Edwin McMasters Stanton was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of War under the Lincoln Administration during most of the American Civil War. Stanton's management helped organize the massive military resources of the North and guide the Union to victory. However, he was criticized by many Union generals for perceived over-cautiousness and micromanagement, he organized the manhunt for Abraham Lincoln's assassin, John Wilkes Booth. After Lincoln's assassination, Stanton remained as the Secretary of War under the new U. S. President Andrew Johnson during the first years of Reconstruction, he opposed the lenient policies of Johnson towards the former Confederate States. Johnson's attempt to dismiss Stanton led to Johnson being impeached by the Radical Republicans in the House of Representatives. Stanton returned to law after retiring as Secretary of War, in 1869 was nominated as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Johnson's successor, Ulysses S. Grant. Before the American Revolution, Stanton's paternal ancestors, the Stantons and the Macys, both of whom were Quakers, moved from Massachusetts to North Carolina.
In 1774, Stanton's grandfather, Benjamin Stanton, married Abigail Macy. Benjamin died in 1800; that year, Benjamin's widow moved to the Northwest Territory, accompanied by much of her family. Soon, Ohio was admitted to the Union, Macy proved to be one of the early developers of the new state, she settled there. One of her sons, became a physician in Steubenville, married Lucy Norman, the daughter of a Virginia planter, their marriage was met with the ire of Ohio's Quaker community, as Lucy was a Methodist, not a Quaker. This forced David Stanton to abandon the Quaker sect; the first of David and Lucy Stanton's four children, Edwin McMasters, was born to them on December 19, 1814 in Steubenville, Ohio. Edwin's early formal education consisted of a private school and a seminary behind the Stantons' residence, called "Old Academy"; when he was ten, he was transferred to a school taught by a Presbyterian minister. It was at ten that Edwin experienced his first asthma attack, a malady that would haunt him for life, sometimes to the point of convulsion.
His asthma assured him that he would be unable to partake in physical activities, so he found interest in books and poetry. Edwin attended Sunday school regularly. At the age of thirteen, Stanton become a full member of the Methodist church. David Stanton's medical practice afforded his family a decent living; when David Stanton died in December 1827 at his residence and family were left destitute. Edwin's mother opened a store in the front room of their residence, selling the medical supplies her husband left her, along with books and groceries; the youthful Edwin was removed from school, worked at the store of a local bookseller. Stanton began his college studies at the Episcopal Church-affiliated Kenyon College in 1831. At Kenyon, Stanton was involved in the college's Philomathesian Literary Society. Stanton sat on several of the society's committees and partook in its exercises and debates. Stanton was forced to leave Kenyon just at the end of his third semester for lack of finances. At Kenyon, his support of President Andrew Jackson's actions during the 1832 Nullification Crisis, a hotly debated topic among the Philomathesians, led him into the Democratic Party.
Further, Stanton's conversion to Episcopalianism and his revulsion of the practice of slavery were solidified there. After Kenyon, Stanton worked as a bookseller in Columbus. Stanton had hoped to obtain enough money to complete his final year at Kenyon. However, a small salary at the bookstore dashed the notion, he soon returned to Steubenville to pursue studies in law. Stanton studied law under the tutelage of Daniel Collier in preparation for the bar, he was admitted to practice in 1835, began work at a prominent law firm in Cadiz, Ohio under Chauncey Dewey, a well-known attorney. The firm's trial work fell to him. At the age of eighteen, Stanton met Mary Ann Lamson at Trinity Episcopal Church in Columbus, they soon were engaged. After buying a home in Cadiz, Stanton went to Columbus. Stanton and Lamson had wished to be married at Trinity Episcopal, but Stanton's illness rendered this idea moot. Instead, the ceremony was performed at the home of Trinity Episcopal's rector on December 31, 1836. Afterwards, Stanton went to Virginia where his mother and sisters were, escorted the women back to Cadiz, where they would live with him and his wife.
After his marriage, Stanton partnered with federal judge Benjamin Tappan. Stanton's sister married Tappan's son. In Cadiz, Stanton was situated prominently in the local community, he worked with the town's anti-slavery society, with a local newspaper, the Sentinel and editing articles there. In 1837, Stanton was elected the prosecutor of Harrison County, on the Democratic ticket. Further, Stanton's increasing wealth allowed him to purchase a large tract of land in Washington County, several tracts in Cadiz. Stanton's relationship with Benjamin Tappan expanded when Tappan was elected the United States Senator from Ohio in 1838. Tappan asked Stanton to oversee his law operations; when his time as county prosecutor was finished, Stanton moved back to the town with his wife. Stanton's work in politics expanded, he served as a delegate at the Democrats' 1840 national convention in Baltimore, was featured prominently in Martin Van Buren's campaign in the 1840 presidential election, which
Nikol Romanovna Gosviani is a Russian figure skater. She placed sixth at the 2013 European Championships. Nikol Gosviani was born 9 September 1996 in Saint Petersburg, she studied music. She married Italian pair skater Leo Luca Sforza in June 2016. Gosviani was coached by Natalia Golubeva until 2009 when she switched to Alexei Urmanov, the 1994 Olympic champion, she finished seventh in the 2010 JGP Japan. In the 2012–13 season, Gosviani was the third alternate for a place at the senior Russian Championships and was admitted after three skaters withdrew, she finished sixth in her debut at the event. With several skaters above her not age-eligible, Gosviani was named to the Russian team for the European Championships, she attained the minimum TES for the event at the Toruń Cup, where she won gold in the junior ladies' event. Gosviani made her senior international debut at the 2013 European Championships, she was twelfth in the short, fifth in the free, sixth overall. In the 2013–14 season, Gosviani's first international event was the Ondrej Nepela Memorial in October.
She won the short program and placed second in the free to win the silver medal overall behind Haruka Imai of Japan. Gosviani was assigned to the 2013 Cup of China, she placed fifth at the event, her senior Grand Prix debut. She finished eighth at the 2013 Rostelecom ninth at the 2014 Russian Championships. In July 2014, she decided to train in Moscow. Soon after, she tore ligaments in her ankle. In December 2015, Gosviani placed fourth at the Italian Championships. GP: Grand Prix.
Chaetoglobosin A is a fungal isolate with anticancer activity in vitro. Derivatives of the compound include MBJ-0038, MBJ-0039, MBJ-0040. Chaetoglobosin A biosynthesis begins with a product from hybrid PKS-NRPS encoded by the gene CHGG_01239, followed by multiple oxidations which form different intermediates depending on the order of functional groups oxidized; the PKS-NRPS product undergoes a diels alder, to form prochaetoglobosin I and is subsequently oxidized in different paths as shown in the scheme. Either the epoxide is created first to form prochaetoglobosin IV, followed by di-hydroxylation to form 20-dihydrochaetoglobosin A, a final oxidation of one hydroxyl to ketone to form chaetoglobosin A, or di-hydroxylation of occurs first, forming cytoglobosin D, followed by one hydroxyl oxidation to form chaetoglobosin J, lastly epoxidation to form chaetoglobosin A. Epoxidation of can occur prior to hydroxyl oxidation to form