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Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release. The word effervescence is derived from the Latin verb fervere, preceded by the adverb ex, it has the same linguistic root as the word fermentation. Effervescence can be observed when opening a bottle of champagne, beer or carbonated beverages such as soft drinks; the visible bubbles are produced by the escape from solution of the dissolved gas. Although CO2 is most common for beverages, nitrogen gas is sometimes deliberately added to certain beers; the smaller bubble size creates a smoother beer head. Due to the poor solubility of nitrogen in beer, kegs or widgets are used for this. In the laboratory, a common example of effervescence is seen if hydrochloric acid is added to a block of limestone. If a few pieces of marble or an antacid tablet are put in hydrochloric acid in a test tube fitted with a bung, effervescence of carbon dioxide can be witnessed. CaCO 3 + 2 HCl ⟶ CaCl 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 ↑ This process is represented by the following reaction, where a pressurized dilute solution of carbonic acid in water releases gaseous carbon dioxide at decompression: H 2 CO 3 ⟶ H 2 O + CO 2 ↑ In simple terms, it is the result of the chemical reaction occurring in the liquid which produces a gaseous product.

Carbonation Effervescent tablet

Gap Powell

George A. "Gap" Powell was an American football player. Powell grew up in Portland and was one of the first 12 students to graduate from Franklin High School, he played fullback for Oregon State from 1918 to 1921 and became the university's first college football All-American in 1921. In the January 1922 issue of "Football World," Powell was named as the first-team All-American at the fullback position. Powell was a member of Oregon State's track team and won the Pacific Coast Conference shot put championship in 1920, he was inducted into the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame in 1982 and the Oregon State University Sports Hall of Fame in 1990. After graduating from Oregon State in 1922 with a degree in business administration, Powell moved to Southern California where he went into the oil business. In 1922, he brought Richfield products to Long Beach, for the first time, he ran a depot and a service station in Long Beach. He remained in the business that he called "the gas game" for his entire career, he formed a company, G.

A. Powell Co., a distributor for Rio Grande products. In addition to his business interests, Powell was an active recruiter for Oregon State in Southern California and became known as "Mister Oregon State" in Southern California. Powell died in Long Beach in 1989 at the age of 90. 1921 College Football All-America Team

Jim Mackey

James Alfred Mackey was an English professional footballer as an outside-right. Mackey joined Coventry City from Newburn Colliery, he played 12 league games before joining Carlisle United. In 1923 he moved to Notts County, scoring once in three games before a move to Lincoln City that year. In the summer of 1924, Mackey moved to Luton Town, scoring once in 10 games, he started the next season with Crewe Alexandra, despite playing 35 games, scoring four goals, left at the end of the season to join West Stanley in his native North-East of England. He returned to league football with Torquay United, playing in their first game in the Football League, a 1-1 draw against local rivals Exeter City at Plainmoor on 27 August 1927, he missed just two games that season, but was kept out of the side at the start of the following season by Dan Kelly. He returned to the side in October 1928 was a regular for much of the remainder of the season, he left Torquay at the end of the 1928–29 season and subsequently played non-League football for Dartford, Sheppey United, Bexleyheath & Welling, Dargas Sports and VCD Athletic

Wing Zone

Wing Zone is an Atlanta-based American restaurant chain that specializes in deep-fried food products. There are 80 Wing Zone locations in 25 American states in urban areas. Wing Zone has been featured on The Food Network's Roker on the Road, Entrepreneur Magazine and others. Wing Zone has won many awards, such as "National Festival Favorite" at the 2004 National Buffalo Wing Festival. Wing Zone offers both delivery; the Wing Zone was founded in 1991 by Matt Friedman and Adam Scott two students at the University of Florida. The two students took over their fraternity kitchen at nights and began developing their own techniques for creating original buffalo wings. According to Wing Zone's website, they sold out on their first two nights of business. Matt and Adam opened up their first two stores in Gainesville, Florida in 1993; as of 2014 Wing Zone has opened 8 stores in Panama. In 2014, Wing Zone opened their second international store in San Pedro Sula, after in 2015 Wing Zone opened their third international store in Guatemala City, Guatemala.

Buffalo wings Chicken List of fast-food chicken restaurants National Buffalo Wing Festival Official site


Vote-OK is a group of political activists which were active on the topic of hunting animals during the 2005, 2010 and 2015 general election campaigns. Vote-OK came into being in 2005 through the efforts of Gloucestershire farmer Charles James Mann, his wife Carole, Jeremy Sweeney, a former lobbyist. Charles Mann, a longstanding pro-hunt campaigner and Beacon Co-ordinator during the Liberty and Livelihood campaign marches, ran the Action Office for the Countryside Alliance between 1997 and 2005 but was required to step down because of legislation regarding electoral campaigning; the group stands as a single issue lobby group and is a Registered Recognised Third Party, one of only 11 in the country. Its main aim is to galvanise and organise more people to get involved in political campaigning in order to defeat any Members of Parliament who voted in favour of the Hunting Act 2004, their tactic is to aid other candidates in any constituency where the sitting MP supported a ban in order to bring about a government that will repeal the Hunting Act.

