New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
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Taylorsville High School
Taylorsville High School is a public high school established in 1981, located in Taylorsville, United States. The principal is Mrs. Emily Liddell; the mascot is the Wilbur the Warrior. The current enrollment represents many different ethnic groups. Taylorsville High is one of eight high schools in Granite School District. Taylorsville High is located in the central part of the Salt Lake Valley and was built in 1981 to serve the growing population of the Taylorsville area. School boundaries are Jordan River to 3100 West and 4100 South to 6600 South; as of the 2017-18 school year, 1,762 students are enrolled at Taylorsville High School. Taylorsville has immense pride in its history and continues to strive to improve and excel academically. Taylorsville has successful programs for AVID, JROTC and Latinos in Action, along with large AP program. Mrs. Emily Liddell- Principal Emily Liddell assumed the position of principal on March 5, 2018 after Dr. Garrett Muse was appointed Director of High School Accountability for the Granite School District.
Mr. Jami Hutchins- Assistant Principal Mr. Jordan Kjar- Assistant Principal Mr. Brian Murray- Assistant Principal Dr. A Earl Catumull 1981-1986 K. Wendall Sullivan 1986-1988 Michael B. Cannon 1988-1993 Dr. David Gourley 1993-2003 Jerry Haslam- 2003-2010 Dr. Garett Muse- 2010-2018 Taylorsville High offers nineteen different Advanced Placement courses along with several Honors courses in core subjects. Advanced Placement courses are created by the College Board and offer college-level material and exams to high school students. Students may receive course credit at colleges and universities across the country, if they earn a high score on the exam. Taylorsville offers Concurrent Enrollment classes, these are college-level classes which are offered to juniors and seniors, in which students can earn both high school and college credit at the same time. Concurrent Enrollment classes are taught by Taylorsville faculty who have been approved by Salt Lake Community College or Utah Valley University as adjunct faculty members.
Concurrent enrollment credit can be transferred to most state colleges. Taylorsville has a large AVID program, was recognized as an AVID Highly Certified Site for 2017–18. AVID is an in-school academic support program that helps prepare students for college, by teaching them skills needed to succeed in college. AVID places academically average students in Honors, CE, AP classes and provides support to help the student see success in these more advanced classes; the AVID program continues to have a 100% college acceptance rate, meaning every AVID senior has been accepted into a college or university. In Jan of 1994, Taylorsville High was approved to offer a JROTC program to students. Taylorsville's JROTC program has earned the Unit of Distinction Award seven out of eight years possible; the program still is the only JROTC program in the state that does so. The program teaches students the Army values, helps students get back on track or stay on track for graduation, excellent leadership skills to use throughout their life.
The original JROTC instructors were Lieutenant Colonel Horton and First Sergeant Heikel, the program is under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Andersen and Sergeant First Class Wilson. Taylorsville has an established Journalism program and has received national awards for the school newspaper, The Warrior Ledger; the American Scholastic Press Association has awarded The Warrior Ledger, with top honors, three years in a row. The school's reputation for legacy has been demonstrated in competitions in organizations such as FBLA, DECA, FCCLA and SkillsUSA. In a region competition, the FBLA club came in fifth place overall, the region covers three counties. Taylorsville competes as a member of Region III at the 6A level as part of the Utah High School Activities Association. Region III consists of Copper Hills, Riverton, West Jordan, East as a football only member. Taylorsville High School will be moving into 6A Region II for the 2019-2020 and 2020-2021 school years with Cyprus, Hunter, West Jordan, West as a football only member.
