Wyalusing State Park
Wyalusing State Park is a 2,628-acre Wisconsin state park at the confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers in the town of Wyalusing, just south of Prairie du Chien. Wyalusing means "home of the warrior" in the Lenape language spoken by Munsee-Delaware Indians who settled in the area in the 19th century after being displaced from farther east. 500-foot-high bluffs dotted. Two park resources have been recognized nationally: the Wyalusing Hardwood Forest is a National Natural Landmark and the Wyalusing State Park Mounds Archaeological District is on the National Register of Historic Places; the park is in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin, a portion of territory that remained ice free during the last ice age, while land to the east and west was crushed by glaciers. The high bluffs along the Mississippi River and the large deep canyon of the Wisconsin River are evidence of glacial meltwaters reshaping this region. Wyalusing State Park Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Friends of Wyalusing State Park
Lidar is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor. Differences in laser return times and wavelengths can be used to make digital 3-D representations of the target; the name lidar, now used as an acronym of light detection and ranging, was a portmanteau of light and radar. Lidar sometimes is called 3D laser scanning, a special combination of a 3D scanning and laser scanning, it has terrestrial and mobile applications. Lidar is used to make high-resolution maps, with applications in geodesy, archaeology, geology, seismology, atmospheric physics, laser guidance, airborne laser swath mapping, laser altimetry; the technology is used in control and navigation for some autonomous cars. Lidar originated in the early 1960s, shortly after the invention of the laser, combined laser-focused imaging with the ability to calculate distances by measuring the time for a signal to return using appropriate sensors and data acquisition electronics.
Its first applications came in meteorology, where the National Center for Atmospheric Research used it to measure clouds. The general public became aware of the accuracy and usefulness of lidar systems in 1971 during the Apollo 15 mission, when astronauts used a laser altimeter to map the surface of the moon. Although now most sources treat the word "lidar" as an acronym, the term originated as a combination of "light" and "radar"; the first published mention of lidar, in 1963, makes this clear: "Eventually the laser may provide an sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by'lidar'..." The Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology. The interpretation of "lidar" as an acronym came beginning in 1970, based on the assumption that since the base term "radar" started as an acronym for "Radio Detection And Ranging", "LIDAR" must stand for "Light Detection And Ranging", or for "Laser Imaging, Detection And Ranging". Although the English language no longer treats "radar" as an acronym and printed texts universally present the word uncapitalized, the word "lidar" became capitalized as "LIDAR" or "LiDAR" in some publications beginning in the 1980s.
No consensus exists on capitalization, reflecting uncertainty about whether or not "lidar" is an acronym, if it is an acronym, whether it should appear in lower case, like "radar". Various publications refer to lidar as "LIDAR", "LiDAR", "LIDaR", or "Lidar"; the USGS uses both "LIDAR" and "lidar", sometimes in the same document. Lidar uses ultraviolet, near infrared light to image objects, it can target a wide range of materials, including non-metallic objects, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols and single molecules. A narrow laser beam can map physical features with high resolutions; the essential concept of lidar was originated by EH Synge in 1930, who envisaged the use of powerful searchlights to probe the atmosphere. Indeed, lidar has since been used extensively for atmospheric meteorology. Lidar instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites carry out surveying and mapping – a recent example being the U. S. Geological Survey Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar. NASA has identified lidar as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar-landing vehicles.
Wavelengths vary to suit the target: from about 10 micrometers to the UV. Light is reflected via backscattering, as opposed to pure reflection one might find with a mirror. Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications: most Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Raman scattering, fluorescence. Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by identifying wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal; the two kinds of lidar detection schemes are "incoherent" or direct energy detection and coherent detection. Coherent systems use optical heterodyne detection; this is more sensitive than direct detection and allows them to operate at much lower power, but requires more complex transceivers. Both types employ pulse models: either high energy. Micropulse systems utilize intermittent bursts of energy, they developed as a result of ever-increasing computer power, combined with advances in laser technology. They use less energy in the laser on the order of one microjoule, are "eye-safe", meaning they can be used without safety precautions.
