Edwin Meese III is an American attorney, law professor and member of the Republican Party who served in official capacities within the Ronald Reagan Gubernatorial Administration, the Reagan Presidential Transition Team and the Reagan White House rising to hold the position of the 75th United States Attorney General, a position from which he resigned following the Wedtech scandal. He holds fellowships and chairmanships with several public policy councils and think-tanks, including the Constitution Project and the Heritage Foundation, he was a Distinguished Visiting Fellow with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He sits on the National Advisory Board of Center for Urban Renewal and Education, he is on the board of directors of The Federalist Society for Public Policy Studies. He has served on the board of Cornerstone closed end funds. Meese was born in Oakland, the eldest of four sons born to Leone and Edwin Meese, Jr, he was raised in a practicing Lutheran family, of German descent.
His father was an Oakland city government official, president of the Zion Lutheran Church, served 24 years in the non-partisan office of Treasurer of Alameda County. At age 10, Meese published along with his brothers a mimeographed neighborhood newspaper, the Weekly Herald, used the proceeds to buy a war bond; the young Meese rode a bicycle on a paper route and worked in a drugstore. At Oakland High School, Meese was involved in the Junior State of America and led his high school debate team to statewide championships, he was recognized as valedictorian, class of 1949. Two weeks prior to graduation, he was granted a scholarship. Meese served as president of the Yale Political Union, chairman of the Conservative Party, chairman of the Yale Debating Association. Meese made the dean's list, graduated with a bachelor of arts of political science in 1953. Meese became a member of ROTC upon enrollment at Yale, upon graduation he obtained a commission in the United States Army as a Second Lieutenant.
He spent 24 months at Fort Sill near Oklahoma. Meese gained experience in logistics, conducting installation and operations of the 240 mm howitzer M1. Meese completed active duty in 1956 and continued in the United States Army Reserve, specializing in military intelligence. Meese retired from the Army Reserve as a colonel in 1984. Meese returned to California, obtaining a law degree from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law, where he was a state Moot Court champion, he graduated in 1958 and accepted a position with the district attorney's office of Alameda County as a law clerk. While there, he worked under District Attorney J. Frank Coakley, he worked with future DA Delwen Lowell Jensen. Jensen was engaged in developing a case-management software program known as Dalite. Meese prosecuted felony cases while maintaining a private practice on nights and weekends, focusing on civil law. During this service, he first drew the attention of Republican State Senator Donald Grunsky, who would recommend him to governor-elect Ronald Reagan.
In 1959 he married daughter of Oakland's postmaster. Meese joined Ronald Reagan's staff in 1967, he served as legal affairs secretary from 1967 to 1968 and as executive assistant and chief of staff to Governor Reagan from 1969 to 1974. Despite his well-known fondness for Reagan, Meese was reluctant to accept the appointment because he thought of himself as non-partisan: "I was not interested."Meese was known for his "unique ability" to explain complex ideas to Reagan in a way that mirrored Reagan's own speaking style and mannerisms. That made Reagan biographer Lou Cannon refer to Meese as "Reagan's geographer."After being named Reagan's chief of staff, Meese convinced his predecessor's deputy, Mike Deaver, to stay on with him, beginning a partnership that would last more than two decades. For his role in Reagan's office, Meese earned reluctant praise from across the aisle. Bob Moretti, a Democrat and former Democratic Speaker of the Assembly, said, "Were I in the governor's seat, I would want someone like on my side."
As Reagan's chief of staff, Meese was instrumental in the decision to crack down on student protesters at People's Park in Berkeley, California, on May 15, 1969. Meese was criticized for escalating the official response to the People's Park protest, during which law enforcement officers killed one student, on his way to class, not a protester and injured hundreds of others, including bystanders. Meese advised Reagan to declare a state of emergency in Berkeley, contrary to the recommendation of the Berkeley City Council; that resulted in a two-week occupation of People's Park by National Guard troops. The first governor to turn to Meese for advice on riot control was Democrat Edmund Brown, who first telephoned Meese seeking advice on how to best handle the situation. "I told him," Meese said, "that the people in that building should be arrested and taken out of there. I told him that if they were allowed to stay, there would be another mob scene bigger, the next day." Meese and Deputy District Attorney Lowell Jensen served as co-counsels in the trial of Berkeley demonstrators.
