Cheltenham College is a co-educational independent school, located in Cheltenham, England. One of the public schools of the Victorian period, it was opened in July 1841. A Church of England foundation, it is well known for its classical and sporting traditions, has 640 pupils. Two Cheltenham residents, G. S. Harcourt and J. S. Iredell, founded Cheltenham College in July 1841 to educate the sons of gentlemen, it opened in three houses along Bays Hill Terrace in the centre of the town. Within two years it had moved to its present site—with Boyne House as the first College Boarding House—and soon became known as Cheltenham College. Accepting both boarding and day boys, it was divided into Classical and Military sides until the mid-twentieth century; the 1893 book Great Public Schools by E. S. Skirving, S. R. James, Henry Churchill Maxwell Lyte contained a chapter on each of what they considered England's ten greatest public schools, it is now an independent fee paying school, governed by Cheltenham College Council.
A few girls were admitted in 1969 and in 1981 when the first girls' house opened, the Sixth Form became co educational. In 1998, girls were admitted to all other years, making the College co-educational. In 1865, a Junior Department was added to the main College buildings. In 1993 it opened its doors to girls and opened a pre-Prep department, for 3–7-year olds. In the First World War 702 Old Cheltonians were killed in the service of their country, a further 363 died in World War II. Cheltenham's military past is recognised by the fact that it is one of only three schools in England to have its own military colours. Queen Victoria School in Dunblane, Scotland has Colours; the names of those Old Cheltonians killed in World War I are recorded in the College Chapel, completed in 1896, which to a degree resembles King's College Chapel, Cambridge and is one of the chapels of an English public school. The names of those killed in the World War II are displayed on the memorial in the College's dining hall.
Cheltenham has 640 pupils between the ages of 13 and 18. The fees are upwards of £30,000 per annum, making it amongst the most expensive schools in the United Kingdom; the school is now co-educational and maintains a strong academic reputation, with the majority of pupils going to The Russell Group Universities, around 7% going on to Oxford and Cambridge universities. Both GCSE and A Level results are among the highest in Gloucestershire. There is a prep school, Cheltenham College Preparatory School, most of whose pupils go on to the senior school. Cheltenham has links with the Wynberg Boys' High School in Cape Town, South Africa—an all-boys boarding school coincidentally established in 1841, the same year as Cheltenham. Cheltenham College consists of a preparatory school and senior school and educates students from ages 3 to 18; the boarding programme is available to preparatory school students. Cheltenham has competing with larger single gender schools; the first inter-school rugby football match was played between Rugby School and Cheltenham College, Cheltenham beating Rugby.
Cheltenham reached the final of The National Schools 7s Festival four times in the last ten years, winning the competition in 1998, 2003 and 2004. Cheltenham's rugby XV was undefeated in the 2017 season. Of note, Eddie Butler, former Welsh and British Lions International Rugby player, now the main rugby commentator for the BBC, taught French at the school; the schools Director of Rugby is former Gloucester Rugby and England Rugby player Olly Morgan. The Boat Club was founded in 1841; the Boat House itself is located at the foot of Tewkesbury Abbey on the banks of the River Severn. Key events in the rowing calendar are. At the 2013 National School's Head of River, the 1st IV+ came first in their division. Cheltenham College plays Rackets where, at times, they have dominated the Queen's Club Public Schools Competition. Chris Stout won the Foster Cup at Queen's Club in December 2011; the current World Champion, Jamie Stout, is an Old Cheltonian as well. Cheltenham were National Schools Champions in 1997, 1998, 2004, & 2005 and Arena Champions in 2004, 2005 & 2006.
Cricket is one of the main sports, played in summer. Cheltenham College enjoys a longstanding tradition of cricket and is the home of the'Cheltenham Cricket Festival'. Gloucestershire County Cricket Club played its first game at the College cricket ground in 1872, making this the longest running cricket festival on an out-ground, in the world. There are eleven houses, two of which are day houses: Southwood for the boys and Queens for the girls. Ashmead, College Lawn and Westal are the girls' boarding houses; the boys reside in Boyne House, Hazelwell and Newick House. Leconfield hosts day students. Cheltenham College was used to film the majority of the school scenes in the popular 1968 British
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two main branches: physical science. Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics, chemistry and earth science; these branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches. In Western society's analytic tradition, the empirical sciences and natural sciences use tools from formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature"; the social sciences use such methods, but rely more on qualitative research, so that they are sometimes called "soft science", whereas natural sciences, insofar as they emphasize quantifiable data produced and confirmed through the scientific method, are sometimes called "hard science".
Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy traced to ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives and presuppositions overlooked, remain necessary in natural science. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, minerals, so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences. Philosophers of science have suggested a number of criteria, including Karl Popper's controversial falsifiability criterion, to help them differentiate scientific endeavors from non-scientific ones. Validity and quality control, such as peer review and repeatability of findings, are amongst the most respected criteria in the present-day global scientific community; this field encompasses a set of disciplines.
The scale of study can range from sub-component biophysics up to complex ecologies. Biology is concerned with the characteristics and behaviors of organisms, as well as how species were formed and their interactions with each other and the environment; the biological fields of botany and medicine date back to early periods of civilization, while microbiology was introduced in the 17th century with the invention of the microscope. However, it was not until the 19th century. Once scientists discovered commonalities between all living things, it was decided they were best studied as a whole; some key developments in biology were the discovery of genetics. Modern biology is divided into subdisciplines by the type of organism and by the scale being studied. Molecular biology is the study of the fundamental chemistry of life, while cellular biology is the examination of the cell. At a higher level and physiology look at the internal structures, their functions, of an organism, while ecology looks at how various organisms interrelate.
Constituting the scientific study of matter at the atomic and molecular scale, chemistry deals with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules and metals. The composition, statistical properties and reactions of these materials are studied. Chemistry involves understanding the properties and interactions of individual atoms and molecules for use in larger-scale applications. Most chemical processes can be studied directly in a laboratory, using a series of techniques for manipulating materials, as well as an understanding of the underlying processes. Chemistry is called "the central science" because of its role in connecting the other natural sciences. Early experiments in chemistry had their roots in the system of Alchemy, a set of beliefs combining mysticism with physical experiments; the science of chemistry began to develop with the work of Robert Boyle, the discoverer of gas, Antoine Lavoisier, who developed the theory of the Conservation of mass. The discovery of the chemical elements and atomic theory began to systematize this science, researchers developed a fundamental understanding of states of matter, chemical bonds and chemical reactions.
The success of this science led to a complementary chemical industry that now plays a significant role in the world economy. Physics embodies the study of the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces and interactions they exert on one another, the results produced by these interactions. In general, physics is regarded as the fundamental science, because all other natural sciences use and obey the principles and laws set down by the field. Physics relies on mathematics as the logical framework for formulation and quantification of principles; the study of the principles of the universe has a long history and derives from direct observation and experimentation. The formulation of theories about the governing laws of the universe has been central to the study of physics from early on, with philosophy yielding to systematic, quantitative experimental testing and observation as the source of verification. Key historical developments in physics include Isaac Newton's theory of universal g
McMurdo Sound and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres long and wide. The sound connects the Ross Sea to the north with the Ross Ice Shelf cavity to the south via Haskell Strait; the strait is covered by the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The Royal Society Range rises from sea level to 4,205 metres on the western shoreline. Ross Island, an historic jumping-off point for polar explorers, designates the eastern boundary; the active volcano Mount Erebus at 3,794 metres dominates Ross Island. Antarctica's largest scientific base, the United States' McMurdo Station, as well as the New Zealand Scott Base are on the southern shore of the island. Less than 10 percent of McMurdo Sound's shoreline is free of ice, it is the southernmost navigable body of water in the world. Captain James Clark Ross discovered this sound, about 1,300 kilometres from the South Pole, in February 1841, he named it after Lt. Archibald McMurdo of HMS Terror; the sound today serves as a resupply route for cargo ships and for airplanes that land on the floating ice airstrips near the McMurdo Station.