High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are used for measuring atmospheric parameters: the height and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties, pressure, wind and trace gas concentration. Lidar systems consist of several major components. 600–1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. The maximum power of the laser is limited, or an automatic shut off system which turns the laser off at specific altitudes is used in order to make it ey
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
A natural monument is a natural or natural/cultural feature of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. Under World Commission on Protected Areas guidelines, natural monuments are level III, described as: "Areas are set aside to protect a specific natural monument, which can be a landform, sea mount, submarine cavern, geological feature such as a cave or a living feature such as an ancient grove, they are quite small protected areas and have high visitor value."This is a lower level of protection than level II and level I. The European Environment Agency's guidelines for selection of a natural monument are: The area should contain one or more features of outstanding significance. Appropriate natural features include waterfalls, craters, fossil beds, sand dunes and marine features, along with unique or representative fauna and flora; the area should be large enough to protect the integrity of the feature and its related surroundings.
Natural monument signs selection IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category III Natural Monument or Feature U. S. National Monument World Conservation Union A-Z of Areas of Biodiversity Importance: Natural Monument or Feature Natural Monuments in Brazil
The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,348-foot -long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by Ohio History Connection, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior; the Serpent Mound of Ohio was first reported from surveys by Ephraim Squire and Edwin Davis in their historic volume Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published in 1848 by the newly founded Smithsonian Museum. Researchers have at different times attributed construction of the mound to two different prehistoric indigenous cultures. Thought to be Adena in origin, a 1996 carbon dating study led scholars to believe the mound was built by members of the Fort Ancient culture around 1070 CE. More recent carbon dating done in 2014 places the mound's construction at around 300 BCE, once again suggesting Adena construction. Serpent Mound is the largest serpent effigy in the world.
Including all three parts, the Serpent Mound extends about 1,376 feet, varies in height from less than a foot to more than three feet, has a width of 20 to 25 feet. Conforming to the curve of the land on which it rests, with its head approaching a cliff above a stream, the serpent winds back and forth for more than eight hundred feet and seven coils, ends in a triple-coiled tail; the shape itself consisted of a layer of yellowish clay and ash, reinforced with a layer of rocks, covered with a layer of soil. The serpent head has an open mouth extending around the east end of a 120-foot -long hollow oval feature that may represent the snake eating an egg, though some scholars posit that the oval feature symbolizes the sun, the body of a frog, or the remnant of a platform; the effigy's extreme western feature is a triangular mound 31.6 feet at its base and long axis. There are similar serpent effigies in Scotland; the dating of the design, the original construction, the identity of the builders of the serpent effigy are three questions still debated in the disciplines of social science, including ethnology and anthropology.
In addition, contemporary American Indians have an interest in the site. Several attributions have been entered by academic and Native American concerns regarding all three of these unknown factors of when designed, when built, by whom; the dating of the site has been brought into question. While it has long been thought to be an Adena site based on slim evidence, a couple of radiocarbon dates from a small excavation raise the possibility that the mound is no more than a thousand years old. Middle Ohio Valley people of the time were not known for building large earthworks, however. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal discovered within the mound in the 1990s indicated that people worked on the mound circa 1070 AD. Researchers first attributed the mound to the Adena culture. William Webb, noted Adena exponent, found evidence through carbon dating for Kentucky Adena as early as 1200 BC; as there are Adena graves near the Serpent Mound, scholars thought the same people constructed the mound. The skeletal remains of the Adena type uncovered in the 1880s at Serpent Mound indicate that these people were unique among the ancient Ohio Valley peoples.
It was. The Adena culture did build some nearby mounds, so for more than 125 years, many scholars thought they created the Serpent Mound as well; the Adena were renowned for their elaborate earthworks and their creation of "sacred circles" as part of their cosmology. An unrecorded number of their gravesites throughout the greater Ohio Valley were destroyed before any organized archeological supervision performed correct analysis of their contents. Carbon-dating studies published in 1996 of material from the mound appeared to place the Serpent Mound construction as than the span of the Adena; this suggested that a people subsequent to the Adena may have built or refurbished the site for their own uses and purposes. Although a characteristic of excavation at most Adena mounds has been discovery of related artifacts, to date no cultural artifacts have been found within the Serpent Mound; this study and its inferences is further discussed below. Scholars thought that the Fort Ancient culture, an Ohio Valley-based, mound-building society, constructed Serpent Mound about 1070 AD.
