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Edwin Hubble

Edwin Powell Hubble was an American astronomer. He played a crucial role in establishing the fields of extragalactic astronomy and observational cosmology and is regarded as one of the most important astronomers of all time. Hubble discovered that many objects thought to be clouds of dust and gas and classified as "nebulae" were galaxies beyond the Milky Way, he used the strong direct relationship between a classical Cepheid variable's luminosity and pulsation period for scaling galactic and extragalactic distances. Hubble provided evidence that the recessional velocity of a galaxy increases with its distance from the Earth, a property now known as "Hubble's law", despite the fact that it had been both proposed and demonstrated observationally two years earlier by Georges Lemaître; the Hubble–Lemaître law implies that the universe is expanding. A decade before, the American astronomer Vesto Slipher had provided the first evidence that the light from many of these nebulae was red-shifted, indicative of high recession velocities.

Hubble's name is most recognized for the Hubble Space Telescope, named in his honor, with a model prominently displayed in his hometown of Marshfield, Missouri. Edwin Hubble was born to Virginia Lee Hubble and John Powell Hubble, an insurance executive, in Marshfield and moved to Wheaton, Illinois, in 1900. In his younger days, he was noted more for his athletic prowess than his intellectual abilities, although he did earn good grades in every subject except for spelling. Edwin was a gifted athlete, playing baseball and running track in both high school and college, he played a variety of positions on the basketball court from center to shooting guard. In fact, Hubble led the University of Chicago's basketball team to their first conference title in 1907, he won seven first places and a third place in a single high school track and field meet in 1906. His studies at the University of Chicago were concentrated on law, which led to a bachelor of science degree in 1910. Hubble became a member of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity.

He spent the three years at The Queen's College, Oxford after earning his bachelor's as one of the university's first Rhodes Scholars studying jurisprudence instead of science, added literature and Spanish, earning his master's degree. In 1909, Hubble's father moved his family from Chicago to Shelbyville, Kentucky, so that the family could live in a small town settling in nearby Louisville, his father died in the winter of 1913, while Edwin was still in England, in the summer of 1913, Edwin returned to care for his mother, two sisters, younger brother, as did his brother William. The family moved once more to Everett Avenue, in Louisville's Highlands neighborhood, to accommodate Edwin and William. Hubble was a dutiful son, who despite his intense interest in astronomy since boyhood, acquiesced to his father's request to study law, first at the University of Chicago and at Oxford, though he managed to take a few math and science courses. After the death of his father in 1913, Edwin returned to the Midwest from Oxford but did not have the motivation to practice law.

Instead, he proceeded to teach Spanish and mathematics at New Albany High School in New Albany, where he coached the boys' basketball team. After a year of high-school teaching, he entered graduate school with the help of his former professor from the University of Chicago to study astronomy at the university's Yerkes Observatory, where he received his Ph. D. in 1917. His dissertation was titled "Photographic Investigations of Faint Nebulae". In Yerkes, he had access to one of the most powerful telescopes in the world at the time, which had an innovative 24 inch reflector. After the United States declared war on Germany in 1917, Hubble rushed to complete his Ph. D. dissertation so he could join the military. Hubble volunteered for the United States Army and was assigned to the newly created 86th Division, where he served in 2nd Battalion, 343 Infantry Regiment, he rose to the rank of Major, was found fit for overseas duty on July 9, 1918, but the 86th Division never saw combat. After the end of World War I, Hubble spent a year at Cambridge University, where he renewed his studies of astronomy.

In 1919, Hubble was offered a staff position at the Carnegie Institution for Science's Mount Wilson Observatory, near Pasadena, California, by George Ellery Hale, the founder and director of the observatory. Hubble remained on staff at Mount Wilson until his death in 1953. Shortly before his death, Hubble became the first astronomer to use the newly completed giant 200-inch reflector Hale Telescope at the Palomar Observatory near San Diego, California. Hubble worked as a civilian for U. S. Army at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland during World War II as the Chief of the External Ballistics Branch of the Ballistics Research Laboratory during which he directed a large volume of research in exterior ballistics which increased the effective firepower of bombs and projectiles, his work was facilitated by his personal development of several items of equipment for the instrumentation used in exterior ballistics, the most outstanding development being the high-speed clock camera, which made possible the study of the characteristics of bombs and low-velocity projectiles in flight.