The Athletic Directors are Rebecca Elkins. Taylorsville High has won 17 team state championships since 1981, including 10 baseball championships. 1984 4A Boys Golf- State Runner Up: 1983, 1993 1988 4A Volleyball 1989 4A Girls Basketball- State Runner Up: 1987, 1988, 2002 1997 5A Softball 1998 5A Wrestling- State Runner Up: 1994 21 Individual State Championships have been earned by Taylorsville wrestlers, most notably: Justin Ruiz, had a long and decorated wrestling career, highlighted by earning a bronze medal at the 2005 World Championships. Justin has continued his wrestling career, as a coach. Kyle Thornock Roy Nash, Named Win Magazine's Wrestler of the Year for the state of Utah in 2013. Roy was the only state champion in the entire state to go undefeated during the 2013 season. Roy was ranked #1 in the country in Greco-Roman style wrestling for his age and weight class. 2000 5A Boys Swimming- State Runner Up: 1995, 1999 2007 5A Softball- State Runner Up: 1996, 2008, 2014 Boys Basketball- 1995, 2002, 2014 Girls Basketball- 1988, 1989, 1993, 2002, 2012 Boys Cross Country- 1988, 2001, 2004 Drill- 1995, 2004 Boys Soccer- 1988, 1989, 1994, 1996, 2002, 2014 Girls Soccer- 1990, 1992, 2000 Boys Track- 1989, 2002, 2003, 2004 Girls Track- 2
George Walton Lucas Jr. is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur. Lucas is known for creating the Star Wars and Indiana Jones franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts and Industrial Light & Magic, he was the chairman and CEO of Lucasfilm before selling it to The Walt Disney Company in 2012. After graduating from the University of Southern California in 1967, Lucas co-founded American Zoetrope with filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola. Lucas wrote and directed THX 1138, based on his earlier student short Electronic Labyrinth: THX 1138 4EB, a critical success but a financial failure, his next work as a writer-director was the film American Graffiti, inspired by his youth in early 1960s Modesto and produced through the newly founded Lucasfilm. The film was critically and commercially successful, received five Academy Award nominations including Best Picture. Lucas' next film, the epic space opera Star Wars, had a troubled production but was a surprise hit, becoming the highest-grossing film at the time, winning six Academy Awards and sparking a cultural phenomenon.
Lucas cowrote the sequels The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. With director Steven Spielberg, he created the Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, The Last Crusade, he produced and wrote a variety of films through Lucasfilm in the 1980s and 1990s and during this same period Lucas' LucasArts developed high-impact video games, including Maniac Mansion, The Secret of Monkey Island and Grim Fandango alongside many video games based on the Star Wars universe. In 1997, Lucas rereleased the Star Wars trilogy as part of a Special Edition, featuring several alterations, he returned to directing with the Star Wars prequel trilogy, comprising The Phantom Menace, Attack of the Clones, Revenge of the Sith. He collaborated on served as executive producer for the war film Red Tails and wrote the CGI film Strange Magic. Lucas is one of the American film industry's most financially successful filmmakers and has been nominated for four Academy Awards, his films are among the 100 highest-grossing movies at the North American box office, adjusted for ticket-price inflation.
Lucas is considered a significant figure in the New Hollywood era. Lucas was born and raised in Modesto, the son of Dorothy Ellinore Lucas and George Walton Lucas Sr. and is of German, Swiss-German, English and distant Dutch and French descent. He was interested including TV shows such as Flash Gordon. Long before Lucas began making films, he yearned to be a racecar driver, he spent most of his high school years racing on the underground circuit at fairgrounds and hanging out at garages. On June 12, 1962, at age eighteen, while driving his souped-up Autobianchi Bianchina, another driver broadsided him, flipping over his car, nearly killing him, causing him to lose interest in racing as a career. Lucas's father owned a stationery store, wanted George to work for him when he turned 18. Lucas had been planning to go to art school, declared upon leaving home that he would be a millionaire by the age of 30, he attended Modesto Junior College, where he studied anthropology and literature, amongst other subjects.
He began shooting with an 8 mm camera, including filming car races. At this time and his friend John Plummer became interested in Canyon Cinema: screenings of underground, avant-garde 16 mm filmmakers like Jordan Belson, Stan Brakhage, Bruce Conner. Lucas and Plummer saw classic European films of the time, including Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, François Truffaut's Jules et Jim, Federico Fellini's 8½. "That's when George started exploring," Plummer said. Through his interest in autocross racing, Lucas met renowned cinematographer Haskell Wexler, another race enthusiast. Wexler to work with Lucas on several occasions, was impressed by Lucas' talent. "George had a good eye, he thought visually," he recalled. Lucas transferred to the University of Southern California School of Cinematic Arts. USC was one of the earliest universities to have a school devoted to motion picture film. During the years at USC, Lucas shared a dorm room with Randal Kleiser. Along with classmates such as Walter Murch, Hal Barwood, John Milius, they became a clique of film students known as The Dirty Dozen.
