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Edwin B. Morgan

Edwin Barber Morgan was an entrepreneur and politician from the Finger Lakes region of western New York. He was the first president of Wells Fargo & Company, founder of the United States Express Company, director of American Express Company, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives from New York and served for three terms. Edwin Barber Morgan was born in the eldest son of Christopher and Nancy Morgan. Educated at the Cayuga Lake Academy, Morgan became a clerk in his father's mercantile enterprise at 13, at 21 he took over the business. Christopher Morgan was Edwin's brother, Lewis H. Morgan his cousin and Noyes Barber his uncle, he was a first cousin of Edwin Denison Morgan, governor of New York in 1859–1862. On September 27, 1829, Morgan married Charlotte Fidelia Wood of Aurora; the couple were the parents of a son and two daughters, Louise F. and Katharine. Morgan soon established a large enterprise in buying and shipping agricultural products, in boat-building, in which he was joined by his brothers.

With his brothers, he had extensive gypsum beds at Grand Rapids, a starch-making business at Oswego, New York. In addition to his business career, Morgan was active in the New York Militia as inspector of the 2nd Division, which included units from Cayuga, Ontario, Yates and Seneca Counties. According to New York's militia law, first passed in 1827, each division was authorized an inspector at the rank of colonel, each brigade an inspector at the rank of major, he was a director and first president of Wells Fargo & Company, organized March 18, 1852, by his fellow townsman Henry Wells, a founder of the American Express Company in 1850. Wells Fargo was developed to offer express mail and banking services to California, where thousands of people were being drawn as the Gold Rush spurred migration and development. In 1854 Morgan founded the United States Express Company to provide similar express mail services for the Southern states, it connected with Wells Fargo at Missouri. From about this time until his death in 1881, Morgan was a director of American Express.

By the time Morgan became involved, American Express had its headquarters in Manhattan. Morgan was first nominated for a seat in Congress in 1850. Morgan was elected to Congress in 1852 as a Whig, in 1854 as an Opposition Party candidate, in 1856 as a Republican, he represented New York's 25th congressional district from March 4, 1853, until March 3, 1859. In 1855–1856 he was chairman of the Committee on Patents. Morgan was one of the members of Congress who rescued Charles Sumner from the assault by Preston Brooks on May 22, 1856. Early in his Congressional service, Morgan resigned as president of Wells Fargo but remained a member of the board of directors, he was not a candidate for reelection in 1858. On July 20, 1858, he resigned his seat on the Wells Fargo board, N. H. Stockwell was elected to succeed him. In November 1858, Thomas M. Janes resigned, Morgan was again elected to the board. During the American Civil War, Morgan was active in equipping regiments from New York. In the postwar period, he became active with colleges.

He was a trustee of Cornell University from 1865 until 1874. Working with his friend Henry Wells to found a college for women, he was a charter trustee of Wells College from 1868 until 1881, where he served as president of the board from 1878 onward, he was a trustee of the Auburn Theological Seminary from 1870 to 1881. He supported the secondary school of Cayuga Lake Academy in Aurora as well. Morgan was a director of Wells Fargo until the beginning of 1867. After a brief retirement, he was elected to the board in 1868 and served until 1870. An original shareholder of The New York Times, Morgan came to the paper's rescue in the midst of its fight against William Magear Tweed in 1871. George Jones, the editor, feared. For $375,000, Morgan purchased enough stock to avert this, contributed materially to Tweed's eventual downfall. Morgan was physically and mentally quick-moving and incessantly active in old age, he died at Ledyard, New York on October 13, 1881, at the age of 75. Interment was at Oak Glen Cemetery in Aurora.

United States Congress. "Edwin B. Morgan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Margarethe Bence

Margarethe Bence was an American opera singer, who sang both mezzo-soprano and contralto parts and was active in German and Austria, including international festivals such as the Bayreuth Festival and the Salzburg Festival. Her repertoire included music from Baroque to contemporary premieres. Born in Kingston, New York in a German-American family on August 13, 1930, Bence began her voice studies in the United States, she toured with the Robert Shaw Chorale from 1950 to 1953, when she continued her studies in Stuttgart. Her teachers included Ellinor Junker-Giesen, she appeared first in concert in alto-parts of oratorios. In 1956 she joined the ensemble of the Württembergische Staatsoper, she studied a broad repertory, from Baroque to contemporary music, playing as both comic and tragic characters. She appeared as a guest artist, first in 1959 when the Stuttgart Opera performed Wagner's Parsifal at the Vienna State Opera, she was engaged there for Handel's Jephtha, with Fritz Wunderlich, for Janáček's Jenůfa.