The results of his studies were credited with improving design and military effectiveness of bombs and rockets. For his work there, he received the Legion of Merit award. Hubble was raised as a Christian but some of his statements suggest uncertainty. Hubble married Grace Lillian


Sychdyn is a village in Flintshire, Wales. It is situated on the A5119 road, is just over 1 km north of the county town of Mold; the village was in existence in the late eleventh century. However, it was back under Welsh control by the following century, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd is on record as having visited in the late thirteenth century. Sychdyn, surrounded by farmland and undisturbed woodland, is today a commuter village with residents working in nearby Chester, Liverpool or Wrexham; the village contains the'Black Boy Pub' public house, a convenience store incorporating a post office, Bryn Seion Chapel, now sold and no longer a Chapel, horse riding school, a primary school, Sychdyn County Primary. Soughton Hall is a large country mansion-turned-hotel situated on the northern outskirts of the village. Notable guests that have stayed here include Luciano Pavarotti, Michael Jackson and King Juan Carlos I of Spain. Lower Soughton Hall is situated about 1.5 kilometres to the north of Soughton Hall, is owned by the footballer Michael Owen.

Sychdyn Memorial Hall is the home to many different societies including the Youth Club and Red Dragon Lans. The hall can be hired out for special occasions. Sychdyn has a bowling green, football pitch and all-weather pitch, which can be booked for games and matches; the bowling green is entered via a War Memorial Arch, which commemorates those who gave their lives for their country. Sychdyn Carnival takes place each year to raise funds to maintain and upkeep the village playground, this is held on the main playing field, where the Rose Queen is crowned after the carnival procession's annual parade through the village. Sychdyn has a football team which plays in the Clwyd Premier Division, it is managed by Chris Barnard. Media related to Sychdyn at Wikimedia Commons


Regulome refers to the whole set of regulatory components in a cell. Those components can be regulatory elements, genes, mRNAs, metabolites; the description includes the interplay of regulatory effects between these components, their dependence on variables such as subcellular localization, developmental stage, pathological state. One of the major players in cellular regulation are transcription factors, proteins that regulate the expression of genes. Other proteins that bind to transcription factors to form transcriptional complexes might modify the activity of transcription factors, for example blocking their capacity to bind to a promoter. Signaling pathways are groups of proteins that produce an effect in a chain that transmit a signal from one part of the cell to another part, for example, linking the presence of substance at the exterior of the cell to the activation of the expression of a gene. High-throughput technologies for the analysis of biological samples allow the measurement of thousands of biological components such as mRNAs, proteins, or metabolites.

Chromatin immunoprecipitation of transcription factors can be used to map transcription factor binding sites in the genome. Such techniques allow researchers to study the effects of particular substances and/or situations on a cellular sample at a genomic level; the information obtained allows parts of the regulome to be inferred. One of the objectives of systems biology is the modelization of biological processes using mathematics and computer simulation; the production of data from techniques of genomic analysis is not always amenable to interpretation due to the complexity of the data and the large amount of data points. Modelization can allow to test a hypothesis that can be verified experimentally; the complete knowledge of the regulome will allow researchers to model cell behaviour entirely. This will facilitate the design of drugs for therapy, the control of stem cell differentiation, the prognosis of disease. Bioinformatics Journal


The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of most animals. In arthropods, the jaws are chitinous and oppose laterally, may consist of mandibles or chelicerae; these jaws are composed of numerous mouthparts. Their function is fundamentally for food acquisition, conveyance to the mouth, and/or initial processing. Many mouthparts and associate structures are modified legs. In most vertebrates, the jaws are bony or cartilaginous and oppose vertically, comprising an upper jaw and a lower jaw; the vertebrate jaw is derived from the most anterior two pharyngeal arches supporting the gills, bears numerous teeth. The vertebrate jaw originally evolved in the Silurian period and appeared in the Placoderm fish which further diversified in the Devonian; the two most anterior pharyngeal arches are thought to have become the jaw itself and the hyoid arch, respectively.

