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Edward Witten

Edward Witten is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Witten is a researcher in string theory, quantum gravity, supersymmetric quantum field theories, other areas of mathematical physics. In addition to his contributions to physics, Witten's work has impacted pure mathematics. In 1990, he became the first physicist to be awarded a Fields Medal by the International Mathematical Union, awarded for his 1981 proof of the positive energy theorem in general relativity. Witten was born August 1951 in Baltimore, Maryland, to a Jewish family, he is the son of Lorraine Witten and Louis Witten, a theoretical physicist specializing in gravitation and general relativity. Witten attended the Park School of Baltimore, received his Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in history and minor in linguistics from Brandeis University in 1971, he published articles in The Nation. He worked for George McGovern's presidential campaign.

Witten attended the University of Wisconsin–Madison for one semester as an economics graduate student before dropping out. He returned to academia, enrolling in applied mathematics at Princeton University in 1973 shifting departments and receiving a Ph. D. in physics in 1976, studying under the 2004 Nobel laureate in Physics. He held a fellowship at Harvard University, visited Oxford University, was a junior fellow in the Harvard Society of Fellows, held a MacArthur Foundation fellowship. Witten was awarded the Fields Medal by the International Mathematical Union in 1990, becoming the first physicist to win the prize. In a written address to the ICM, Michael Atiyah said of Witten, Although he is a physicist his command of mathematics is rivaled by few mathematicians, his ability to interpret physical ideas in mathematical form is quite unique. Time and again he has surprised the mathematical community by a brilliant application of physical insight leading to new and deep mathematical theorems...

E has made a profound impact on contemporary mathematics. In his hands physics is once again providing a rich source of inspiration and insight in mathematics; as an example of Witten's work in pure mathematics, Atiyah cites his application of techniques from quantum field theory to the mathematical subject of low-dimensional topology. In the late 1980s, Witten coined the term topological quantum field theory for a certain type of physical theory in which the expectation values of observable quantities encode information about the topology of spacetime. In particular, Witten realized that a physical theory now called Chern–Simons theory could provide a framework for understanding the mathematical theory of knots and 3-manifolds. Although Witten's work was based on the mathematically ill-defined notion of a Feynman path integral and was therefore not mathematically rigorous, mathematicians were able to systematically develop Witten's ideas, leading to the theory of Reshetikhin–Turaev invariants.

Another result for which Witten was awarded the Fields Medal was his proof in 1981 of the positive energy theorem in general relativity. This theorem asserts that the total energy of a gravitating system is always positive and can be zero only if the geometry of spacetime is that of flat Minkowski space, it establishes Minkowski space as a stable ground state of the gravitational field. While the original proof of this result due to Richard Schoen and Shing-Tung Yau used variational methods, Witten's proof used ideas from supergravity theory to simplify the argument. A third area mentioned in Atiyah's address is Witten's work relating supersymmetry and Morse theory, a branch of mathematics that studies the topology of manifolds using the concept of a differentiable function. Witten's work gave a physical proof of a classical result, the Morse inequalities, by interpreting the theory in terms of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. By the mid 1990s, physicists working on string theory had developed five different consistent versions of the theory.

These versions are known as type I, type IIA, type IIB, the two flavors of heterotic string theory. The thinking was that out of these five candidate theories, only one was the actual correct theory of everything, that theory was the one whose low-energy limit matched the physics observed in our world today. Speaking at the string theory conference at University of Southern California in 1995, Witten made the surprising suggestion that these five string theories were in fact not distinct theories, but different limits of a single theory which he called M-theory. Witten's proposal was based on the observation that the five string theories can be mapped to one another by certain rules called dualities and are identified by these dualities. Witten's announcement led to a flurry of work now known as the second superstring revolution. Another of his contributions to physics was to the result of gauge/gravity duality. In 1997, Juan Maldacena formulated a result known as the AdS/CFT correspondence, which establishes a relationship between certain quantum field theories and theories of quantum gravity.

