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Edward the Martyr

Edward the Martyr was King of England from 975 until he was murdered in 978. Edward was the eldest son of King Edgar the Peaceful. On Edgar's death, the leadership of England was contested, with some supporting Edward's claim to be king and others supporting his younger half-brother Æthelred the Unready, recognized as a legitimate son of Edgar. Edward was chosen as king and was crowned by his main clerical supporters, the archbishops Dunstan of Canterbury and Oswald of York; the great nobles of the kingdom, ealdormen Ælfhere and Æthelwine and civil war broke out. In the so-called anti-monastic reaction, the nobles took advantage of Edward's weakness to dispossess the Benedictine reformed monasteries of lands and other properties that King Edgar had granted to them. Edward's short reign was brought to an end by his murder at Corfe Castle in 978 in circumstances that are not altogether clear, his body was reburied with great ceremony at Shaftesbury Abbey early in 979. In 1001 Edward's remains were moved to a more prominent place in the abbey with the blessing of his half-brother King Æthelred.

Edward was reckoned a saint by this time. A number of lives of Edward were written in the centuries following his death in which he was portrayed as a martyr seen as a victim of the Queen Dowager Ælfthryth, mother of Æthelred, he is today recognized as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion. Edward's date of birth is unknown, he was in his teens when he succeeded his father, who died at age 32 in 975. Edward was known to be King Edgar's son, but he was not the son of Queen Ælfthryth, the third wife of Edgar; this no more is known from contemporary charters. Sources of questionable reliability address the identity of Edward's mother; the earliest such source is a life of Dunstan by Osbern of Canterbury written in the 1080s. Osbern writes; when Eadmer wrote a life of Dunstan some decades he included an account of Edward's parentage obtained from Nicholas of Worcester. This denied that Edward was the son of a liaison between Edgar and a nun, presenting him as the son of Æthelflæd, daughter of Ordmær, "ealdorman of the East Anglians", whom Edgar had married in the years when he ruled Mercia.

Additional accounts are offered by Goscelin in his life of Edgar's daughter Saint Edith of Wilton and in the histories of John of Worcester and William of Malmesbury. Together these various accounts suggest that Edward's mother was a noblewoman named Æthelflæd, surnamed Candida or Eneda—"the White" or "White Duck". A charter of 966 describes Ælfthryth, whom Edgar had married in 964, as the king's "lawful wife", their eldest son Edmund as the legitimate son of the king. Edward is noted as the king's son. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a supporter of Ælfthryth and Æthelred, but Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury appears to have supported Edward, a genealogy created at his Glastonbury Abbey circa 969 gives Edward precedence over Edmund and Æthelred. Ælfthryth was the widow of Æthelwald, Ealdorman of East Anglia and Edgar's third wife. Cyril Hart argues that the contradictions regarding the identity of Edward's mother, the fact that Edmund appears to have been regarded as the legitimate heir until his death in 971, suggest that Edward was illegitimate.

However, Barbara Yorke thinks that Æthelflæd was Edgar's wife, but Ælfthryth was a consecrated queen when she gave birth to her sons, who were therefore considered more "legitimate" than Edward. Æthelwold denied that Edward was legitimate, but Yorke considers this "opportunist special pleading". Edmund's full brother Æthelred may have inherited his position as heir. On a charter to the New Minster at Winchester, the names of Ælfthryth and her son Æthelred appear ahead of Edward's name; when Edgar died on 8 July 975, Æthelred was nine and Edward only a few years older. Edgar had been a strong ruler who had forced monastic reforms on a unwilling church and nobility, aided by the leading clerics of the day, Archbishop of Canterbury. By endowing the reformed Benedictine monasteries with the lands required for their support, he had dispossessed many lesser nobles, had rewritten leases and loans of land to the benefit of the monasteries. Secular clergy, many of whom would have been members of the nobility, had been expelled from the new monasteries.