The hyoid system suspends the jaw from the braincase of the skull, permitting great mobility of the jaws. While there is no fossil evidence directly to support this theory, it makes sense in light of the numbers of pharyngeal arches that are visible in extant jawed vertebrates, which have seven arches, primitive jawless vertebrates, which have nine; the original selective advantage offered by the jaw may not be related to feeding, but rather to increased respiration efficiency. The jaws were used in the buccal pump that pumps water across the gills of fish or air into the lungs in the case of amphibians. Over evolutionary time the more familiar use of jaws, in feeding, was selected for and became a important function in vertebrates. Many teleost fish have modified jaws for suction feeding and jaw protrusion, resulting in complex jaws with dozens of bones involved; the jaw in tetrapods is simplified compared to fish. Most of the upper jaw bones have been fused to the braincase, while the lower jaw bones have been fused together into a unit called the mandible.

The jaw articulates via a hinge joint between the articular. The jaws of tetrapods exhibit varying degrees of mobility between jaw bones; some species have jaw bones fused, while others may have joints allowing for mobility of the dentary, quadrate, or maxilla. The snake skull shows the greatest degree of cranial kinesis, which allows the snake to swallow large prey items. In mammals the jaws are made up of the maxilla. In the ape there is a reinforcement to the lower jaw bone called the simian shelf. In the evolution of the mammalian jaw, two of the bones of the jaw structure were reduced in size and incorporated into the ear, while many others have been fused together; as a result, mammals show little or no cranial kinesis, the mandible is attached to the temporal bone by the temporomandibular joints. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction is a common disorder of these joints, characterized by pain and limitation of mandibular movement. Sea urchins possess unique jaws which display five-part symmetry, termed the Aristotle's lantern.

Each unit of the jaw holds a single, perpetually growing tooth composed of crystalline calcium carbonate. Muscles of mastication Otofacial syndrome Predentary Prognathism Rostral bone Jaw at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Japanese cruiser Kasagi

Kasagi was the lead ship in the Kasagi-class protected cruisers in the Imperial Japanese Navy. The vessel was the sister ship to the Chitose, she was named after a holy mountain outside Kyoto. Kasagi was ordered as part of the 1896 Emergency Fleet Replenishment Budget, funded by the war indemnity received from the Empire of China as part of the settlement of the Treaty of Shimonoseki ending the First Sino-Japanese War. Kasagi was built in Philadelphia, in the United States by William Cramp & Sons. Kasagi was the first major capital warship to be ordered by the Imperial Japanese Navy from an American shipbuilder, her specifications were similar to that of the British-built Takasago, but with larger displacement and overall dimensions, but with identical gun armament. However, internally the ships were different, with Kasagi having 142 watertight compartments, compared with 109 in Takasago; the day after she was formally commissioned, the yet-unarmed Kasagi participated in a naval review at Philadelphia celebrating the end of the Spanish–American War.

For her shakedown cruise in November 1898, Kasagi was sailed from Philadelphia directly to Great Britain, where her armament was installed. She arrived at Yokosuka Naval District on 16 May 1899. Future admiral Yamashita Gentarō served as executive officer on Kasagi between 1899 and 1900. In April 1900, while participating in maneuvers in Kagoshima Bay, Kasagi collided in a fog bank with a commercial steamer, forcing the steamer to beach itself to avoid sinking. Damage to Kasagi did not prevent her from completing the maneuvers; the first overseas deployment of Kasagi was in 1900, to support Japanese naval landing forces which occupied the port city of Tianjin in northern China during the Boxer Rebellion, as part of the Japanese contribution to the Eight-Nation Alliance. From her crew, 52 sailors were dispatched on a landing operation. Kasagi participated in maneuvers in July 1901, simulating an attack by foreign powers on the port of Sasebo; the following month, she accompanied Iwate on a good-will visit to the Russian port of Vladivostok.