In 1961, she appeared at the Opéra de Monte-Carlo as Annina in Der Rosenkavalier by Richard Strauss, which became one of her signature roles. From 1962 she was invited to international festivals, she performed at the Bayreuth Festival, in 1962 as Rossweisse and Waltraute in Der Ring des Nibelungen, the next year Erda in Das Rheingold and Siegfried, a small part in Parsifal. In 1965 she performed Rossweisse once more, she sang at the Bavarian State Opera first in 1963, the role of Babekan in the premiere of Werner Egk's Die Verlobung in San Domingo. In 1966, she appeared at the Schwetzingen Festival in the premiere of Hermann Reutter's Der Tod des Empedokles, she made her debut at the Salzburg Festival as Marcellina in Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro; the new production was staged by Günther Rennert and conducted by Karl Böhm, with Claire Watson and Ingvar Wixell as the noble couple, Reri Grist and Walter Berry as Susanna and Figaro, Edith Mathis as Cherubino. The production stayed in the repertory until 1971, always with Bence as Marcellina.

Bence moved to the Bavarian State Opera in 1970, where she sang among others Annina in the production conducted by Carlos Kleiber, recorded. She appeared as a guest internationally, including Berlin, Paris, Rio de Janeiro and San Francisco. From 1976 she was a member of the Vienna State Opera for eleven years, where she performed 266 times in 27 parts, she appeared at the Wiener Volksoper. From the 1970s, she was a voice teacher at the Musikhochschule Stuttgart, her students include Malin Hartelius and Anna Korondi. Bence died in Munich on April 1, 1992. 1963: Die Verlobung in San Domingo by Werner Egk – Bavarian State Opera 1966: Der Tod des Empedokles by Hermann Reutter – Schwetzingen Festival 1981: Baal by Friedrich Cerha – Salzburg Festival Berg: Lulu, Wiener Sofiensäle 1976, cond.: Christoph von Dohnányi – Garderobiere Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro, Salzburg Festival 1966, cond.: Karl Böhm – Marcellina Smetana: Prodaná nevesta, film 1976, cond.: Jaroslaw Krombholc – Ludmilla Strauss: Der Rosenkavalier, Bavarian State Opera 1973, cond.: Carlos Kleiber – Annina Wagner: Parsifal, Bayreuth Festival 1963, cond.: Hans Knappertsbusch – Second Knappe Bach: Mass in B minor, 35.

Deutsches Bachfest 1958, cond.: Hans Grischkat Bach: Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, BWV 80, Württembergisches Kammerorchester 1967, cond.: Helmuth Rilling Bach: Schleicht, spielende Wellen, BWV 206, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, cond.: Helmuth Rilling Bach: Der zufriedengestellte Aeolus, BWV 205, Bach-Collegium Stuttgart, cond.: Rilling Handel: Messiah, with Fritz Wunderlich and Otto von Rohr, 1959, cond.: Heinz Mende Mozart: Requiem, Stuttgarter Philharmoniker, cond.: Roland Bader Mendelssohn: Elias, Stuttgarter Philharmoniker 1963, cond.: Bader Pergolesi: Stabat mater, Stuttgart 1957, cond.: Frieder Bernius Reger: An die Hoffnung für Alt und Orchester, Op. 124, cond.: Hermann Scherchen Vivaldi: Gloria in D major, cond.: Marcel CouraudSources:, all retrieved 13 November 2016 Margarethe Bence on IMDb

Grass River (Manitoba)

The Grass River is a important waterway in the Hudson Bay drainage basin in the Northern Region of Manitoba, Canada. It begins at the Cranberry Lakes 27 kilometres east of Cranberry Portage and runs northeast 500 kilometres to its mouth on the Nelson River; the river was a critical route for earlier European explorers and was part of the "Upper Tract" of the fur trade into Canadian interior. The headwaters of the Grass River are in Third Cranberry Lake 27 kilometres east of Cranberry Portage, it flows north to Elbow Lake, turns south to Iskwasum Lake after which it continues easterly to Reed Lake. This portion of the river is within Grass River Provincial Park. After Reed Lake, the river enters Tramping Lake, followed by the Wekusko Falls, Wekusko Lake and eastwards to Setting Lake; the river passes Sasagiu Rapids Provincial Park, Pisew Falls Provincial Wayside Park. It enters Paint Lake and the Paint Lake Provincial Park. Continuing in a northeast direction, the Grass River passes through several remote lakes before its confluence with the Nelson River near Kelsey, Manitoba.

