959 upon his election as President of Ireland. By he had been Leader of Fianna Fáil for 33 years, he, along with older founding members, began to take a less prominent role relative to newer ministers such as Jack Lynch, Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney, he would serve as President from two full terms in office. De Valera's political beliefs evolved from militant Irish republicanism to strong social and economic conservatism, he has been characterised by a stern, devious demeanor. His roles in the Civil War have portrayed him as a divisive figure in Irish history. Biographer Tim Pat Coogan sees his time in power as being characterised by economic and cultural stagnation, while Diarmaid Ferriter argues that the stereotype of de Valera as an austere and backward figure was manufactured in the 1960s and is misguided.
Éamon de Valera was born on 14 October 1882 in New York City, the son of Catherine Coll, from Bruree, County Limerick, Juan Vivion de Valera, described on the birth certificate as a Spanish artist born in the Basque Country, Spain. He was born at the Nursery and Child's Hospital, Lexington Avenue, a home for destitute orphans and abandoned children, his parents were married on 18 September 1881 at St Patrick's Church in Jersey City, New Jersey, but archivists have not located any marriage certificate or any birth, baptismal, or death certificate information for anyone called Juan Vivion de Valera. On de Valera's original birth certificate, his name is given as George de Valero and his father is listed as Vivion de Valero. Although he was known as Edward de Valera before 1901, a fresh birth certificate was issued in 1910, in which his first name was changed to Edward and his father's surname given as "de Valera"; as a child, he was known as "Eddie" or "Eddy". According to Coll, Juan Vivion died in her child in poor circumstances.
Éamon was taken to Ireland by his uncle Ned at the age of two. When his mother married a new husband in the mid-1880s, he was not brought back to live with her, but was reared instead by his grandmother, Elizabeth Coll, her son Patrick and her daughter Hannie, in County Limerick, he was educated locally at Bruree National School, County Limerick and C. B. S. Charleville, County Cork. Aged sixteen, he won a scholarship, he was not successful in enrolling at two colleges in Limerick, but was accepted at Blackrock College, Dublin, at the instigation of his local curate. He played rugby at Blackrock and Rockwell College for the Munster rugby team around 1905, he remained a lifelong devotee of rugby, attending international matches towards the end of his life when he was nearly blind. Always a diligent student, at the end of his first year in Blackrock College he was student of the year, he won further scholarships and exhibitions and in 1903 was appointed teacher of mathematics at Rockwell College, County Tipperary.
It was here that de Valera was first given the nickname "Dev" by a teaching colleague, Tom O'Donnell. In 1904, he graduated in mathematics from the Royal University of Ireland, he studied for a year at Trinity College Dublin but, owing to the necessity of earning a living, did not proceed further and returned to teaching, this time at Belvedere College. In 1906, he secured a post as teacher of mathematics at Carysfort Teachers' Training College for women in Blackrock, Dublin, his applications for professorships in colleges of the National University of Ireland were unsuccessful, but he obtained a part-time appointment at Maynooth and taught mathematics at various Dublin schools, including Castleknock College and Belvedere College. There were occasions when de Valera contemplated the religious life like his half-brother, Fr. Thomas Wheelwright, but he did not pursue this vocation; as late as 1906, when he was 24 years old, he approached the President of Clonliffe Seminary in Dublin for advice on his vocation.
De Valera was throughout his life portrayed as a religious man, who in death asked to be buried in a religious habit. His bi
Mauritius the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent; the Republic of Mauritius includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon; the capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius. In 1598, the Dutch took possession of Mauritius, they abandoned Mauritius in 1710 and the French took control of the island in 1715, renaming it Isle de France. France ceded Mauritius including all its dependencies to the United Kingdom through the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814 and in which Réunion was returned to France; the British colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago, while the Seychelles became a separate colony in 1906. The sovereignty of Tromelin is disputed between Mauritius and France as some of the islands such as St. Brandon, Chagos and Tromelin were not mentioned in the Treaty of Paris.
In 1965, three years prior to the independence of Mauritius, the UK split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territory, the islands of Aldabra and Desroches from the Seychelles, to form the British Indian Ocean Territory. The UK forcibly expelled the archipelago's local population and leased its largest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States; the UK has restricted access to the Chagos Archipelago. The sovereignty of the Chagos is disputed between Mauritius and the UK. In February 2019, in an advisory opinion given by the International Court of Justice on this dispute, the ICJ ordered the UK to hand back the Chagos Islands to Mauritius as as possible; the people of Mauritius are multiethnic and multilingual. The island's government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, Mauritius is ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom; the Human Development Index of Mauritius is one of the highest in Africa. Mauritius is ranked as the most competitive and one of the most developed economies in the African region.
The main pillars of the Mauritian economy are manufacturing, financial services and information and communications technology. Mauritius is a welfare state. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island; the island was the only known home of the dodo, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities shortly after the island's settlement. The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502. From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507, Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island; the island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago.
In 1598, a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. The island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810, the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius. Mauritius is commonly known as Maurice and Île Maurice in French, Moris in Mauritian Creole; the island of Mauritius was uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages by Arab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. In 1507, Portuguese sailors came to the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European known to land in Mauritius, he named the island "Ilha do Cirne". The Portuguese did not stay. In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice of Nassau of the Dutch Republic.