During the Russo-Japanese War, Kasagi was active from its base in Korea in the Battle of Port Arthur. On 9 February 1904, she was part of the 3rd Cruiser Squadron under the overall command of Admiral Dewa Shigetō which engaged the Russian fleet at the entrance to Port Arthur, taking some minor damage. In March and Yoshino were reassigned to assist Admiral Kamimura Hikonojō’s forces in the bombardment of Vladivostok. On 14 May, Kasagi assisted in efforts to save the crew of the battleship Hatsuse after that ship struck a naval mine, rescuing 134 survivors, firing on Russian destroyers. During the Battle of the Yellow Sea on 10 August, Kasagi engaged the Russian battleship Poltava, participated in the unsuccessful pursuit of the cruisers Askold and Novik. At the crucial final Battle of Tsushima, Kasagi was the flagship of the 3rd Division under Admiral Dewa and was commanded by Captain Yamaya Tanin. Kasagi made the first shot of the battle by firing on the battleship Oryol. At around 14:30, together with the other cruisers in the 3rd Division, she engaged the Russian cruisers Oleg and Zhemchug.

However, Kasagi was hit below the waterline by a Russian shell, which flooded a boiler room and coal bunker, killing one crewman and injuring nine others, was forced to withdraw from combat to address the damage. In October 1908, Kasagi participated in the first large-scale post-war fleet maneuvers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. From 1910, she was assigned training duties, made a long distance navigational training voyage from 16 October 1910 to 6 March 1911 to Hawaii, she underwent extensive overhaul in 1912, with her cylindrical boilers replaced by more reliable Miyabara boilers. During World War I, Kasagi was assigned to the Japanese 1st Fleet, but was still used as a training vessel. Kasagi ran aground in heavy weather in the Tsugaru Strait between Honshū and Hokkaidō en route to Akita on 20 July 1916, suffering a major hull breach in the vicinity of her second smoke stack. After salvage of some equipment, she sank on 10 August and was formally written off the navy list on 5 November of the same year.

Chesneau, Roger. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906–1921. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-907-3. David C. Evans. Kaigun: Strategy and Technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887-1941. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-192-8. Howarth, Stephen; the Fighting Ships of the Rising Sun: The Drama of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1895-1945. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-11402-8. Jentsura, Hansgeorg. Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869-1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-893-X. Roberts, John..'Warships of the world from 1860 to 1905 - Volume 2: United States and Russia. Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Koblenz. ISBN 3-7637-5403-2. Schencking, J. Charles. Making Waves: Politics, And The Emergence Of The Imperial Japanese Navy, 1868-1922. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-4977-9. Willmont, H. P.. The Last Century of Sea Power: From Port Arthur to Chanak, 1894-1922. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-35214-2

Jamal al-Husayni

Jamal al-Husayni was born in Jerusalem and was a member of the influential and respected Husayni family. Husayni served as Secretary to the Executive Committee of the Palestine Arab Congress and to the Muslim Supreme Council, he was co-founder and chairman of the Palestine Arab Party, established in Jerusalem in 1935, in 1937 became a member of the first Arab Higher Committee, led by Amin al-Husayni becoming its chairman. During the 1936-39 Arab revolt he escaped first to Syria and to Baghdad, Iraq, he led the Arab delegation to the 1939 London Conference and was Palestinian representative to the Anglo-American Committee of Enquiry. Husayni was exiled to Southern Rhodesia, he was released at the end of World War II and returned to Palestine in 1946. He was an unofficial delegate to the United Nations in 1947-48. In September–October 1948 he was the foreign minister in the Egyptian-sponsored All-Palestine Government. Husayni was born in 1894 into one of the most influential families in Jerusalem.