He became good friends with fellow acclaimed student filmmaker and future Indiana Jones collaborator, Steven Spielberg. Lucas was influenced by the Filmic Expression course taught at the school by filmmaker Lester Novros which concentrated on the non-narrative elements of Film Form like color, movement and time. Another inspiration was the Serbian montagist Slavko Vorkapić, a film theoretician who made stunning montage sequences for Hollywood studio features at MGM, RKO, Paramount. Vorkapich taught the autonomous nature of the cinematic art form, emphasizing kinetic energy inherent in motion pictures. Lucas saw many inspiring films in class the visual films coming out of the National Film Board of Canada like Arthur Lipsett's 21-87, the French-Canadian cameraman Jean-Claude Labrecque's cinéma vérité 60 Cycles, the work of Norman McLaren, the documentaries of Claude Jutra. Lucas fell madly in love with pure cinema and became prolific at making 16 mm nonstory noncharacter visual tone poems and cinéma vérité with such titles as Look at Life, Herbie, 1:42.08, The Emperor, Anyone Lived in a Pretty Town, 6-18-67.
He was passionate and interested in camerawork an
3D computer graphics
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data, stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing or displayed in real-time. 3D computer graphics rely on many of the same algorithms as 2D computer vector graphics in the wire-frame model and 2D computer raster graphics in the final rendered display. In computer graphics software, 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting, 3D may use 2D rendering techniques. 3D computer graphics are referred to as 3D models. Apart from the rendered graphic, the model is contained within the graphical data file. However, there are differences: a 3D model is the mathematical representation of any three-dimensional object. A model is not technically a graphic. A model can be displayed visually as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering or used in non-graphical computer simulations and calculations.
With 3D printing, 3D models are rendered into a 3D physical representation of the model, with limitations to how accurate the rendering can match the virtual model. William Fetter was credited with coining the term computer graphics in 1961 to describe his work at Boeing. One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld, which included an animation of a human face and a hand that had appeared in the 1972 experimental short A Computer Animated Hand, created by University of Utah students Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.3D computer graphic s software began appearing for home computers in the late 1970s. The earliest known example is 3D Art Graphics, a set of 3D computer graphics effects, written by Kazumasa Mitazawa and released in June 1978 for the Apple II. 3D computer graphics creation falls into three basic phases: 3D modeling – the process of forming a computer model of an object's shape Layout and animation – the placement and movement of objects within a scene 3D rendering – the computer calculations that, based on light placement, surface types, other qualities, generate the image The model describes the process of forming the shape of an object.
The two most common sources of 3D models are those that an artist or engineer originates on the computer with some kind of 3D modeling tool, models scanned into a computer from real-world objects. Models can be produced procedurally or via physical simulation. A 3D model is formed from points called vertices that define the shape and form polygons. A polygon is an area formed from at least three vertexes. A polygon of n points is an n-gon; the overall integrity of the model and its suitability to use in animation depend on the structure of the polygons. Materials and textures are properties that the render engine uses to render the model, in an unbiased render engine like blender cycles, one can give the model materials to tell the engine how to treat light when it hits the surface. Textures are used to give the material color using a color or albedo map, or give the surface features using a bump or normal map, it can be used to deform the model itself using a displacement map. Before rendering into an image, objects must be laid out in a scene.
This defines spatial relationships including location and size. Animation refers to the temporal description of an object; these techniques are used in combination. As with animation, physical simulation specifies motion. Rendering converts a model into an image either by simulating light transport to get photo-realistic images, or by applying an art style as in non-photorealistic rendering; the two basic operations in realistic rendering are scattering. This step is performed using 3D computer graphics software or a 3D graphics API. Altering the scene into a suitable form for rendering involves 3D projection, which displays a three-dimensional image in two dimensions. Although 3D modeling and CAD software may perform 3D rendering as well, exclusive 3D rendering software exists. 3D computer graphics software produces computer-generated imagery through 3D modeling and 3D rendering or produces 3D models for analytic and industrial purposes. 3D modeling software is a class of 3D computer graphics. Individual programs of this class are called modeling modelers.