Meese was recognized as one of five "Outstanding Young Men of California" by the California Junior Chamber of Commerce for his role in countering the Berkeley demonstrators. Meese's role in quelling the riots at UC Berkeley have been identified by critics and supporters as an example of a conservative law-enforcement philosophy at work. From January 1975 to May 1976, Meese served as vice president for administration of Rohr Industries in Chula V
Acetyl cyanide is a chemical compound that contains both a nitrile and a carbonyl functional group. Therefore, the molecule falls into the cyanide group as well due to the presence of the carbon nitrogen triple bond; this molecule is part of the acyl cyanide family. This compound is known as pyruvonitrile or 2-oxopropionitrile. Acetyl cyanide exists as a clear, colorless liquid; the structure of acetyl cyanide was determined through the joint use of electron diffraction intensities and rotational constants. These values helped to determine that the average thermal bond distances are 1.116±0.011 Å, 1.167±0.010 Å, 1.208±0.009 Å, 1.477±0.008 Å and 1.518±0.009 Å. Additionally, the bond angles in the structure 124.6±0.7°, 114.2±0.9°, 179.2±2.2° and 109.2±0.7°. This places the single C-C bond at a larger bond distance than the bonds within the vinylacetylene and propynal molecules. Acetyl cyanide is a flammable compound. Therefore, this compound should be kept away from sources of heat and sparks. Acetyl cyanide's toxicological properties have not been investigated.
However, it is known that the molecule is toxic if inhaled and would cause a respiratory tract irritation. The chemical may cause skin irritation if absorbed through the skin; the compound's toxic affects would target the peripheral nervous system, central nervous system, the blood stream. While this chemical has not been confirmed to be a carcinogen, exposure to this chemical causes irritation to the respiratory system and skin. Additionally, acetyl cyanide is toxic by both ingestion. Furthermore, this compound may be toxic to aquatic organisms causing long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment. Due to the flammable properties of this molecule, hazardous decomposition could occur within the molecule under extreme heat, forming chemicals such as carbon oxides and nitrogen oxide; therefore heat and sparks should all be kept away from this molecule in order to prevent this decomposition from occurring. Additionally, this molecule should not interact with strong acids and strong bases to ensure that hazardous reactions are prevented.
Two main types of reactions can occur with acetyl cyanide as a reactant. Aldol condensation can occur when acetyl cyanide reacts with -but-2-enal to form -hexa-2,4-dienoyl cyanide: Enolate substitution can occur when acetyl cyanide reacts with bromomethane to form propanoyl cyanide. Little data has been collected about the possible thermal and photochemical decompositions and kinetic rearrangements. Acetyl cyanide is one of the few carbonyl compound prototypes for which photochemical and thermal dissociations involving ground and excited state surfaces are extensively studied, their thermal and photofragmenation dynamics are considered to be different from the studied carbonyl compounds with substituents from the first-row substituents. For example, formyl cyanide does not undergo unimolecular decomposition to CO spontaneously. However, acetyl cyanide a member of this family, breaks down through this unimolecular decomposition at 470 °C; this reaction occurs through decarbonylation. This division of the molecule to a ketone and hydrogen cyanide were noted to be under competitive circumstances.
This caused a study of the thermal unimolecular reactions. The unimolecular decompositions that acetyl cyanide undergo have been confirmed to be less energetically favorable than the molecule undergoing isomerization to acetyl isocyanide. However, through other photolysis experiments have resulted in the formation of a CN radical through acetyl cyanide decomposing into CH3CO + CN or CH3COCN. Acetyl cyanide is a member of the acyl cyanide family; this molecule is catalytically synthesized at 350 °C from hydrogen cyanide. This is the most thermodynamically stable method of producing this molecule synthetically. Additionally, this compound can by produced through the hydration of an alkyne through mercuric sulfate catalysis; the reaction shown below displays this occurring from the reagent prop-2-ynenitrile. Alkyne hydration with this same molecule can occur through hydroboration as well without the presence of a catalyst. Lide, David R. W. M. Haynes, Thomas J. Bruno, eds. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.
