To cities, towns, charter townships and boroughs. The term can be used to describe municipally owned corporations. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located; this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter. A city charter or town charter or municipal charter is a legal document establishing a municipality, such as a city or town. In Canada, charters are granted by provincial authorities; the Corporation of Chennai is the oldest Municipal Corporation in the world after UK. The title "corporation" was used in boroughs from soon after the Norman conquest until the Local Government Act 2001. Under the 2001 act, county boroughs were renamed "cities" and their corporations became "city councils". After the Partition of Ireland, the corporations in the Irish Free State were Dublin, Cork and Waterford and Drogheda, Sligo and Wexford. Dún Laoghaire gained borough status in 1930 as “The Corporation of Dun Laoghaire".
Galway's borough status, lost in 1840, was restored in 1937. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 allowed municipal corporations to be established within the new Provinces of New Zealand; the term fell out of favour following the abolition of the Provinces in 1876. In the United States, such municipal corporations are established by charters that are granted either directly by a state legislature by means of local legislation, or indirectly under a general municipal corporation law after the proposed charter has passed a referendum vote of the affected population. Under the enterprise meaning of the term, municipal corporations are "organisations with independent corporate status, managed by an executive board appointed by local government officials, with majority public ownership"; some MOCs rely on revenue from user fees, distinguishing them from agencies and special districts funded through taxation, although this is not always the case. Municipal corporation follows a process of externalization that requires new skills and orientations from the respective local governments, follow common changes in the institutional landscape of public services.
They are argued to be more efficient than bureaucracy but have higher failure rates because of their legal and managerial autonomy. Unincorporated area German town law Municipal incorporationA Brief Summary of Municipal Incorporation Procedures by State - University of Georgia Characteristics and State Requirements for Incorporated Places - United States CensusMunicipal disincorporation / dissolutionDissolving Cities - University of California, Berkeley Municipal Disincorporation in California - California City Finance
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Lower Kalskag, Alaska
Lower Kalskag is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. It is twenty-six miles west of Aniak. At the 2010 census the population was 282, up from 267 in 2000. Lower Kalskag is located at 61°30′49″N 160°21′33″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.7 square miles, of which, 1.3 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. Lower Kalskag, referred to by the locals as just "Lower", is linked to Upper Kalskag by a single two mile maintained gravel/dirt road. Lower Kalskag is accessible only by small plane and vehicles via the river "ice road". Lower Kalskag first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census erroneously as the unincorporated village of Kalskag. In 1950, it reported as Lower Kalskag, it formally incorporated in 1969. As of the census of 2000, there were 267 people, 66 households, 54 families residing in the city; the population density was 208.2 people per square mile. There were 79 housing units at an average density of 61.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 4.49% White, 88.76% Native American, 6.74% from two or more races. There were 66 households out of which 62.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 24.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.7% were non-families. 15.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.05 and the average family size was 4.53. In the city, the population was spread out with 44.9% under the age of 18, 13.5% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 15.4% from 45 to 64, 4.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,625, the median income for a family was $27,500. Males had a median income of $16,667 versus $36,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,654.