The river runs for 599 kilometres, drains a watershed of 15,400 square kilometres. The remote river flows through the Churchill River Upland portion of the Midwestern Canadian Shield forests and is surrounded by mixed forest with stands of black spruce, white spruce, jack pine, trembling aspen; the shoreline is characterized by steeply sloping irregular rock ridges and poorly drained areas of muskeg. Typical of the Canadian Shield, the river runs through rolling hilly terrain with abundant glacially scoured rock outcrops. Bird species include common loon, spruce grouse, bald eagle and hawk owl; the Grass River area is pristine and home to moose, black bear, lynx and beaver. There are migrating herds of woodland caribou along the river's length. Many portions of the river are not accessible, but there is some trapping and recreational fishing activity; the Grass River basin contains burbot, lake whitefish, northern pike, sucker and yellow perch. The Grass River was inhabited by the Shield Archaic peoples who migrated from the present-day Northwest Territories 5,000 years ago.

The many petrographs located along the river date to this period. 2,000 years ago, pottery was introduced to the region and the Woodland Cree emerged as the dominant culture in the area. In the 1700s, the river became an important route for Cree hunters travelling to York Factory at Hudson Bay to trade their furs; the first recorded Europeans to travel the Grass River were the Hudson's Bay Company fur traders and explorers Joseph Smith and Isaac Batt. In 1763, from York Factory they travelled up the Grass River to Cranberry Portage and over to Lake Athapapuskow and down into the Saskatchewan River system. Smith died on the return journey. In 1774, explorer Samuel Hearne paddled up the Grass River to establish Cumberland House. In the summer of 1794, surveyor and explorer David Thompson travelled up the Grass River for the first of many times in his career mapping the interior of North America. Several fur trading posts were established along the river, most notably at Reed Lake House and Cranberry Lake.

In the early 20th century there was a mining boom, which saw further exploration by prospectors and several mining operations. The course of the river was first noted in a 1760 map obtained by Moses Norton, the Factor at Churchill Fort from several Indian traders; the name "Grass River" was first documented on Samuel Hearne's map of 1776. In 1876 geologist Robert Bell surveyed the lower portions of the river, but it was not until 1896 when explorer Joseph Tyrell completed the first survey of its entire length. Tyrell recorded that the Cree name for the river was Muskuskow' Sipi, meaning "Grassy River"; the Grass River is a popular wilderness canoe route due to its pristine state, Indigenous rock paintings, scenic waterfalls, sport fishing. A trip down the full length of the river can take up to three weeks, but most canoeists travel shorter sections such as the Cranberry Portage to Split Lake route; the difficulty rating is intermediate, with advanced lake travel. List of rivers of Manitoba

Edward E. Willey Bridge

Edward E. Willey Bridge is a highway bridge which crosses the upper James River in the western portion of Henrico County, Virginia, it carries Chippenham Parkway between Parham Road in Henrico and the southwestern portion of the independent city of Richmond. It was named in honor of Edward E. Willey, a Pharmacist and State Senator in the Virginia General Assembly from 1952 to 1983, he died in 1986. Since the 18th century, bridges across the James River have been a major issue for residents of the City of Richmond, the former City of Manchester, the counties of Henrico and Chesterfield on the north and south sides respectively; the Willey Bridge and an adjacent portion of Chippenham Parkway were constructed with funds generated by a special continuation of tolls granted by the U. S. Congress for a period of time on a portion of the former Richmond-Petersburg Turnpike in the 1980s; this funding enabled the Willey Bridge to be opened as a toll free facility. The bridge began construction before 1988 and was complete in December 1989 along with the extension connecting it to the Chippenham Parkway.

The James River is shallow where the Willey Bridge crosses well above the falls of the river at Richmond. In contrast, at the south end of the Chippenham Parkway, a costly high-level bridge was required on the Pocahontas Parkway to cross over the navigable tidal portion of the same river downstream of the deepwater Port of Richmond; the bridge is a peculiar design. As you travel north on the bridge, it takes a left hand turn on the south end remains straight over the river and turns right on the north end. Coordinates: 37°33′34″N 77°34′17″W

Raging Wolf Bobs

Raging Wolf Bobs was a wooden roller coaster located at Geauga Lake amusement park in Ohio. Designed by Curtis D. Summers to resemble Bobs, a popular roller coaster at the defunct Riverview Park in Chicago, Raging Wolf Bobs was constructed by the Dinn Corporation and opened to the public in 1988, it operated until June 16, 2007, following an accident involving the derailing of a train that unexpectedly rolled backward on one of the track's hills. That season, park owners Cedar Fair announced the permanent closure of Geauga Lake, sealing the fate of Raging Wolf Bobs. Geauga Lake owner Funtime, Inc. planned to add a new roller coaster – the first in ten years – to celebrate the park's centennial anniversary in 1988. Dinn Corporation was hired to install the new ride with the help of Curtis D. Summers, who modeled the design of the roller coaster after Bobs, a famous coaster from the 1920s which operated at Chicago's Riverview Park until 1967. After an investment of $2.5 million, Raging Wolf Bobs opened to the public on May 28, 1988.