The Dutch inhabited the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane, domestic animals and deer. It was from here; the first Dutch settlement lasted twenty years. Several attempts were subsequently made, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends, causing the Dutch to abandon Mauritius in 1710. France, which controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon, took control of Mauritius in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. In 1723, the Code Noir was established to categorise one group of human beings as "goods", in order for the owner of these goods to be able to obtain insurance money and compensation in case of loss of his "goods"; the 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis as a shipbuilding centre. Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are sti
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Twinings is an English marketer of tea and other beverages, including coffee, hot chocolate and malt drinks, based in Andover, Hampshire. The brand is owned by Associated British Foods, it holds the world's oldest continually-used company logo, is London's longest-standing ratepayer, having occupied the same premises on the Strand since 1706. The founder of Twinings was Thomas Twining from Gloucestershire in England, he opened Britain's first known tea room at No. 216 Strand, London, in 1706. The firm's logo, created in 1787, is the world's oldest in continuous use. Holder of a royal warrant, Twinings has been owned by Associated British Foods since 1964, it sells a variety of regional and flavoured teas such as the smoked Lapsang Souchong, the oil scented black tea Lady Grey, the oxidised Indian tea Darjeeling, as well as infusions and hot chocolate. The company is associated with Earl Grey tea, a tea infused with bergamot, though it is unclear when this association began, how important the company's involvement with the tea has been.
In 2005, Twinings introduced its first generic, non-speciality tea, under the brand "Everyday Tea". In 2006, it started producing a tinned chocolate drink. In 2007, it launched a selection of tinned coffees onto the market. Twinings owns a tea company based in Belfast and in trade for over 140 years. In April 2008, Twinings announced their decision to close the Nambarrie plant. Twinings said it needed to consolidate its UK manufacturing operations in the face of increasing global competition, moved some production to China and Poland in late 2011; the company launched a television advertisement in late 2011 which featured an animation of a woman struggling to row a boat in a storm, with the background song "Wherever You Will Go" by Londoner Charlene Soraia. The song reached No. 3 on the UK Singles Chart. Twinings said the advert aimed to metaphorically explain "the hectic lives that women today lead, how taking just 10 minutes out each day to reconnect with yourself can have such an impact on the rest of your day."Twinings released a new range of seven green tea infusions in February 2018 under the name'Superblends'.
The seven varieties were named "Energise", "Glow", "Defence", "Sleep", "Matcha", "Turmeric" and "Detox". In August 2018, Twinings published a list of all its tea suppliers in India on its Sourced with Care website; this came after Traidcraft Exchange called on all the major UK tea brands to show the public which tea plantations they buy from and crack down on modern slavery in the supply chain. Traidcraft Exchange welcomed the move, their policy adviser, Fiona Gooch, saying that it would put "pressure on the other big tea brands... to follow suit". The next month, Twinings launched their Cold Infuse range, a tea blend meant for use with cold water. Six flavours were released and were intended to be a healthy alternative to fizzy drinks. Twinings has an ethical programme named'Sourced with Care', which aims to improve the quality of life in the communities it sources from. Through its Sourced with Care programme, Twinings aims to improve the lives of 500,000 people in its supply chain by 2020 through enhancing livelihoods, enabling life opportunities and improving living standards.
One example of a project that falls under Sourced with Care is Twinings' long-term partnership with Unicef, originated in 2011, to improve the nutrition and protection status of adolescent girls on tea estates in Assam. This project won Twinings a National CSR Award in 2017 in the category of'International Sustainability Community.' In February 2018 Twinings and Unicef embarked upon Phase III of their partnership to reach more women and children across tea gardens in Assam. The company is a founding member of the Ethical Tea Partnership, a not-for-profit membership organisation of tea-packing companies that works to monitor and improve ethical conditions on tea estates in all major tea growing regions. However, the organisation has been criticised for its "focus on the large-scale producer". Twinings has an Ethical Code of Conduct and works with all its packaging and raw material suppliers to ensure decent working conditions in the supply chain; the following are some of Twinings black tea blends: English Breakfast – A blend of Assam and Ceylon teas.
Strong English Breakfast – A stronger blend of the English Breakfast. English Breakfast Fairtrade Organic – A Fairtrade-certified, organic English Breakfast blend. Everyday – A blend of Assam and Yunnan teas. English Afternoon – A blend of African and Ceylon teas. Irish Breakfast – A blend of Assam and Chinese teas. Australian Afternoon Assam – A blend of Assam teas. Earl Grey – A blend of tea with bergamot. Lady Grey – A blend of tea with lemon and bergamot. Ceylon – A blend of Sri Lankan teas. Darjeeling – A blend of Darjeeling teas. Turkish Apple Tea – A blend of Turkish tea and spiced apple The following are the blends from the Indulgence range: Lemon Drizzle – Green tea with lemon peel and cake pieces. Gingerbread – Green tea with ginger root and golden syrup. Salted Caramel – Green tea with salted caramel flavour. Cherry Bakewell – Green tea with cherry and almond flavour. Energise – Green tea with mandarin, apple and vitamin B6. Glow – Green tea with strawberry, aloe vera and biotin. Defence – Green tea with citrus, ginger root and vitamin C Sleep – Green tea with spiced apple, vanilla and passionflower.
Matcha – Green tea with cranberry and manganese. Turmeric – Green tea with turmeric, ora