About 36.7% of families and 40.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 51.4% of those under the age of eighteen and 35.7% of those sixty five or over
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Napakiak is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 354, up one resident from 353 since 2000. Napakiak is located at 60°41′36″N 161°58′25″W, on the north bank of the Kuskokwim River 10 miles downriver of Bethel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which 4.4 square miles is land and 0.62 square miles, or 12.26%, is water. Napakiak first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Napahaiagamute." All 98 residents were of the Inuit tribe. It next returned in 1900 as the village of "Naparegarak." In 1910, it returned as Napakiak. In 1920, it returned as "Napakiakamute." It did not appear on the 1930 census. It next appeared again in every successive census to date as Napakiak, it formally incorporated in 1970. As of the census of 2000, there were 353 people, 90 households, 71 families residing in the city; the population density was 75.2 people per square mile. There were 101 housing units at an average density of 21.5 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 1.42% White, 1.70% Black or African American, 96.03% Native American, 0.85% from two or more races. 0.28% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Most of the residents are Yup'ik people; the sale, importation or possession of alcohol is forbidden in the village. There were 90 households out of which 48.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 18.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.1% were non-families. 16.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.92 and the average family size was 4.52. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 38.8% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, 7.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 26 years. For every 100 females, there were 130.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,750, the median income for a family was $29,167. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $43,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $7,319. About 16.2% of families and 20.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.7% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Lower Kuskokwim School District operates the William N. Miller School, PreK-12; as of 2018 it has 96 students. Napakiak is the terminus of a unique 8.5-mile prototype single-wire earth return electrical intertie from Bethel, constructed in 1981. BeringSea.com: Napakiak ExploreNorth: The History of Napakiak
Place names considered unusual
Unusual place names are names for cities and other regions which are considered non-ordinary in some manner. This can include place names which are swear words, inadvertently humorous or charged words, as well as place names of unorthodox spelling and pronunciation, including short or long names. Inaccessible Island, a remotely located extinct volcanic island in the middle of the South Atlantic Ocean, is so named for the difficulty in landing on the island and penetrating its interior because of the rough terrain. Death Valley, one of the hottest locations on Earth, got its English name after 13 pioneers died trying to cross the harsh desert valley during the California Gold Rush of 1849; the highest recorded land temperature, 134 °F, was recorded inside Death Valley at Furnace Creek, California in 1913. Fiddletown, California was a Chinese gold mining settlement and was home to about 235 people according to 2010 census; when the creek went dry the miners were said to be “fiddling around” thus giving the name.
One local civilian lobbied to change the name to Oleta, given after his daughter in 1878 because he was embarrassed to be known as the “Man from Fiddletown.” After his death in 1932, the name was restored. Gardendale, Alabama was named "Jugtown" due to the jug and churn factory around which the town grew. Hettie Thomason Cargo, a local school teacher, proposed the name change in 1906 after being embarrassed to admit she was from "Jugtown" at a regional teachers meeting; the town voted to rename itself Gardendale. Quibbletown, New Jersey known as New Market, is an unincorporated settlement within the township of Piscataway; the name of the settlement originated with a dispute as to whether the Sabbath was on Saturday or Sunday. Rough and Ready, California is on the National List of Historic Places, it gets its name from the founder of the town, A. A. Townsend, who served under General Zachary Taylor in the Blackhawk War. Taylor was nicknamed "Rough and Ready" and was elected president of the United States.
Bell End, Worcestershire, It is situated 3 kilometres south-east of Hagley on the A491, north of Bromsgrove and close to Kidderminster and Halesowen. It lies in the local government district of Bromsgrove. Roanoke, Virginia was first established as the town of Big Lick in 1852 and was named for a large outcropping of salt that drew wildlife to the site near the Roanoke River.. Boring, Oregon is named after William H. Boring; the town name is a homonym for the word boring, the town makes puns based on its name. Boring's town motto is "The most exciting place to live" and it has taken on the named Dull, Scotland as its sister city. Bland Shire, New South Wales, named for founder William Bland, is similarly named. In New South Wales, there lies a town named Orange, founded in 1880. Orange, New South Wales is a sister city to its homonym Orange, itself in the County of Orange. Orange, California, in turn, is a sister city with Orange in Vaucluse, France. Franklin County, includes a town called Orange.
There exists another city called Orange in New Jersey, as well as a West Orange, a South Orange, an East Orange. The county of Essex in southeastern England is home to the village of Ugley, in the county of Hertfordshire, the hamlet of Nasty, which are only a few miles apart. A number of settlements have names that are offensive or humorous in other languages, such as Fucking, Austria. Although as a place name Fucking is benign in German, in English the word is a profanity; when they hear of the French town of Condom, English speakers will associate it with condoms, a form of barrier contraception. Hell, comes from the old Norse word hellir, which means "overhang" or "cliff cave". In modern Norwegian the word helvete means "hell", while the Norwegian word hell can mean "luck". One can cite the mountain named Wank in Bavaria, which in German derives from Middle High German wanken, which means "to stagger". Conversely, a number of place names can be considered humorous or offensive by their inhabitants, such as the German towns Affendorf, Fickmühlen, which appropriately lies at the edge of the Höllental, Lederhose, Neger, Plöd, Regenmantel and Warzen.