He went to the Church of England school, St Georges, where he was the first pupil to wear western style clothes and where he became an enthusiastic player of the new sport – football. On finishing his secondary education, aged eighteen, he entered the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut to study medicine. At that time the Medical faculty was alive with debate about the status of Arabs under a Government based in Istanbul and dominated by Turks and Turkish. Jamal became a member of the Nadi Al-Arabi and al-Muntada al-Adabi movements in 1918-19 which, according to Isaac Friedman, were "hostile to British rule and who wanted to reinstate Turkish rule in the former Ottoman Nadi Al-Arabian Asiatic provinces." During the time of Jamal's membership, al-Muntada al-Arabi were committed to the concepts of pan-Arabism and anti-Zionism and supported a new Greater Syrian nation under King Faisal. In May 1919 this political activity was such that the British government prohibited any further meetings, speeches, or public activities by the club.

In December 1914, two years into Jamal's studies, Ottoman Turk guards raided the college arresting anyone suspected belonged to a secret Arab nationalist organization, Jamal fled to Jerusalem. In 1915 four of Jamal's fellow-members of the Beirut branch of the al-Muntada al-Arabi were hanged for treason by Djemal Pasha. During the First World War he was conscripted into the Turkish Army and taken prisoner by the British. Jamal and his peer group moved in elite Palestinian circles, his relative, Amin was to become head of the Supreme Muslim Council. His brother-in-law, Musa Alami, worked in the British administration and rose to become personal secretary to the High Commissioner. Musa's wife was the daughter of Ihsan al-Jabri one of the Arab delegates to the League of Nations, his young cousin Abd al-Qadir was to become a Palestinian military leader fighting the British in 1936-39 and the emerging Israelis in 1948. By 1921, aged 27, he had become a senior figure in Palestinian politics, his uncle, Musa Kazim, an Ottoman administrator and under the British Mayor of Jerusalem, was chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Arab Congress formed by the Muslim-Christian Associations, established following the arrival of the British.

Jamal was appointed Secretary to the Executive. Jamal and Musa Kazim were at this time considered the foremost representatives of the Palestinian Arab community. Following the disturbances of 1921 known as the Jaffa Riots, Jamal had a meeting with the High Commissioner, Sir Herbert Samuel, issued a statement calling for calm. At the 6th Congress in 1923 he was one of the delegates calling for a tax strike, demanding Arab representation in the administration; the proposed strike was abandoned in the face of opposition from the major land owners who dominated the Congress. Instead it chose to boycott proposed elections for a Legislative Council and in June all the Arab members of the British Advisory Council resigned their positions. During this period the British regarded him as pragmatic. In 1923 he met many Muslim leaders. In 1924 he met with Jewish Agency member Haim Kalvarisky to present proposals for the structure of a Legislative Council, it would have two chambers, the lower would be elected with the High Commissioner having power of veto over its decisions.

The upper chamber would consist of ten members selected on a communal basis with two of the members representing the Jewish community. Immigration would be controlled by a commission; these proposals were rejected by the Jewish Agency. But by this time Jamal had become disillusioned with the Executive Committee and had to be persuaded to keep his position as Secretary. One of his complaints was lack of funds for administration; as well as his political activities Jamal pursued a career as an advocate. In 1927 he petitioned the High Court for the removal of the Hebrew letters'EI' from the newly issued Palestine stamps; the two letters, followed the word'Palestine' in Hebrew and stood for Eretz Israel - “Land of Israel”. The petition was rejected. In 1929, just prior to the rioting over Zionist activity at the Wailing Wall, the deputy High Commissioner, H. C. Luke, organised a lengthy meeting between Arab and Jewish Agency leaders in attempt to calm the situation; the Arab delegation was led by Jamal.

The hoped for joint statement did not materialize. Following the riots, in October, he was leader of a delegation sent to London for meetings at the Colonial Office; this was in his capacity as Secretary to the Supreme Muslim Council, an organisation, set up by the British, was led by Hajj Amin Husseini, to whom he was relat