While Edgar lived, he supported the reformers, but following his death, the discontents which these changes had provoked came into the open. The leading figures had all been supporters of the reform. Relations between Archbishop Dunstan and Bishop Æthelwold may have been strained. Archbishop Oswald was at odds with Ealdorman Ælfhere, Ealdorman of Mercia, while Ælfhere and his kin were rivals for power with the affinity of Æthelwine, Ealdorman of East Anglia. Dunstan was said to have questioned Edgar's marriage to Queen Dowager Ælfthryth and the legitimacy of their son Æthelred; these leaders were divided as to whether Æthelred should succeed Edgar. Neither law nor precedent offered much guidance; the choice between the sons of Edward the Elder had divided his kingdom, Edgar's elder brother Eadwig had been forced to give over a large part of the kingdom to Edgar. The Queen Dowager supported the claims of her son Æthelred, aided by Bishop Æthelwold. It

Young Conservatives (Czech Republic)

The Young Conservatives is a political youth organisation in the Czech Republic. It is the youth wing of the Civic Democratic Party, a centre-right political party, shares that party's conservative and economically liberal ideology. Young people within the age from 15 to 35 apply for a membership in the MK. Several significant politicians from the ODS party started as members of Young Conservatives, including Jan Zahradil, Jiří Pospíšil, Petr Sokol, Martin Baxa, Petr Gandalovič, Ivan Langer, Martin Novotný, Pavel Drobil. Former Chairman of Young Conservatives Petr Mach went on to found a new right-wing political party, the Party of Free Citizens. Current Chairman of Young Conservatives is David Vančík, in the office since 2019; the founding congress was held on 8 December 1991 as a result of previous preparations through Charter of Young Conservatives by a group of students at the University of Technology in Brno and Law Students' Association "Všehrd" from Faculty of Law at the Charles University.

First Chairman of the Young Conservatives we elected David Částek. Original ideological course of the Young Conservatives was given by the Charter of Young Conservatives following basic conservative principles: Democracy, Rule of Law, Free Market, Private Ownership and Morality. Through its history Young Conservatives were cooperating with the Civic Democratic Party. Organization defines its approach towards the European Union as Euroskeptic; the Young Conservatives organize wide range of events from meetings with local or national politicians to elections campaigns and international events. The most significant events since 1991 are listed below: Campaign in the Republic of Ireland for an Irish'no' vote in the 2002 referendum on the Treaty of Nice. Below are listed as follows Chairmen of the Young Conservatives. Young Conservatives Official Website

Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Cemetery

The Protestant Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Cemetery is a burial ground in the Westend district of Berlin with a size of 3.7 hectares. The cemetery is under cultural heritage protection; the cemetery is located on Fürstenbrunner way, adjacent to the cemetery Luisenfriedhof III and is connected by two paths. The Protestant Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church was established in 1896 due to the growing Lutheran population in West Berlin. Luisen parish gave the congregation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church a 4.7 hectare site for the founding of its own cemetery. The inauguration of the cemetery with the first burial took place on 25 July 1896. In 1903 a cemetery chapel was built; until they used the facilities at the adjacent cemetery, Luisenfriedhof III. The chapel was designed in Romanesque style and the dedication of the chapel took place on 27 September 1903. Unique among the chapels in Berlin cemeteries, was a burial vault system. In World War II the chapel was badly damaged; the chapel was rebuilt in 1978 with extensive renovations.

Notables buried include: Franz Betz, Bass-baritone opera singer, who sang at the Berlin State Opera from 1859–1897 Alfred Dührssen and obstetrician Woldemar Friedrich, Historical painter and illustrator Richard von Kaufmann, Minister of finance and art collector Otto von Gierke, Historian Alfred Goldscheider, Neurologist Otto Hirschfeld and professor of ancient history Joseph Joachim, Hungarian violinist, conductor and teacher Fedor Krause, Neurosurgeon Oskar Liebreich, Pharmacologist John Henry Mackay Alexander Merensky, Protestant missionary Henny Porten and film producer of the silent era John Rabe, helped to establish the Nanking Safety Zone Heinrich Reimann, Musicologist and composer Friedrich Spielhagen, Novelist Friedhof der Ev. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtnis-Kirche im Lexikon des Bezirks Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf