An effigy is a representation of a specific person in the form of sculpture or some other three-dimensional medium. The use of the term is restricted to certain contexts in a somewhat arbitrary way: recumbent effigies on tombs are so called, but standing statues of individuals, or busts, are not. Likenesses of religious figures in sculpture are not called effigies. Effigies are common elements of funerary art as a recumbent effigy in stone or metal placed on a tomb, or a less permanent "funeral effigy", placed on the coffin in a grand funeral, wearing real clothing. Figures caricatural in style, that are damaged, destroyed or paraded in order to harm the person represented by magical means, or to mock or insult them or their memory, are called effigies, it is common to burn an effigy of a person as an act of protest. The word is first documented in English in 1539 and comes via French, from the Latin effigies, meaning "representation"; this spelling was used in English for singular senses: a single image was "the effigies of...".
In effigie was understood as a Latin phrase until the 18th century. The word occurs in Shakespeare's As You Like It of 1600, where scansion suggests that the second syllable is to be emphasized, as in the Latin pronunciation; the best known British example of a caricature effigy is the figure of the 1605 Gunpowder Plotter Guy Fawkes, found in charge of gunpowder to blow up the King in the House of Lords. On November 5, Guy Fawkes Night or Bonfire Night, his effigy made of straw and old clothing, is still traditionally burned on a bonfire in many villages accompanied by fireworks. In many parts of the world, there are traditions of large caricature effigies of political or other figures carried on floats in parades at festivals. Political effigies serve a broadly similar purpose in political demonstrations and annual community rituals such as that held in Lewes, on the south coast of England. In Lewes, models of important or unpopular figures in current affairs are burned on Guy Fawkes Night alongside an effigy of the Pope.
Caricature effigies, in Greek skiachtro, are still in use to prevent birds from eating mature fruit grapes. In Oriental Orthodox and Latin American Christianity, populace used to burn or explode an effigy of Judas, just before Easter or on New Year's Eve. Now it is considered an obsolete custom and there are no attempts at revival; the display of temporary or permanent effigies in wood or wax sculpture and other media of the deceased was a common part of the funeral ceremonies of important people over a long stretch of European history. They were shown lying on the coffin at the funeral, often displayed beside or over the tomb; the figures were dressed in the clothes of the deceased. The museum of Westminster Abbey has a collection of English royal wax effigies reaching to Edward III of England, as well as those of figures such as the prime minister Pitt the Elder, the naval hero Horatio Nelson, Frances Stewart, Duchess of Richmond, at her own request and expense, who had her parrot stuffed and displayed.
From the time of the funeral of Charles II in 1685, effigies were no longer placed on the coffin but were still made for display. The effigy of Charles II was displayed over his tomb until the early 19th century, when all effigies were removed from the abbey. Nelson's effigy was a tourist attraction, commissioned the year after his death and his burial in St Paul's Cathedral in 1805; the government had decided that major public figures with State funerals should in future be buried at St Paul's. Concerned for their revenue from visitors, the Abbey decided it needed a rival attraction for admirers of Nelson. In the field of numismatics, effigy has been used to describe the central image or portrait on the obverse of a coin. A practice evident in reference literature of the 19th century, the obverse of a coin was said to depict “the ruler’s effigy”; the appearance and style of effigy used varies according to the preference of the monarch or ruler being depicted - for example, such as George VI of the United Kingdom have preferred to be shown uncrowned, while others have favoured highly-formal representations.
It can be the case that the monarch's reign becomes long enough to merit issuing a succession of effigies so that their appearance continues to be current. Such has been the case for Queen Victoria and Elizabeth II, depicted by five different effigies on British coins and three different effigies on British postage stamps since she ascended to the throne in 1953. In the past, criminals sentenced to death in absentia might be executed "in effigy" as a symbolic act. In southern India, effigies of the demon-king Ravana from the epic poem the Ramayana are traditionally burnt during the festival of Navrati; the term gisant is associated with the full-length effigies of a deceased person depicted in stone or wood on church monuments. These lie with hands together in prayer. An Effigie of a deceased person, kneeling in prayer is called a priant. Effigies may be demi-figures and the term is used to refer to busts; the Marzanna ritual represents the end of the dark days of winter, the victory over death, the welcoming of the spring rebirth.