However, McMurdo Station's continuous occupation by human beings since 1957/58 has dirtied the harbor of Winter Quarters Bay. The pack ice that girdles the shoreline at Winter Quarters Bay and elsewhere in the sound presents a formidable obstacle to surface ships. Vessels require ice-strengthened hulls and have to rely upon escort by icebreakers; such extreme sea conditions have limited access by tourists, who otherwise are appearing in increasing numbers in the open waters of the Antarctic Peninsula. The few tourists who reach the McMurdo Sound find spectacular scenery with wildlife to be seen, including killer whales, seals, Adélie penguins, emperor penguins. Cold circumpolar currents of the Southern Ocean reduce the flow of warm South Pacific or South Atlantic waters reaching McMurdo Sound and other Antarctic coastal waters. Bitter katabatic winds spilling down from the Antarctic polar plateau into McMurdo Sound demonstrate Antarctica's status as the coldest and windiest continent in the world.
The McMurdo Sound freezes over with sea ice about 3 metres thick during the winter. The Antarctic summer causes the pack ice to break up. Wind and currents may push the ice northward into the Ross Sea, stirring up cold bottom currents that spill into the ocean basins of the world. Temperatures during the dark winter months at McMurdo Station have dropped as low as −51 °C; however and January are the warmest months, with average highs at −1 °C, according to USA Today. McMurdo Sound's role as a strategic waterway dates back to early 20th century Antarctic exploration. British explorers Ernest Shackleton and Robert Scott built bases on the sound's shoreline as jumping-off points for their overland expeditions to the South Pole. McMurdo Sound's logistic importance continues today. Aircraft transporting cargo and passengers land upon frozen runways at Williams Field on the McMurdo Ice Shelf. Moreover, the annual sealift of a cargo ship and fuel tanker rely upon the sound as a supply route to the continent's largest base, the United States' McMurdo Station.
Both the U. S. base and New Zealand's nearby Scott Base are on the southern tip of Ross Island. Ross Island is the southmost piece of land in Antarctica, accessible by ship. In addition, the harbor at McMurdo's Winter Quarters Bay is the world's southmost seaport; the access by ships depends upon favorable ice conditions. McMurdo Sound during austral winter presents a impenetrable expanse of surface ice. During summer, ships approaching McMurdo Sound are blocked by various concentrations of first-year ice, fast ice, hard multi-year ice. Subsequently, icebreakers are required for maritime resupply missions to McMurdo Station. Nonetheless, ocean currents and fierce Antarctic winds can drive pack ice north into the Ross Sea, temporarily producing areas of open water. A common event of unseen dimensions occurred on the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000 that wreaked havoc at McMurdo Sound more than five years later; the 282-kilometre long Iceberg B-15, the largest seen at the time, broke off from the Ross Ice Shelf in March 2000.
On 27 October 2005, B-15 broke up. Research based upon measurements retrieved from a seismometer placed on B-15 indicated that ocean swells caused by an earthquake 13,000 kilometres away in the Gulf of Alaska caused the breakup, according to a report by the U. S. National Public Radio. Wind and sea currents shifted a still massive Iceberg B-15A towards McMurdo Sound. B-15A's enormous girth temporarily blocked the outflow of pack ice from McMurdo Sound, according to news reports. Iceberg B-15A's grounding at the mouth of McMurdo Sound blocked the path for thousands of penguins to reach their food source in open water. Moreover, pack ice built up behind the iceberg in the Ross Sea creating a nearly 150-kilometre frozen barrier that blocked two cargo ships en route to supply McMurdo Station, according to the National Science Foundation; the icebreakers USCGC Polar Star and the Russian Krasin were required to open a ship channel through ice up to 3 metres thick. The last leg of the channel followed a route along the eastern shoreline of McMurdo Sound adjacent to Ross Island.