93rd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC, 2012. Web. 17 Oct. 2012. Http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/Chemicals/24000/23535.html http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.62638.html
A casual game is a video game targeted at a wide, mass market audience, as opposed to a hardcore game, a game targeted at a more niche audience of hobbyist gamers. Casual games may exhibit any type of genre, they have simpler rules, shorter sessions, less learned skill than hardcore games. Countless casual games have been developed and published, alongside hardcore games, across the history of video games. A concerted effort to capitalize on casual games grew in the 1990s and 2000s, as many developers and publishers branded themselves as casual game companies, publishing games for personal computers, web browsers, after 2007, smartphones. Most casual games have: Fun, simple gameplay, easy to understand Simple user interface, operated with a mobile phone tap-and-swipe interface or a one-button mouse interface Short sessions, so a game can be played during work breaks, while on public transportation, or while waiting in a queue anywhere Often, familiar visual elements, like playing cards or a Match 3 grid of objectsCasual games cost less than hardcore games, as part of their strategy to acquire as many players as possible.
Any game monetization method can be used, from retail distribution to free-to-play to ad-supported. The term "hypercasual game" or "instant game" arose in 2017 to describe easy-to-learn games that require no download, being played in an existing app like a web browser or messaging app, that monetize by showing advertisements to the player. Journalist Chris Kohler wrote in 2010 that Namco's arcade game Pac-Man, which debuted during the golden age of video arcade games, may be the first casual video game, due to its "cute cast of characters and a design sensibility that appealed to wider audiences than the shoot-em-up Space Invaders." It is estimated to have been played more than ten billion times during the 20th century, making it the highest-grossing video game of all time. In 1989, Nintendo's Game Boy was released with Tetris as a free pack-in game, it was learned and immensely popular, is credited with making Nintendo's fledgling portable gaming system a success. Microsoft's Solitaire, which came free with Microsoft Windows, is considered the first hit "casual game" on a computer, with more than 400 million people having played the game as of 2007.
Subsequent versions of Windows included casual games Minesweeper, FreeCell, Spider Solitaire. The company published four Microsoft Entertainment Packs for casual gaming on office computers from 1990 to 1992. Casual games started to flourish online in the 1990s along with the rise of the World Wide Web, with card games and board games available from paid services like AOL and Prodigy, from web portals, like Yahoo! Games and Microsoft's Gaming Zone. In the mid-2000s, more sites specialized in game hosting and publishing, such as Gamesville and RealNetworks; some publishers and developers branded themselves as casual game companies, like Big Fish Games, PopCap Games, MumboJumbo. The advent of Shockwave and Flash created a boom in web-based games, encouraging designers to create simple games that could be hosted on many different websites and which could be played to completion in one short sitting. One of the most prominent casual games, started out as a Flash game that could be downloaded for a fee, or purchased at retail.
As late as 2009, there was still a market for US$20 casual games purchased at retail or as a download. In 2008 and 2009, casual social network games attained mainstream popularity following the release of Mafia Wars for Facebook, Happy Farm in China. Happy Farm inspired many clones, including the most popular social network game, FarmVille, which peaked at 83.76 million monthly active users in March, 2010. These games innovated in viral marketing by rewarding players for sending invites to friends and posting game updates on their Facebook Wall. Casual games became popular on smartphones upon their debut, with touch-screen phones like the iPhone of 2007 featuring large color displays, all-day availability to the phone owner, intuitive tapping-and-dragging user interfaces. Video game consoles' primary audience is hardcore gamers, but there are some casual games on every game console, Nintendo's Wii console's unique motion-sensing controller appealed to a more casual audience, intimidated by other consoles' gamepad input devices.
Wii Sports, a collection of five simple sports games in which players used the game controller to swing a tennis racket or a baseball bat, was bundled with the Wii console in most territories and sold over 82 million copies as of 2019. Casual games are found in many game genres. Early-2000s categorizations by Big Fish Games and Gamezebo, a casual game review site named seven popular genres in casual games: Puzzle games: Bejeweled series, Collapse! series, Luxor series Hidden object games: Mystery Case Files series, Mortimer Beckett series, Hidden Expedition series Adventure games: Dream Chronicles series, Aveyond series, Nancy Drew series Strategy games: Diner Dash series, Delicious series, Cake Mania series Arcade & action games: Plants vs. Zombies, Peggle series, Feeding Frenzy series Word & trivia games: Bookworm, Bookworm Adventures series, Bonnie's Bookstore Card & board games: Slingo Quest, Lottso! Deluxe, Luxor Mahjong An industry group called the Casual Games Association was founded in 2005 to promote casual games and to provide educational and market research resources to casual game developers and publishers.