This means supporting the Conservative Party candidate. They did not focus efforts in campaigning against the fox hunting ban itself but provided extra volunteers during the campaigning stage of the election, they became involved in telephone canvassing and other activities as required. Vote-OK is a group of active campaigners which includes Lord Mancroft, co-ordinating support in marginal constituencies. Vote-OK head office consists of half a dozen people supporting Vote-OK Directors allocated to target constituencies. Liaising with the local candidate, the Directors role is to organise volunteers in the most effective way. Vote-OK is independent and are working with Conservative, Liberal Democrat and Plaid Cymru Candidates. Vote-OK's rural origins as a campaign to repeal the Hunting Act are not emphasised, on the basis that it is not considered a'vote winner'; as Simon Hart put it, "It would be much cleverer if we never mentioned hunting at all... We've got to go into these constituencies campaigning on health, crime."

Both Charles Mann and Simon Hart, who stepped down as Chairman of the Countryside Alliance in August 2019 to take up a ministerial role in the Cabinet Office, confirm that there are no current links between the two campaigning organisations. They targeted 139 seats. After the election the group claimed to have helped defeat 29 MPs as well as reducing the majorities of 21 anti-hunting MPs to under 3%, although anti-hunt groups such as Save Our Wild Animals dismissed this claim as "ludicrous". Members of Parliament who they have claimed to have helped defeat include David Rendel of Newbury, Peter Bradley of The Wrekin, the Parliamentary Private Secretary of Alun Michael, the minister in charge of handling the ban, Helen Clark of Peterborough, it is difficult, however. Vote-OK stated it had helped more than 30 pro-hunt MPs keep seats. Conservative leader David Cameron had pledged to give a free vote on repealing the Hunting Act if he won, but within the coalition that won this was not possible.

The Independent reported that they believed candidates Angie Bray and Ben Howlett accepted help from Vote-OK. Alex Chalk received help from Vote-OK. Countryside Alliance Pressure groups in the United Kingdom Official website

Alfred Leslie

Alfred Leslie is an American artist and filmmaker. He first achieved success as an Abstract Expressionist painter, but changed course in the early 1960s and became a painter of realistic figurative paintings. Alfred Leslie was born in New York. After service in the US Coast Guard at the end of World War II, Leslie studied art at New York University, the Art Students League, Pratt Institute. A bodybuilder and hand-balancer, Leslie posed for artist Reginald Marsh and others and modeled for classes at the Art Students League and Pratt Institute. Anticipating the Situationist International's detournement, his 1949 film Magic Thinking combined black-and-white cartoons, home movies, GI training films, industrial commercials, strip footage and old feature films. To raise the $250 required of by Tibor de Nagy Gallery to exhibit there in 1952, he appeared on Strike It Rich, an early reality television program, won, his 1952 exhibition included The Bed-Sheet Painting, a 12 by 16 foot, black painting with a scumbled surface and white bar mounted on unstretched canvas.

In the'50s, he made sculptures using insignificant materials such as plumber's tape, grommets, housepaint. Anticipating John Chamberlain's sculptures made from recycled cars, Leslie tied together car mufflers and tail pipes with rope after hammering and reassembling them. In 1955, a collector gave him a Polaroid camera, driving him to take hundreds of police-style mugshots, of which only photos of Sam Francis and Al Held survived. Invited to partake in the Moderna Museet's "Art in Motion" exhibition, curated by Pontus Hulten, Leslie proposed Jolly, a kit with the ingredients to make an inflatable sculpture. Anticipating Andy Warhol's Clouds, he proposed that a massive weather balloon suspend a brick over an inflated wading pool. In 1962, having gained recognition as a second generation Abstract Expressionist painter, Leslie abruptly changed course, his new works were realistic figurative paintings in grisaille, of which he said, "there was a point at which I realized that if my work was to develop and evolve, if I was to mature as an artist, these figurative ideas could not be ignored though following them could seem to imply that I would be turning my back on the twentieth century, turning my back on my abstract achievement".

On October 17, 1966, nearly all of Leslie's monochrome paintings were destroyed in a fire. Shortly afterwards, Leslie introduced color into his paintings, which have been exhibited. Leslie's solo exhibitions include those at the Museum of Boston. Though figuration and narration became contentious issues for painters in the 1980s, "these concerns didn't exist per se in film, literary or still photography world, all of which I was part of."Leslie is known for his large scale charcoal drawings, for his work as a photographer and filmmaker. Together with Robert Frank, Leslie directed the short film Pull My Daisy in 1959; the film, narrated by Jack Kerouac, was selected for the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 1996. He created the films Directions: A Walk after the War Games, The Last Clean Shirt with the poet Frank O'Hara, The Cedar Bar, Einstein's Secret and the animated film The New York Story. Benezra, N.. An uncommon vision. New York: Hudson Hills Press. ISBN 1-879003-20-1 Leslie, A..

Alfred Leslie: Drawings. New York: B. Flynn & R. Bellamy. ISBN 0-9624258-3-4 Herskovic, New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists, ISBN 0-9677994-0-6. P. 16. P. 152-155 Barbara Rose, American painting, the twentieth century ISBN 2-605-00308-6 Sam Hunter. P. 321-371