Maldacena's discovery has dominated high energy theoretical physics for the past 15 years because of its applications to theoretical problems in quantum gravity and quantum field theory. Witten's foundational work following Maldacena's result has shed light on this relationship. In collaboration with Nathan Seiberg, Witten established several powerful results in quantum field theories. In their paper on string theory and noncommutative geometry and Witten studied certain noncommutative

Everything (band)

Everything is an American alternative rock band from Harrisonburg, Virginia best known for their 1998 hit "Hooch". The band was formed in 1989 by students at James Madison University. Going on the road full-time in'92, they played 200-250 shows a year for nearly the next 10 years, starting in the mid-Atlantic, gradually expanding their grass roots fan base until it extended across half of the U. S; the band released its first 3 albums independently, selling 30,000 CDs before signing a brief and ill-fated deal with Capricorn Records in 1995. Larger scale success came when they signed with indie label Blackbird who funded the recording of the Super Natural album, whose uplift venture with Sire/London provided the radio and distribution muscle that got the breaking single "Hooch" to top radio stations around the world, their peak of popularity came in 1998, when "Hooch" was featured in Adam Sandler's movie, The Waterboy. From 1998 to 2000, it charted in the top 10 on Billboard's Pop and Hot AC charts, as well as top 20 on the Modern Rock charts.

The band reveled in their'new-found' popularity, playing radio shows and festival crowds around the country. "Hooch" has been heard in episodes of My Name Is Earl, Yes and Clueless, was featured on the soundtrack of the first season of the show Scrubs. Following the AOL/Time Warner merger, the subsequent dissolution of all joint ventures under the Warner Music Group umbrella, the band was independent once again, they released People Are Moving in a co-distribution deal with What Are Records in 2001; the band toured internationally in Japan and Korea, before deciding to take a hiatus. The band reconvened in 2004 to record the album In the Juju Underworld, not released until 2006. Richard Bradley Nate Brown Craig Honeycutt Mark Reinhardt David Slankard Stephen Van Dam Terence'Wolfe' Quinn Other membersPete Cordo Shaw Garrison Terry Harrison Ryan Nichols Randy Reed Doug Wannamaker Play Solid Labrador Super Natural #173 US People Are Moving In the Juju Underworld Everything Official website Everything riding Waterboy wave

Propositional attitude

A propositional attitude is a mental state held by an agent toward a proposition. Linguistically, propositional attitudes are denoted by a verb governing an embedded "that" clause, for example,'Sally believed that she had won'. Propositional attitudes are assumed to be the fundamental units of thought and their contents, being propositions, are true or false from the perspective of the person. An agent can have different propositional attitudes toward the same proposition. A number of software systems are now available to simulate propositional attitudes for industrial purposes, for customer relation management systems, decision support and content generation. Propositional attitudes have directions of fit: some are meant to reflect the world, others to influence it. One topic of central concern is the relation between the modalities of assertion and belief with intention thrown in for good measure. For example, we find ourselves faced with the question of whether or not a person's assertions conform to his or her beliefs.

Discrepancies here can occur for many reasons, but when the departure of assertion from belief is intentional, we call that a lie. Other comparisons of multiple modalities that arise are the relationships between belief and knowledge and the discrepancies that occur among observations and intentions. Deviations of observations from expectations are perceived as surprises, phenomena that call for explanations to reduce the shock of amazement. In logic, the formal properties of verbs like assert, command, deny, imagine, know, wish, a host of others that involve attitudes or intentions toward propositions are notorious for their recalcitrance to analysis.. One of the fundamental principles governing identity is that of substitutivity known as fungibility — or, as it might well be called, that of indiscernibility of identicals, it provides that, given a true statement of identity, one of its two terms may be substituted for the other in any true statement and the result will be true. It is easy to find cases contrary to this principle.