3D modelers allow users to alter models via their 3D mesh. Users can add, subtract and otherwise change the mesh to their desire. Models can be viewed from a variety of angles simultaneously. Models can be rotated and the view can be zoomed in and out. 3D modelers can export their models to files, which can be imported into other applications as long as the metadata are compatible. Many modelers allow importers and exporters to be plugged-in, so they can read and write data in the native formats of other applications. Most 3D modelers contain a number of related features, such as ray tracers and other rendering alternatives and texture mapping facilities; some contain features that support or allow animation of models. Some may be able to generate full-motion video of a series of rendered scenes. Computer aided design software may employ the same fundamental 3D modeling techniques that 3D modeling software use but their goal differs, they are used in computer-aided engineering, computer-aided man
Texture mapping is a method for defining high frequency detail, surface texture, or color information on a computer-generated graphic or 3D model. Its application to 3D graphics was pioneered by Edwin Catmull in 1974. Texture mapping referred to a method that wrapped and mapped pixels from a texture to a 3D surface. In recent decades, the advent of multi-pass rendering and complex mapping such as height mapping, bump mapping, normal mapping, displacement mapping, reflection mapping, specular mapping, occlusion mapping, many other variations on the technique have made it possible to simulate near-photorealism in real time by vastly reducing the number of polygons and lighting calculations needed to construct a realistic and functional 3D scene. A texture map is an image applied to the surface of a polygon; this may be a procedural texture. They may be stored in common image file formats, referenced by 3d model formats or material definitions, assembled into resource bundles, they may have 1-3 dimensions.
For use with modern hardware, texture map data may be stored in swizzled or tiled orderings to improve cache coherency. Rendering APIs manage texture map resources as buffers or surfaces, may allow'render to texture' for additional effects such as post processing, environment mapping, they contain RGB color data, sometimes an additional channel for alpha blending for billboards and decal overlay textures. It is possible to use the alpha channel for other uses such as specularity. Multiple texture maps may be combined for control over specularity, displacement, or subsurface scattering e.g. for skin rendering. Multiple texture images may be combined in texture atlases or array textures to reduce state changes for modern hardware.. Modern hardware supports cube map textures with multiple faces for environment mapping. Texture maps may be acquired by scanning/digital photography, authored in image manipulation software such as GIMP, Photoshop, or painted onto 3D surfaces directly in a 3D paint tool such as Mudbox or zbrush.
This process is akin to applying patterned paper to a plain white box. Every vertex in a polygon is assigned a texture coordinate; this may be done through explicit assignment of vertex attributes, manually edited in a 3D modelling package through UV unwrapping tools. It is possible to associate a procedural transformation from 3d space to texture space with the material; this might be accomplished via planar projection or, cylindrical or spherical mapping. More complex mappings may consider the distance along a surface to minimize distortion; these coordinates are interpolated across the faces of polygons to sample the texture map during rendering. Textures may be repeated or mirrored to extend a finite rectangular bitmap over a larger area, or they may have a one-to-one unique "injective" mapping from every piece of a surface. Texture mapping maps the model surface into texture space. UV unwrapping tools provide a view in texture space for manual editing of texture coordinates; some rendering techniques such as subsurface scattering may be performed by texture-space operations.
Multitexturing is the use of more than one texture at a time on a polygon. For instance, a light map texture may be used to light a surface as an alternative to recalculating that lighting every time the surface is rendered. Microtextures or detail textures are used to add higher frequency details, dirt maps may add weathering and variation. Modern graphics may use more than 10 layers, for greater fidelity. Another multitexture technique is bump mapping, which allows a texture to directly control the facing direction of a surface for the purposes of its lighting calculations. Bump mapping has become popular in recent video games, as graphics hardware has become powerful enough to accommodate it in real-time; the way that samples are calculated from the texels is governed by texture filtering. The cheapest method is to use the nearest-neighbour interpolation, but bilinear interpolation or trilinear interpolation between mipmaps are two used alternatives which reduce aliasing or jaggies. In the event of a texture coordinate being outside the texture, it is either wrapped.