The icebreakers escorted the tanker USNS Paul Buck to McMurdo Station's ice pier in late January. The freighter MV American Tern followed on 3 February. Similar pack ice blocked a National Geographic expedition aboard the 34-metre Braveheart from reaching B-15A. However, expedition divers were able to explore the underwater world
St George's, University of London
St George's, University of London, is a medical school located in Tooting in South London and is a constituent college of the University of London. St George's has its origins in 1733, was the second institution in England to provide formal training courses for doctors. St George's affiliated with the University of London soon after the latter's establishment in 1836. St George's is affiliated to St George's Hospital and is one of the United Hospitals. St George Hospital Medical School was established in 1733 as part of St George's Hospital at Hyde Park Corner, in central London; the medical school was relocated, together with St George's Hospital to Tooting, South London in 1980. A joint faculty with Kingston University, the Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, has increased the variety of allied healthcare courses offered at St George's, including Nursing, Paramedic Science and Radiography. St George's was the first institution in the United Kingdom to offer a four-year graduate entry Medicine degree based on the program from Flinders University with which it has an exchange program.
The first intake was in 2000 with 35 students and the course has since been emulated by many other universities. Entry to the course is competitive with candidates being required to sit the GAMSAT as part of the application process. In 2008, St George's announced that it planned to merge with Royal Holloway to form a single institution within the University of London; the merger was called off in a joint statement by the two colleges' principals on 25 September 2009. St George's intends to keep working with Royal Holloway in the field of health and social care along with its well-established Joint Faculty with Kingston University. St George's, Kingston University and Royal Holloway will continue to collaborate in the field of health and social care as part of the existing SWan healthcare alliance; the St George's University of London campus is located in the Tooting area of south-west London, is co-located with St George's Hospital, a 1,300 bed major trauma centre. Teaching facilities at the campus include clinical skills laboratories and a simulation suite allowing students to practice based on real-life situations including surgical and medical emergencies.
The university library houses 42,000 books and subscribes to over 10,000 journals. The Rob Lowe Sports Centre located at the St George's Hospital grounds provided sporting facilities to students and staff, including a sports hall, three squash courts, weights and fitness rooms. However, the site has been decommissioned, with only the sports hall retained. Students have used other facilities instead, including the nearby Tooting Leisure Centre. St George's offers foundation and undergraduate degrees at its site in Tooting in medical and healthcare sciences, including: Biomedical Science BSc, Biomedical Science Foundation Degree, Healthcare Practice DipHE and BSc, Healthcare Practice Foundation Degree, Healthcare Science BSc, Medicine MBBS4, Medicine MBBS5, Medicine MBBS6, Physician Associate Studies MSc. In partnership with Kingston University, the joint Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences offers degrees in physiotherapy, paramedic science, midwifery, social work and diagnostic or therapeutic radiography.
St George's, in partnership with INTO University Partners, has formed a joint venture, INTO SGUL, to offer a Foundation in Medical and Health Sciences for international students whose qualifications do not allow direct progression into Bachelors level study in the UK, a six-year MBBS and a four-year graduate stream MBBS programme for international students, with clinical placements overseas. The first student cohort on each international MBBS programme entered St George's in September 2012. Outside of the UK, the MBBS4 is offered in Nicosia, through a partnership between St George's and the University of Nicosia; the new programme was inaugurated and the first student cohort commenced in Nicosia in September 2011. The programme at the University of Nicosia features international clinical placements in Israel and the USA. St George's offers numerous research and taught postgraduate degrees. St George's uses the integrated approach which involves the use of both Case Based Learning, Problem Based Learning and a traditional style of learning with the use of lectures and tutorials.
The degree of PBL used in teaching varies between courses, for example, being a major part of the Medicine course but not prominently within the Biomedical Sciences curriculum. Anatomy is taught at St George's through prosections and practical within the dissecting room, with anatomical dissection being optional as part of the Summer Dissection Programme. In the medical curriculum, preclinical teaching is based on lectures and tutorials held at the St George's campus, with a few weeks worth of attachments to various hospital departments; the third year of the undergraduate stream and second year of the graduate stream known as Transitional year, comprises three blocks of PBL with lectures and tutorials and three blocks of clinical placements in medicine and general practice. Subsequent clinical years of either course are spent on clinical placements of various specialities, with teaching occurring as lecture weeks prior to each placement block, or teaching which occurs at ho
Terra Nova Expedition
The Terra Nova Expedition the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between 1910 and 1913. It had various scientific and geographical objectives. Scott wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic in 1901–04, he wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole. He and four companions attained the pole on 17 January 1912, where they found that the Norwegian team led by Roald Amundsen had preceded them by 34 days. Scott's entire party died on the return journey from the pole; the expedition, named after its supply ship, was a private venture, financed by public contributions augmented by a government grant. It had further backing from the Admiralty, which released experienced seamen to the expedition, from the Royal Geographical Society; the expedition's team of scientists carried out a comprehensive scientific programme, while other parties explored Victoria Land and the Western Mountains.
An attempted landing and exploration of King Edward VII Land was unsuccessful. A journey to Cape Crozier in June and July 1911 was the first extended sledging journey in the depths of the Antarctic winter. For many years after his death, Scott's status as tragic hero was unchallenged, few questions were asked about the causes of the disaster which overcame his polar party. In the final quarter of the 20th century the expedition came under closer scrutiny, more critical views were expressed about its organization and management; the degree of Scott's personal culpability, more the culpability of certain expedition members, remains controversial. After Discovery's return from the Antarctic in 1904, Scott resumed his naval career, but continued to nurse ambitions of returning south, with the conquest of the Pole as his specific target; the Discovery Expedition had made a significant contribution to Antarctic scientific and geographical knowledge, but in terms of penetration southward had reached only 82° 17' and had not traversed the Great Ice Barrier.
In 1909 Scott received news that Ernest Shackleton's Nimrod Expedition had narrowly failed to reach the Pole. Starting from a base close to Scott's Discovery anchorage in McMurdo Sound, Shackleton had crossed the Great Ice Barrier, discovered the Beardmore Glacier route to the Polar Plateau, had struck out for the Pole, he had been forced to turn for home at 88° 23' S, less than 100 geographical miles from his objective. Scott had claimed prescriptive rights to the McMurdo Sound area, describing it as his own "field of work", Shackleton's use of the area as a base was in breach of an undertaking he gave Scott not to do so; this soured relations between the two explorers, increased Scott's determination to surpass Shackleton's achievements. As he made his preparations for a further expedition, Scott was aware of other polar ventures being planned. A Japanese expedition was being planned. Meanwhile, Roald Amundsen, a potential rival, had announced plans for an Arctic voyage. Sixty-five men formed ship's parties of the Terra Nova Expedition.
They were chosen from 8,000 applicants, included seven Discovery veterans together with five, with Shackleton on his 1907–09 expedition. Lieutenant Edward Evans, the navigating officer on Morning, the Discovery Expedition's relief ship in 1904, was appointed Scott's second-in-command, he abandoned plans to mount his own expedition, transferred his financial backing to Scott. Among the other serving Royal Navy personnel released by the Admiralty were Lieutenant Harry Pennell, who would serve as navigator and take command of the ship once the shore parties had landed, two Surgeon-Lieutenants, George Murray Levick and Edward L Atkinson. Ex-RN officer Victor Campbell, known as "The Wicked Mate", was one of the few who had skills in skiing, was chosen to lead the party that would explore King Edward VII Land. Two non-Royal Navy officers were appointed: Henry Robertson Bowers, known as "Birdie", a lieutenant in the Royal Indian Marine, Lawrence Oates, an Army captain from the 6th Dragoons. Oates, independently wealthy, volunteered his services to the expedition and paid £1,000 into its funds.
The Admiralty provided a naval lower deck, including the Antarctic veterans Edgar Evans, Tom Crean and William Lashly. Other seamen in the shore party included Patrick Keohane and Robert Forde, Thomas Clissold and Frederick Hooper. Two Russians, Dimitri Gerov and Anton Omelchenko landed. To head his scientific programme, Scott appointed Edward Wilson as chief scientist. Wilson was Scott's closest confidant among the party; as well as being a qualified medical doctor and a distinguished research zoologist, he was a talented illustrator. His scientific team – which Scott's biographer David Crane considered "as impressive a group of scientists as had been on a polar expedition" — included some who would enjoy careers of distinction: George Simpson the meteorologist, Charles Wright, the Canadian physicist, geologists Frank Debenham and Raymond Priestley. T. Griffith Taylor, the senior of the geologists, biologists Edward W. Nelson and Dennis G. Lillie, assistant zoologist Apsley Cherry-Garrard completed the team.