For example, the statements: Giorgione = Barbarelli, Giorgione was so called because of his size.are true. Quine's example here refers to Giorgio Barbarelli's sobriquet "Giorgione", an Italian name glossed as "Big George." The basis of the paradox here is that while the two names signify the same individual, the names are not themselves identical. What sort of name shall we give to verbs like'believe' and'wish' and so forth? I should be inclined to call them'propositional verbs'; this is a suggested name for convenience, because they are verbs which have the form of relating an object to a proposition. As I have been explaining, not what they do, but it is convenient to call them propositional verbs. Of course you might call them'attitudes', but I should not like that because it is a psychological term, although all the instances in our experience are psychological, there is no reason to suppose that all the verbs I am talking of are psychological. There is never any reason to suppose that sort of thing..

What a proposition is, is one thing. How we feel about it, or how we regard it, is another. We can accept it, assert it, believe it, command it, contest it, declare it, deny it, doubt it, enjoin it, exclaim it, expect it. Different attitudes toward propositions are called propositional attitudes, they are discussed under the headings of intentionality and linguistic modality. Many problematic situations in real life arise from the circumstance that many different propositions in many different modalities are in the air at once. In order to compare propositions of different colours and flavours, as it were, we have no basis for comparison but to examine the underlying propositions themselves, thus we are brought back to matters of logic. Despite the name, propositional attitudes are not regarded as psychological attitudes proper, since the formal disciplines of linguistics and logic are concerned with nothing more concrete than what can be said in general about their formal properties and their patterns of interaction.

Accessibility relation Affect Attitude Belief Disposition Habit Intensionality Knowledge Qualia Self-fulfilling prophecy Truth Awbrey, J. and Awbrey, S. "Interpretation as Action: The Risk of Inquiry", Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 15, 40–52. Cresswell, M. J. Structured meanings; the semantics of propositional attitudes. MIT Press, Cambridge & London 1985. Quine, W. V. "Quantifiers and Propositional Attitudes", Journal of Philosophy 53. Reprinted, pp. 185–196 in Quine, Ways of Paradox. Quine, W. V; the Ways of Paradox, Other Essays, 1st edition, 1966. Revised and enlarged edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976. Quine, W. V. From a Logical Point of View, Logico-Philosophical Essays, 2nd edition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Quine, W. V. "Reference and Modality", pp. 139–159 in Quine, From a Logical Point of View. Ramsey, F. P. "Facts and Propositions", Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 7, 153–170. Reprinted, pp. 34–51 in F. P. Ramsey, Philosophical Papers, David Hugh Mellor, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990.

Ramsey, F. P. Philosophica

Piranha (1995 film)

Piranha is a 1995 American made-for-television horror film directed by Scott P. Levy about a school of killer piranhas descending upon the bustling Lost River Lake Resort. Executive produced by Roger Corman for the Showtime network, the film is a remake of the 1978 film of the same name and part of the Piranha film series; the film features Mila Kunis in her debut role. During the night and her boyfriend David sneak into a closed down army test site, discovered a pool, they are attacked and killed by an unseen force in the pool. The next day, J. R. Randolph the uncle of Barbara, hires private investigator, Maggie McNamara, to investigate the incident, believing her to be a runaway. Maggie searches the area for any possible witnesses stopping by local homeowner Paul Grogan, asking for any knowledge of the girl's disappearance, he leads her to the army test site where they discover the pool. They enter to look for any clues; as she starts the draining. A scientist named Dr. Leticia Baines, encounters them and attacks Maggie and Paul to stop the draining but is too late to do so.

They investigate the bottom of the pool and discover a skeleton, which they believe is that of a dog. Baines crashes after losing consciousness; that night, she wakes up and informs them that a school of piranha lived in the pool that they had drained, are assumed to be headed to the river. Paul, knowing his daughter Susie was at a scout camp just downstream of the river joins Maggie and Paul to visit Randolph and try to convince him to shut down a grand opening of a resort just downstream, they fail, have to make many twists and turns to try and save people downstream. On the way to warn people of the piranha and Paul are arrested after Randolph had claimed that they lied about the piranha, dismissing it as "nonsense", they escape from custody to warn the people of Lost River. The piranha first make their way to the camp. Susie saves her friend Darlene. Darlene tries to save Laura but she falls in and the piranha kills her. Maggie and Paul make it to the camp. Paul saves his daughter and the kids.