The Fort Ancient culture was influenced by the contemporary Mississippian culture society based along the mid-Mississippi River valley with its North American center at Cahokia. The Mississippian culture had regional chiefdoms as far south as present-day Louisiana and Mississippi, as well as extending to western North Carolina and north to the Great Lakes area. Fort Ancient society, a Late Prehistoric group, was named because they inhabited the ramparts of the large notched earthworks in Warren County, Ohio called "Fort Ancient"; the earthwork had been built, however, by the early Hopewell culture at least 1,000 years prior to the arrival of the Fort Ancient culture. The Hopewell culture had abandoned the earthworks and disappeared long before the Fort Ancient peoples arose in the area. In 1996 the team of Robert V. Fletcher and Terry L. Cameron reopened a trench created by Frederic Ward Putnam of Harvard over 100 years before, they found a few pieces of charcoal in what was believed to
A visitor center or centre, visitor information center, tourist information center, is a physical location that provides tourist information to visitors. A visitor center may be: A visitor center at a specific attraction or place of interest, such as a landmark, national park, national forest, or state park, providing information and in-depth educational exhibits and artifact displays. A film or other media display is used. If the site has permit requirements or guided tours, the visitor center is the place where these are coordinated. A tourist information center, providing visitors to a location with information on the area's attractions, lodgings and other items relevant to tourism; these centers are operated at the airport or other port of entry, by the local government or chamber of commerce. A visitor center is called an information center. A corporate visitor center, provides visitors with an accessible window into the corporation. Visitor centers used to provide basic information about the place, corporation or event they are celebrating, acting more as the entry way to a place.
The role of the visitor center has been evolving over the past 10 years to become more of an experience and to tell the story of the place or brand it represents. Many have become experiences in their own right. In the United Kingdom, there is a nationwide network of Tourist Information Centres run by the British Tourist Authority, represented online by the VisitBritain website and public relations organisation. Other TICs are run by local authorities or through private organisations such as local shops in association with BTA. In England, VisitEngland promotes domestic tourism. In Wales, the Welsh Government supports TICs through Visit Wales. In Scotland, the Scottish Government supports VisitScotland, the official tourist organisation of Scotland, which operates Tourist Information Centres across Scotland. In Poland there are special tables giving free information about tourist attractions. Offices are situated in interesting places in popular tourists' destinations and tables stay near monuments and important culture In North America, a welcome center is a rest area with a visitor center, located after the entrance from one state or province to another state or province or in some cases another country along an Interstate Highway or other freeway.
These information centers are operated by the state. The first example opened on 4 May 1935, next to US 12 in New Buffalo, near the Indiana state line. Many United States cities, such as Houston and Boca Raton, Florida, as well as counties and other areas smaller than states operate welcome centers, though with less facilities than state centers have. In Ontario, there are 11 Ontario Travel Information Centres located along 400-series highways. Peru features Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance, a free service that provides tourist information for domestic and foreign travelers, the information covers destinations, recommended routes and licensed tourism companies in Peru, it provides assistance on various procedures or where tourists have problems of various kinds. Iperú receives suggestions for destinations and tourism companies operating in Peru. Iperú, Tourist Information and Assistance has a nationwide network represented online by the Peru.travel website, the 24/7 line 5748000, 31 local offices in 13 regions in all over Peru: Lima-Callao, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Arequipa, Puno, Cusco and Iquitos.
The official tourist organization or national tourist board of Peru is PromPerú, a national organization that promotes both tourism and international commerce of this country worldwide. In Australia, most visitor centres are local or state government-run, or in some cases as an association of tourism operators on behalf of the government managed by a board or executive; those that comply with a national accreditation programme use the italic "i" as pictured above. These visitor information centres provide information on the local area, perform services such as accommodation and tour bookings, flight/bus/train/hire car options, act as the first point of contact a visitor has with the town or region. Heritage center Heritage interpretation Interpretation center Nature center United States Capitol Visitor Center Communicating with visitors – 16 tips for visitor centers
Dubuque is the county seat of Dubuque County, United States, located along the Mississippi River. In 2017, the population of Dubuque was 57,637; this city lies at the junction of Iowa and Wisconsin, a region locally known as the Tri-State Area. It serves as the main commercial, industrial and cultural center for the area. Geographically, it is part of the Driftless Area, a portion of North America that escaped all three phases of the Wisconsinian Glaciation, it is one of the few cities in Iowa with bluffs, a tourist destination featuring the city's unique architecture and river location. It is home to five institutions of higher education, learning. Dubuque has long been a center of manufacturing, but the economy grew and diversified to other areas in the first years of the 21st century. By 2005, the city led the state and the Midwest in job growth, ranking as the 22nd fastest-growing economy in the US. Alongside industry, the city has large health care, tourism and financial service sectors. Spain gained control of the Louisiana Territory west of the Mississippi River following the 1763 defeat of the French in the Seven Years' War.