Anisotropic filtering better eliminates directional artefacts when viewing textures from oblique viewing angles. As an optimization, it is possible to render detail from a high resolution model or expensive process into a surface texture; this is known as render mapping. This technique is most used for lightmapping but may be used to generate normal maps and displacement maps; some video games have used this technique. The original Quake software engine used on-the-fly baking to combi
John Alan Lasseter is an American animator and former chief creative officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios and the defunct Disneytoon Studios. He was the Principal Creative Advisor for Walt Disney Imagineering. Lasseter began his career as an animator with The Walt Disney Company. After being fired from Disney for promoting computer animation, he joined Lucasfilm, where he worked on the then-groundbreaking use of CGI animation; the Graphics Group of the Computer Division of Lucasfilm was sold to Steve Jobs and became Pixar in 1986. Lasseter associated projects as executive producer. In addition, he directed Toy Story, A Bug's Life, Toy Story 2, Cars 2. From 2006 to 2018, Lasseter oversaw all of Walt Disney Animation Studios' films and associated projects as executive producer; the films he has made have grossed more than $19 billion, making him one of the most successful filmmakers of all time. Of the seven animated films that have grossed more than $1 billion, five of them are films executive produced by Lasseter.
The films include Toy Story 3, the first animated film to pass $1 billion, the current highest-grossing animated film of all time, as well as Zootopia, Finding Dory, Incredibles 2. He has won two Academy Awards, for Best Animated Short Film, as well as a Special Achievement Award. In November 2017, Lasseter took a six-month sabbatical from Pixar and Disney Animation after acknowledging "missteps" in his behavior with employees. According to various news outlets, Lasseter had a history of alleged sexual misconduct towards employees. In June 2018, Disney announced that he would be leaving the company at the end of the year when his contract expired, but would take on a consulting role until then. On January 9, 2019, Lasseter was hired to head Skydance Animation. Lasseter was born in California, his mother, Jewell Mae, was an art teacher at Bell Gardens High School, his father, Paul Eual Lasseter, was a parts manager at a Chevrolet dealership. Lasseter is a fraternal twin. Lasseter grew up in California.
His mother's profession contributed to his growing preoccupation with animation. He drew cartoons during church services at the Church of Christ his family attended; as a child, Lasseter would race home from school to watch Chuck Jones cartoons on television. While in high school, he read The Art of Animation by Bob Thomas; the book covered the history of Disney animation and explored the making of Disney's 1959 film Sleeping Beauty, which made Lasseter realize he wanted to do animation himself. When he saw Disney's 1963 film The Sword in the Stone, he made the decision that he should become an animator. Lasseter heard of a new character animation program at the California Institute of the Arts and decided to follow his dream of becoming an animator, his mother further encouraged him to take up a career in animation, in 1975 he enrolled as the second student in the CalArts Character Animation program created by Disney animators Jack Hannah and T. Hee. Lasseter was taught by three members of Disney's Nine Old Men team of veteran animators—Eric Larson, Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston—and his classmates included future animators and directors like Brad Bird, John Musker, Henry Selick, Tim Burton, Chris Buck.
During his time there, he produced two animated shorts—Lady and the Lamp and Nitemare —which each won the student Academy Award for Animation. While at CalArts, Lasseter first started working for the Walt Disney Company at Disneyland in Anaheim during summer breaks and got a job as a Jungle Cruise skipper, where he learned the basics of comedy and comic timing to entertain captive audiences on the ride. Upon graduating in 1979, Lasseter obtained a job as an animator at Walt Disney Productions due to his success with Lady and the Lamp. To put this into perspective, the studio had reviewed 10,000 portfolios in the late 1970s in search of talent selected only about 150 candidates as apprentices, of which only about 45 were kept on permanently. In the fall of 1979, Disney animator Mel Shaw told the Los Angeles Times that "John's got an instinctive feel for character and movement and shows every indication of blossoming here at our studios... In time, he'll make a fine contribution." At that same time, Lasseter worked on a sequence titled "The Emperor and the Nightingale" for a Disney project called Musicana.