Marzanna is a Slavic goddess of death, associated with winter. The rite involves burning a female straw effigy or
The Couldn't Stand the Weather Tour was a worldwide concert tour by blues rock band Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble. Produced in support of their 1984 album Couldn't Stand the Weather, the tour visited North America, Europe and Japan from 1984 to 1985. To reflect the new musical direction that the group took with Couldn't Stand the Weather, the tour was aimed to differ from their past and surpass expectations of the band. In comparison to Vaughan and Double Trouble's modest stage setup from the previous Texas Flood Tour, the Couldn't Stand the Weather Tour involved a more elaborate production, it utilized grander amplifier setups and sound systems to take advantage of the larger venues in which they performed. To avoid their renowned blues material and Double Trouble embodied a more expanded and varied repertoire during performances. In disparity to the previous tour, each of the Couldn't Stand the Weather shows opened with the same three songs before other material was played; the album and the tour were the beginnings of the group's mid-eighties musical development.
Consisting of thirteen legs and 146 shows, the tour commenced in Southampton, New York, on March 10, 1984 and concluded in San Antonio, Texas, on May 4, 1985. The first seven legs alternated between North America and Europe, before the following leg took the band to Carnegie Hall. After this leg, the tour's schedule was expanded for concert halls in Oceania, branded "First Tour of Australia", accordingly. Despite a variety of reactions from music critics, the tour received positive reviews. Among other top-grossing concerts on the tour, nearly all of the Australian performances were sold-out over its seven-show period; the band's 1985 album Soul to Soul, which saw the addition of a fourth band member, was recorded during breaks in the tour, its songs were played during the succeeding Soul to Soul Tour. By many accounts, the Couldn't Stand the Weather Tour was regarded as one of the band's busiest tours—in 1997, drummer Chris Layton recalled "at that point in time, it was like delirium seemed to be setting in".
Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble's debut album Texas Flood and the supporting Texas Flood Tour brought them to commercial and critical success in the United States and Europe. Like their other tours, the Texas Flood Tour was a basic, minimalist production, they used this outlet to focus on musical and instrumentation aspects; as a result, the band warranted a renowned blues repertoire, a reputation that became an obstacle of reluctance after their critically acclaimed cover version of the Jimi Hendrix song, "Voodoo Child", which captured Vaughan's exploration of Hendrix. The band was pressured to remain pure to the blues and "steer clear of Jimi", their 1983 Texas Flood Tour featured several Hendrix compositions in their setlist, during a break in the tour, drummer Chris Layton recalled that "It came down to this question: are we going to move forward and push things to the limit, or are we going to cater to the purists and do straight blues shuffles?", encouraging progress for the group.
Before the tour began, a showcase took place on March 6, 1984 at the Sheraton Waikiki Hotel in Honolulu. Vaughan found it challenging to recreate all the sounds from the newly recorded album, they attempted using additional musicians, but their sentimental attachment to a three-piece prevailed for the time being. On March 8, the band departed Austin for the Northeast to begin the tour; the tour's opening night took place on March 10, 1984 at Southampton College in Southampton, New York. Unlike the group's previous tour, which began after the release of Texas Flood, the tour started two months before Couldn't Stand the Weather was released, allowing fans to familiarize themselves with the new songs. By opening night, Texas Flood had sold over 300,000 copies in the US and 50,000 in Canada. For the opening two legs, 17 concerts in the US and Scandinavia were scheduled. Four days after the tour's beginning, tickets for the Scotia, New York show were sold out; the third leg of the tour, consisting of 23 shows in the US, took place from April to May 1984.