The first permanent settler in what is now Dubuque was Quebecois pioneer Julien Dubuque, who arrived in 1785. In 1788, he received permission from the Spanish government and the local Meskwaki American Indians to mine the area's rich lead deposits. Control of Louisiana and Dubuque's mines shifted back to France in 1800 to the United States in 1803, following the Louisiana Purchase. Dubuque died in 1810; the Meskwaki continued to mine with full support of the U. S. Government until 1830, when the Meskwaki were illegally pushed out of the mine region by American prospectors; the current City of Dubuque was named after Julien Dubuque, settled at the southern end of a large flat plain adjacent to the Mississippi River. The city was chartered in 1833, located in unorganized territory of the United States; the region was designated as the Iowa Territory in 1838, was included in the newly created State of Iowa in 1846. After the lead resources were exhausted, the city became home to numerous industries.
Dubuque became a center for the timber industry because of its proximity to forests in Minnesota and Wisconsin, was dominated by various millworking businesses. Important were boat building and the railroad industry. In 1874, the Diamond Jo Line moved its company headquarters to Dubuque. Diamond Jo Line established a shipyard at Eagle Point in 1878. Just two years the company was the largest employer in Dubuque, putting 78 people to work, 75 of whom worked at the shipyard earning their collective $800–$1,000 per week in wages. Between 1860 and 1880, Dubuque was one of the 100 largest urban areas in the United States. Iowa's first church was built by Catholics in 1833. Since Iowans have followed a variety of religious traditions. Beginning in the mid-19th century and into the early 20th century, thousands of poor German and Irish Catholic immigrants came to the city to work in the manufacturing centers; the city's large Roman Catholic congregations led to its designation as the seat of the newly established Archdiocese of Dubuque.
Numerous convents and other religious institutions were built. The ethnic German and Irish descendants maintain a strong Catholic presence in the city. Nicholas E. Gonner, a Catholic immigrant from Pfaffenthal in Luxembourg, founded the Catholic Publishing Company of Dubuque, Iowa, his son Nicholas E. Gonner Jr. took over in 1892, editing two German language weeklies, an English language weekly, the Daily Tribune, the only Catholic daily newspaper published in the United States. Early in the 20th century, Dubuque was one of several sites of a brass era automobile company, Adams-Farwell. Subsequently, Dubuque grew and industrial activity remained its economic mainstay until the 1980s. During that time, a series of changes in manufacturing and the onset of the "Farm Crisis" led to a large decline in the sector and the city's economy as a whole. In the 1990s the economy diversified shifting away from heavy industry. Tourism, high technology, publishing are now among the largest and fastest-growing businesses.
Dubuque attracts well over 1,500,000 tourists annually, the number continues to increase. The city has encouraged development of the America's River Project's tourist attractions in the Port of Dubuque, the expansion of the city's colleges, the continued growth of shopping centers, such as Asbury Plaza. Dubuque has received a number of awards and recognition for its redevelopment this century. 2001-1st recipient of the Vision Iowa Grant, awarded $40 million to revitalize the Port of Dubuque. 2006-Urban Pioneer Award by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, in recognition of Dubuque's 20-year commitment to the revitalization of the city's center. 2006- Audrey Nealson Community Development Achievement Award, given by the National Community Development Association. The award recognized exemplary uses of Community Development Block Grant funds that best addressed the needs of low-income families and neighborhoods. 2006-Money Magazine identified Dubuque as having the shortest commute time, 11.8 minutes, of all U.
S cities. 2007, 2008 and 2010-ranked among the "100 Best Communities for Young People" by the America's Promise Youth Foundation. April 2007- ranked 15th in the "Best Small Places For Business and Careers'" by Forbes magazine, climbing 60 spots from 2006. June 2007-All-America City Award, one of 10 cities recognized nationally. June 2008-Named the "Most Livable" Small Ci