Musicana was never released but led to the development of Fantasia 2000. However, Lasseter soon realized something was missing: after 101 Dalmatians, which in his opinion was the film where Disney had reached its highest plateau, the studio had lost momentum and was criticized for repeating itself without adding any new ideas or innovations. Between 1980 and 1981, he coincidentally came across some video tapes from one of the new computer-graphics conferences, who showed some of the beginnings of computer animation floating spheres and such, which he experienced as a revelation, but it wasn't until shortly after, when he was invited by his friends Jerry Rees and Bill Kroyer, while working on Mickey's Christmas Carol, to come and see the first light cycle sequences for an upcoming film entitled Tron, featuring state-of-the-art computer-generated imagery, that he saw the huge potential of this new technology in animation. Up to tha
A flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that vary from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are illustrated books for children, but may be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings. Flip books are not always separate books but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines in the page corners. Software packages and Websites are available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip books. Rather than "reading" left to right, a viewer stares at the same location of the pictures in the flip book as the pages turn; the book must be flipped with enough speed for the illusion to work, so the standard way to "read" a flip book is to hold the book with one hand and flip through its pages with the thumb of the other hand. The German word for flip book—Daumenkino "thumb cinema"—reflects this process, it has sometimes been assumed that the simple flip book has been around since long before the invention of the more complicated 19th-century animation devices like the phenakistiscope and the zoetrope, but no conclusive evidence has been found.
There are some medieval illuminated books such as Sigenot. The illustrations in Sigenot are framed and have short intervals between different phases of action, but the images can not produce the illusion of a fluent motion; the necessary notion of instances smaller than a second would not develop before the 19th century. The oldest known documentation of the flip book appeared in September 1868, when it was patented by John Barnes Linnett under the name kineograph, they were the first form of animation to employ a linear sequence of images rather than circular. The German film pioneer, Max Skladanowsky, first exhibited his serial photographic images in flip book form in 1894, as he and his brother Emil did not develop their own film projector until the following year. In 1894, Herman Casler invented a mechanized form of flip book called the Mutoscope, which mounted the pages on a central rotating cylinder rather than binding them in a book; the mutoscope remained a popular attraction through the mid-twentieth century, appearing as coin-operated machines in penny arcades and amusement parks.
In 1897, the English filmmaker Henry William Short marketed his "Filoscope", a flip book placed in a metal holder to facilitate flipping. Flip books are now considered a toy or novelty for children and were once a common "prize" in cereal and Cracker Jack boxes. However, in addition to their role in the birth of cinema, they have been an effective promotional tool since their creation for such decidedly adult products as automobiles and cigarettes, they continue to be used in marketing today, as well as in art and published photographic collections. Vintage flip books are popular among collectors, rare ones from the late 19th to the early 20th century have been known to fetch thousands of dollars in sales and auctions. Since 2007, Walt Disney Animation Studios has started its films with a production logo that evokes a flip book, it starts with a view of an empty page of paper as the pages start to turn, details are drawn in to reveal Mickey Mouse in Steamboat Willie. The first international flip book festival was held in 2004, by the Akademie Schloss Solitude in Stuttgart.
Another international flip book festival was held in Linz, Austria in 2005. In 2010 Hungary postal services released a flip book of stamps depicting a moving gömböc; the Israel Philatelic Federation released an "Israeli Animation Stamp Booklet" in November 2010 with 15 stamps designed by Mish to be animated when flipping the pages. It commemorated the 50th anniversary of ASIFA, the 25th anniversary of ASIFA Israel and the "Flip Book 250th Anniversary"; the Finnish passport design released in 2012 contains a flipbook of a walking moose. Flipbook.info – Includes demonstrative videos of antique flipbooks. History of Flip Books – a brief history of flipbooks