It was marketed with the slogan "The Legend of Terror Returns". Following the park's permanent closure in 2007, Raging Wolf Bobs was sold in an auction to an unnamed buyer for $2,500 on June 17, 2008. In 2011, the coaster's slow dismantling began, it was completed by early 2014. On June 16, 2007, a train rolled backward; the last car of a train derailed in the process, but there were no injuries. The incident, which caused significant damage, sidelined the attraction for the remainder of the season. Geauga Lake owner Cedar Fair announced the permanent closure of the amusement park on September 21, 2007, ending the attraction's run at Geauga Lake. Several years prior to the ride was retracked by Martin & Vleminckx. Incidents at Cedar Fair parks

Sexual mimicry

Sexual mimicry occurs when one sex mimics the opposite sex in its behavior, appearance, or chemical signalling. It is more seen within invertebrate species, although sexual mimicry is seen among vertebrates such as spotted hyenas. Sexual mimicry is used as a mating strategy to gain access to a mate, a defense mechanism to avoid more dominant individuals, or a survival strategy, it can be a physical characteristic that establishes an individual's place in society. Sexual mimicry is employed differently across species and it is part of their strategy for survival and reproduction. Examples of sexual mimicry in animals include the spotted hyena, certain types of fish, passerine birds and some species of insect among others; these are cases of intraspecific sexual mimicry, but interspecific sexual mimicry can occur in some plant species orchids. In plants employing sexual mimicry, flowers mimic mating signals of their pollinator insects; these insects are attracted and pollinate the flowers through pseudocopulations or other sexual behaviors performed on the flower.

Sexual mimicry can influence the species’ social system. The most common example is Crocuta crocuta. Female hyenas resemble male hyenas in their sexual anatomy: the females have peniform clitorises, resembling a penis, false scrotal sacs; these characteristics, as well as high androgen levels in their blood, make for aggressive females, which results in their dominance over males. Within the female population in each clan, there are different ranks: the dominant females, who reproduce at an earlier age and get more access to food, the non-dominant females, their dominance is passed from mother to daughter. By contrast, male spotted hyenas gain their social status with the length of their stay in the clan; the males leave their clan between the ages of two and six and join a different clan where they gain status with age. Males foster amicable relationships with the females to stabilize their position in the social hierarchy; because females are the dominant sex among spotted hyenas, they are the most respected.

Subordinate female hyenas initiate a ‘greeting’ with dominant female hyenas as a sign of respect and are forced to do so if they refuse. This greeting used by hyenas reflects the asymmetry of their ranking. By lifting its hind legs, the hyena being greeted exposes its most vulnerable body part to the other individual, an act that reflects inferiority; as well, when its hind legs are lifted, a scent can be identified by the other individual. Subordinate hyenas expose their scent more than high-ranking hyenas; this greeting, however, is not seen between males and adult females. In the spotted hyenas, the only way for the males to mate with the females is if they have the female's full cooperation because of the female's peniform clitoris. An increase in the male's status gave them more access to dominant females in the clan. Female dominant hyenas do not mate with multiple males due to the cost of cleaning their genitalia, which hyenas are seen doing after copulation; because they will get access to the most dominant and better fit males, they do not need to copulate with multiple males to produce offspring of higher fitness.

Non-dominant females are observed copulating more with lower-ranking males. It is costly for female hyenas to give birth through their long peniform clitoris; the umbilical cord is 12 -- 18 cm long. The umbilical cord breaks before the cub emerges, leading to death by anoxia for many young; this journey is not only harmful for the cubs, but for the mother. The tissue of the clitoris will sometimes rip open when giving birth for the first time which can be fatal to the mother. Female spotted hyenas are the choosy sex because they invest in parental care as well as being the dominant sex in the clan. However, males are to still have a preference for a particular female as it is seen in other animals. Males associate more with females that are fertile, a state most noticed through olfactory cues. While middle/high-ranking males associate with high-ranking females, low-ranking males associate with high and low-ranking females. Associating with low-ranking females may be due to low-ranking males failing to recognize the reproductive success of high-ranking females or using a different type of reproductive strategy.

Males tend to spend lot of time with the female they mate with before conception to avoid other males coming in close contact with her. Sexual mimicry is used as a mate-guarding strategy by some species. Mate-guarding is a process in which a member of a species prevents another member of the same species from mating with their partner. Mate-guarding is seen in Cotesia rubecula, a parasitic wasp from the family Braconidae whose mating system is polygynous. Males are attracted to females through pheromones and they induce females to mate through vibrations, to which the female responds by assuming a specific position; when a male who has copulated with a female sees another male trying to court her, he will adopt the female receptive position. Post-copulatory female mimicry by the male offers