Cherry-Garrard had no scienti
Cardiff is the capital of Wales, its largest city. The eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom, it is Wales's chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural institutions and Welsh media, the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. At the 2011 census, the unitary authority area population was estimated to be 346,090, the wider urban area 479,000. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 21.3 million visitors in 2017. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations. Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan. Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry in the region contributed to its rise as a major city. In 1905, Cardiff was made a city and proclaimed the capital of Wales in 1955. At the 2011 Census the population was 346,090.
The Cardiff Built-up Area covers a larger area outside the county boundary and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. Since the 1980s, Cardiff has seen significant development. A new waterfront area at Cardiff Bay contains the Senedd building, home to the Welsh Assembly and the Wales Millennium Centre arts complex. Current developments include the continuation of the redevelopment of the Cardiff Bay and city centre areas with projects such as the Cardiff International Sports Village, a BBC drama village, a new business district in the city centre. Sporting venues in the city include the Principality Stadium—the national stadium and the home of the Wales national rugby union team—Sophia Gardens, Cardiff City Stadium, Cardiff International Sports Stadium, Cardiff Arms Park and Ice Arena Wales; the city hosted Commonwealth Games. The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014.
The Principality Stadium hosted 11 football matches as part of the 2012 Summer Olympics, including the games' opening event and the men's bronze medal match. Caerdydd derives from the earlier Welsh form Caerdyf; the change from -dyf to -dydd shows the colloquial alteration of Welsh f and dd, was also driven by folk etymology. This sound change had first occurred in the Middle Ages. Caerdyf has its origins in post-Roman Brythonic words meaning "the fort of the Taff"; the fort refers to that established by the Romans. Caer is Welsh for fort and -dyf is in effect a form of Taf, the river which flows by Cardiff Castle, with the ⟨t⟩ showing consonant mutation to ⟨d⟩ and the vowel showing affection as a result of a genitive case ending; the anglicised form Cardiff is derived from Caerdyf, with the Welsh f borrowed as ff, as happens in Taff and Llandaff. As English does not have the vowel the final vowel has been borrowed as; the antiquarian William Camden suggested that the name Cardiff may derive from *Caer-Didi, a name given in honour of Aulus Didius Gallus, governor of a nearby province at the time when the Roman fort was established.
Although some sources repeat this theory, it has been rejected on linguistic grounds by modern scholars such as Professor Gwynedd Pierce. Archaeological evidence from sites in and around Cardiff: the St Lythans burial chamber near Wenvoe,. A group of five Bronze Age tumuli is at the summit of the Garth, within the county's northern boundary. Four Iron Age hill fort and enclosure sites have been identified within Cardiff's present-day county boundaries, including Caerau Hillfort, an enclosed area of 5.1 hectares. Until the Roman conquest of Britain, Cardiff was part of the territory of the Silures – a Celtic British tribe that flourished in the Iron Age – whose territory included the areas that would become known as Breconshire and Glamorgan; the 3.2-hectare fort established by the Romans near the mouth of the River Taff in AD 75, in what would become the north western boundary of the centre of Cardiff, was built over an extensive settlement, established by the Romans in the 50s AD. The fort was one of a series of military outposts associated with Isca Augusta that acted as border defences.
The fort may have been abandoned in the early 2nd century. However, by this time a civilian settlement, or vicus, was established, it was made up of traders who made a living from the fort, ex-soldiers and their families. A Roman villa has been discovered at Ely. Contemporary with the Saxon Shore Forts of th
Clifton is both a suburb of Bristol and the name of one of the city's thirty-five council wards. The Clifton ward includes the areas of Cliftonwood and Hotwells. Other parts of the suburb lie within the ward of Clifton East. Notable places in Clifton include Clifton Suspension Bridge, Clifton Cathedral, Clifton College, The Clifton Club, Bristol Zoo, Goldney Hall and Clifton Down. Clifton is an inner suburb of the English port city of Bristol. Clifton was recorded in the Domesday book as Clistone, the name of the village denoting a'hillside settlement' and referring to its position on a steep hill; until 1898 Clifton St Andrew was a separate civil parish within the Municipal Borough of Bristol. Various sub-districts of Clifton exist, including Whiteladies Road, an important shopping district to the east, Clifton Village, a smaller shopping area near the Avon Gorge to the west. Although the suburb has no formal boundaries, the name Clifton is applied to the high ground stretching from Whiteladies Road in the east to the rim of the Avon Gorge in the west, from Clifton Down and Durdham Down in the north to Cornwallis Crescent in the south.