The US has the unincorporated community of Hell, the historic community of Penile, Louisville in Kentucky, Pee Pee Township in Ohio. Dildo is a Canadian town and off the coast. Pett Bottom is located 5 miles south of Kent. James Bond lived there with his aunt. Another immaturely considered humorous areas are Butts County and Middelfart. In Croatia, there are places such as Babina Guzica", "Špičkovina" and "Gnojnice"; some placenames are deemed to be offensive or unacceptable through historic semantic changes in what is tolerated. An example of this would be the once common English street name Gropecunt Lane, whose etymology is a historical use of the street by prostitutes to ply their trade. During the Middle Ages the word cunt may have been considered vulgar, having been in common use in its anatomical sense since at least the 13th century, its steady disappearance from the English vernacular may have been the result of a gradual c
Akiak is a city in Bethel Census Area, United States. The population was 346 at the 2010 census, up from 309 in 2000. Akiak is located at 60°54′36″N 161°13′6″W, on the west bank of the Kuskokwim River, 42 miles northeast of Bethel, on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta. Akiak is located in the Bethel Recording District. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.1 square miles, of which 2.1 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile, or 32.58%, is water. Precipitation averages 16 inches with snowfall of 50 inches. Summer temperatures range from 42 °F to 62 °F. Winter temperatures range from −2 °F to 19 °F. In 1880, the village of "Akairmiut" had a population of 175; the name Akiak means "the other side", since this place was a crossing to the Yukon River basin during the winter for area Yup'ik Eskimos. The Akiak post office was established in 1916. A U. S. Public Health Service hospital was built in the 1920s; the city was incorporated in 1970. A federally recognized Alaska Native tribal entity is located in the community—the Akiak Native Community.
Akiak is a Yup ` ik Eskimo village with a reliance on fishing activities. The sale or importation of alcohol is banned in the village. Akiak first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Akiarmiut." All 175 residents were Inuit. In 1890, it returned as "Akiagamiut" with 97 residents, it did not appear on the census again until 1920 as Akiak. It has returned in every successive census, it formally incorporated in 1970. As of the census of 2000, there were 309 people, 69 households, 54 families residing in the city; the population density was 157.2 people per square mile. There were 76 housing units at an average density of 38.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 4.85% White, 92.88% Native American, 2.27% from two or more races. 0.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 69 households out of which 53.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 20.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families.
18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.48 and the average family size was 5.24. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 43.4% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 23.9% from 25 to 44, 14.6% from 45 to 64, 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 122.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,250, the median income for a family was $36,875. Males had a median income of $21,875 versus $11,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,326. About 25.0% of families and 33.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 6.7% of those sixty five or over. A new well, water treatment plant and storage tank were completed; the school and clinic are connected directly to the water plant.
Individual wells, septic systems and plumbing were installed in 14 HUD homes during 1997. Sewage disposal is by septic tanks, honey buckets or privies, but major improvements are underway. A piped water and gravity sewer system is with household plumbing. 67 homes need sewer service. Most residents are dependent upon the washeteria for bathing; the city provides septic pumping services. Electricity is provided by the city of Akiak. There is one school located in the community, attended by 99 students; the city is home to the world's third largest museum of taxidermy. Local hospitals or health clinics include Edith Kawagley Memorial Clinic. Edith Kawagley Memorial Clinic is a Primary Health Care facility. Akiak is classified as an isolated village. Emergency services are provided by a health aide; the majority of the year-round employment in Akiak is with the city, schools or other public services. Commercial fishing or BLM fire-fighting provide seasonal income. 27 residents hold commercial fishing permits.
The community is interested in developing tourism. Subsistence activities are important to residents. Poor fish returns since 1997 have affected the community; the airport has a gravel runway in good condition, measuring 3,196 feet long by 75 feet wide, at an elevation of 30 feet. The strip provides private air access year-round. Arctic Circle Air Service, Grant Aviation and Hageland Aviation offer passenger flight service. Snow machines, ATVs and skiffs are used extensively for local transportation to nearby villages. There are no docking facilities. Taxes: Sales: None, Property: None, Special: None Akiak at the Community Database Online from the Alaska Division of Community and Regional Affairs Maps from the Alaska Department of Labor and Workforce Development: 2000, 2010