In few cases, slow ticket sales led to canceled shows. Due to a promotional slump, a concert scheduled at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania was canceled. However, larger concerts all around the US opening for Huey Lewis and the News on their sold-out 1984-85 world tour helped to increase the tour's profits. Two additional legs were scheduled and just as, if not more, successful as the previous leg: the North American legs from June–August 1984, the European leg in August 1984, the US leg in September 1984, the US "Fall Foliage" leg from September–October 1984. While playing other venues motivated the band and Double Trouble saw their Carnegie Hall appearance as an opportunity to show fans an expanded musical lineup, imagining the special aspects that would be used in such a historic space. Rehearsals for Carnegie Hall began at the Third Coast soundstage in Austin, in September 1984. Technical and dress rehearsals were incorporated into preparing for the show. Days before the show, the group canceled a Union, New Jersey concert, due to a final rehearsal, scheduled in New York.
By the time the concert began, the group had sold all 2,200 tickets. The following leg, which began in late October, was the band's first full tour of Oceania and marked the first time they had visited the area. Scheduling for the year-end leg in California in late November afforded the band off-time between legs than the previous tour, but this amplified the exhaustion and delirium that had set in by the tour's end. Vaughan and
The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, Aged 13¾ is a British television series based on the book of the same name written by Sue Townsend. It began in 1985, starred Gian Sammarco as the title character Adrian Mole, Stephen Moore as Adrian's father George Mole and Julie Walters as Adrian's mother Pauline Mole, it was directed by Peter Sasdy. Adrian Mole is the main character of the series and serves as narrator. George Mole is Adrian's father, married to Adrian's mother Pauline. Pauline Mole is Adrian's mother, who leaves her husband George to live with her neighbour Mr. Lucas in Sheffield. Walters was replaced by Lulu for series two. May'Grandma' Mole is Adrian's grandmother. Bert Baxter is Adrian's foul-mouthed and opinionated friend, an old age pensioner whom Adrian has to look after as part of a school club of which he is part. Bert owns an aggressive and unpredictable German Shepherd dog named Sabre, whom Adrian dislikes. Queenie Baxter is Bert Baxter's partner, who becomes his wife. Pandora Braithwaite is Adrian's girlfriend.
Tania Braithwaite is Pandora's liberal-minded mother. Ivan Braithwaite is Pandora's father. Nigel Partridge is Adrian's best friend. Barry Kent is a bully at Adrian's school who beats Adrian up in exchange for money, until Adrian's grandmother puts a stop to it. Mr'Creep' Lucas is the Moles' former neighbour with whom Pauline has an affair in series 1. Doreen'Stick Insect' Slater is a woman with whom Adrian's father George has an affair while his wife is in Sheffield with Mr. Lucas. Maxwell'House' Slater is Stick Insect's badly-behaved young son from a previous relationship. Dr Grey is the family's jobsworth local doctor, whose bedside manner is rude and unsympathetic. Mr Reginald'Popeye' Scruton is Adrian and Pandora's abrasive and volatile headmaster, a huge admirer of the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Ms Fossington-Gore is Adrian and Nigel's opinionated but supportive form tutor. Mrs Claricoates is the school's long-suffering secretary. Hamish Mancini is an American teenager whom Adrian befriends during his barge-holiday with his mother and'Creep' Lucas.
In addition, Brenda Cowling appeared in two episodes as the formidable matron of the Alderman Cooper Sunshine Home, in which Bert and Queenie were residents before their marriage. The series was filmed on location in the Braunstone and South Wigston areas of Leicester; the Moles' house and street were filmed in Ludlow Close and Adrian's school scenes at'Neil Armstrong Comprehensive' were all filmed at Hammersmith School in West London. Whilst being set in Leicester, in the East Midlands, some of the characters speak with a distinct West Midlands accent; the opening and closing theme was "Profoundly In Love With Pandora" by Ian Dury. It was reached number 45 on the UK Singles Chart; the Secret Diary of Adrian Mole, Aged 13¾ on IMDb