This area corresponds with the city wards of Clifton and Clifton East, although the former includes the riverside suburb of Hotwells. Clifton is one of the oldest and most affluent areas of the city, much of it having been built with profits from tobacco and the slave trade. Situated to the west of Bristol city centre, it was at one time a separate settlement but became attached to Bristol by continuous development during the Georgian era and was formally incorporated into the city in the 1830s. Grand houses. Although some were detached or semi-detached properties, the bulk were built as terraces, many with three or more floors. One famous terrace is the majestic Royal York Crescent, visible from the Avon Gorge below and looking across the Bristol docks. Berkeley Square and Berkeley Crescent, which were built around 1790, are examples of Georgian architecture. Secluded squares include the triangular Canynge Square; the Whiteladies Picture House on Whiteladies Road was converted into offices and a gymnasium in 2001 but it was re-opened as a cinema by Everyman Cinemas in 2016.
Clifton Lido was built in 1850 but closed to the public in 1990, it was redeveloped and opened again to the public in November 2008. On 17 December 1978 a bomb on Queen's Road in Clifton detonated; the Provisional IRA was responsible. Parts of Clifton itself are now in the process of being pedestrianised. Clifton ward, which includes Hotwells, has a population of 10,452 in 5,007 households, according to adjusted figures for the 2001 census. On the same basis, Clifton East ward has a population of 9,538 in 4,741 households. In Clifton ward, 27% of the adult population is in full-time education. North of Clifton is Durdham Down, a flat and open area, used for recreation purposes. On the western edge of Clifton is Clifton Down, a less open/more wooded area, adjacent to the gorge. Clifton is home to many buildings of the University including Goldney Hall, it has road links to the city centre and outer western suburbs, across the Clifton Suspension Bridge to Leigh Woods in North Somerset. Between 1893 and 1934, it was connected to Hotwells by the Clifton Rocks Railway.
Angela Carter - author Eliza Walker Dunbar - early female doctor Eugénie de Montijo - Empress Eugenie of France, wife of Napoleon III, was a student in Royal York Crescent where she was known as "Carrots" Keith Floyd - restaurateur and TV personality Catherine Grace - founder of St Christopher's School for students with special needs in 1945 W. G. Grace - cricketer and surgeon Francis Greenway - renowned Australian architect and designer of The Clifton Club John Grimshaw - founder of Sustrans and a voice for cyclists in the UK. Sarah Guppy - inventor and collaborator with Isambard Kingdom Brunel Charles Hansom - architect of Clifton College Henry Selby Hele-Shaw - engineer and inventor of the Hele-Shaw clutch, Professor at the University of Bristol Victoria Hughes - carer for prostitutes whilst cleaning the public toilets on Clifton Down Annie Kenney - leading suffragette Thomas MacAulay - historian Peter Nichols - actor and playwright at the Bristol Old Vic Frank Norman - novelist and playwright Peter O'Toole - actor starting his career at the Bristol Old Vic Svetlana Alliluyeva - known as Lana Peters, Stalin's daughter Ellen Sharples and Rolinda Sharples - artist family Tom Stoppard - playwright John Addington Symonds - writer Paule Vézelay - artist William West - artist and builder of Clifton Observatory Lewis Brindley - Videogaming Youtuber and Twitch stream, founder of the Yogscast.
J. D. Sedding - English church architect Elizabeth Martin-Silverstone - Canadian Paleontologist In Frances Burney's novel Evelina, young gentlemen are racing their phaetons on the public highways of Clifton, not without incident. Part of the background to Philippa Gregory's historical novel "A Respectable Trade" – dealing with the slave trade in late 18th-century Bristol – is the start of construction at Clifton a far area outside the city limits as they were at the time. In some passages characters debate whether Clifton could be