Maggie is ignored. She and Paul arrive too late. Randolph now realizes his mistake. Maggie and Paul take a speedboat to the latter's old workplace, to open the valve containing toxins and spread them into the lake, in attempts to kill the piranha. Upon arrival, the control room is flooded, Paul must swim under to it and release the valve while Maggie stays in the boat counting to 200 before pulling him out; the piranha attacks Paul but he releases the valve, spreading the toxins. Maggie starts the boat's engines; as Maggie pulls out the rope, she discovers that it was cut loose, making her think that Paul didn't make it. A badly wounded but alive Paul surfaces from the water. J. R. Randolph commits suicide after he discovers that he will face legal action. After the horrific incident, the Mayor of Lost River announcing that the Piranha somehow are all dead, but at the ocean the trilling sounds of the Piranha are heard, turns out that half the Piranha have survived, made their way to the ocean. Alexandra Paul as Maggie McNamara William Katt as Paul Grogan Darleen Carr as Dr. Leticia Baines Soleil Moon Frye as Laura Dickinson James Karen as Governor Mila Kunis as Susie Grogan Kehli O'Byrne as Gina Green Richard Israel as Dave Kaz Garas as Sheriff Leland Orser as Terry Wechsler Ben Slack as Earl Lyon James E. Brodhead as Jack Monte Markham as J.

R. Randolph Lorissa McComas as Barbara Randolph Rather than shoot new special effects for the film, executive producer Roger Corman recycled the special effects from the original; the screenplay removes all of the humor and comedy. Dante and producer Jon Davidson expressed a dislike for the film in the audio commentary on the DVD for the original. Piranha on IMDb Piranha at Rotten Tomatoes Piranha at Letterbox DVD

Brushed metal

Brushed or dull polished metal is metal with a unidirectional satin finish. It is produced by polishing the metal with a 120–180 grit belt or wheel softening with an 80–120 grit greaseless compound or a medium non-woven abrasive belt or pad. Brushed metals include stainless steel and nickel. Brushed finishes are popular in both small appliances and whiteware, feature in architecture and automotive design; the Gateway Arch and DMC DeLorean are both clad in brushed stainless steel. The intensity of the brushed finish is specified as a surface roughness and is 0.5–1.5 micrometres Ra. Brushing gives metal a distinctive look, as it retains some but not all of its metallic lustre and is given a pattern of fine lines parallel to the brushing direction. For this reason, it is used for decorative items like jewelry and watches. A brushed finish is susceptible to damage. Brushed finishes typically have a detrimental effect on corrosion resistance. In particular the brushed texture limits the ability of fluid to bead on the material surface.

In the case of stainless steel the grooves of the finish can accumulate chloride ions which break down the chromium oxide passivation layer, enabling rusting to occur

Victor Șelin

Victor Șelin. He is the owner of the Moldovan cinema network "Patria", а monopolist in Moldova. Among other business he has, he owns the amusement park "Aventura Park", one of the largest and most famous amusement parks in Chisinau. According to the magazine "VIP Magazin", Victor Șelin founded the first private security agency in the Republic of Moldova. Victor Şelin is a graduate of the Faculty of Journalism of the State University of Moldova, he worked as editor at "Teleradio-Moldova" until 1989, when he left journalism, entering the business. He remained present in the field of journalism through the Russian newspaper "Vremea", which he is patronizing. Between 2003 and 2009, he was not a member of any party. In the elections of April 5, 2009, Victor Şelin ranks third in the list of the Social Democratic Party of Moldova, but was not on the list of repeated elections, to which the SDP was headed by former Prime Ministers Dumitru Braghiș and Vasile Tarlev, she was part of the formation "Plai Natal" and the Our Moldova Alliance, which she left in 2004 after a public quarrel with Serafim Urechean.

Victor Șelin is married and has two children