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Effingham County, Georgia

Effingham County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 52,250; the seat is Springfield. Effingham County is included in the Savannah metropolitan area. In 2008, Effingham County was ranked as the sixth-fastest-growing midsize county in the nation from 2000 to 2007 by the U. S. Census Bureau; the county had a 35.1% growth rate over that period. Effingham was among the original counties of the state of Georgia, created February 5, 1777 during the American Revolution from the colonial parishes of St. Matthew and St. Phillip, its name honors Lord Effingham, an English champion of colonial rights, who resigned his commission rather than fight against the rebel colonists during the American Revolution. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 483 square miles, of which 478 square miles is land and 5.2 square miles is water. The entire western edge of Effingham County, from south of Newington to east of Guyton south to southwest of Meldrim, is located in the Lower Ogeechee River sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin.

The bulk of the rest of the county is located in the Lower Savannah River sub-basin of the Savannah River basin. A narrow rectangular portion of south Effingham County, from south of Pineora through Meldrim, is located in the Ogeechee Coastal sub-basin of the Ogeechee River basin. Hampton County, South Carolina Jasper County, South Carolina Chatham County Bryan County Bulloch County Screven County Savannah National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 37,535 people, 13,151 households, 10,494 families living in the county; the population density was 78 people per square mile. There were 14,169 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.66% White, or European Americans, 12.99% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, 1.04% from two or more races. About 1.41 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 13,151 households out of which 43.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.30% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.20% were non-families.

16.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.84 and the average family size was 3.18. In the county, the population was spread out with 29.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 32.10% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 8.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,505, the median income for a family was $50,351. Males had a median income of $39,238 versus $23,814 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,873. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.80% of those under age 18 and 12.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 52,250 people, 18,092 households, 14,139 families living in the county; the population density was 109.4 inhabitants per square mile.

There were 19,884 housing units at an average density of 41.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.6% white, 13.5% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.6% were German, 17.0% were Irish, 14.0% were English, 10.2% were American. Of the 18,092 households, 43.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.8% were non-families, 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.22. The median age was 35.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $56,903 and the median income for a family was $63,277. Males had a median income of $49,646 versus $34,554 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,465. About 8.0% of families and 10.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 11.6% of those age 65 or over.

In the early years of the 1900s, agriculture was the mainstay of the county economy. The chief agricultural products were sweet potatoes; the county farmers raised so many Irish potatoes in the early 1920s that they were shipped out numerous railroad boxcars, full of potatoes, during the summer months of those years. Small businesses, such as the Effingham Canning Company and Potato Barrel manufacturing mills, became big businesses; the Effingham Canning Company did not last long. It was established in 1918 at the site of the former Savannah Atlanta Railroad Locomotive Repair Shop in Springfield; this site today would be located across the road from Georgia Highway Department Maintenance Building on Georgia Highway 21, south of Springfield. A canning company operated in the 1940s at the old elementary school grounds in Springfield. In the early 21st century, Effingham County has had unprecedented demand for industrial locations. Interest in industrial development has been spurred by the area's high population growth, tremendous growth at the Georgia ports and the ever-growing economy of coastal Georgia.

Contributors include a diversified manufacturing base. The Savannah area is home to Gulfstream Aerosp

Bleach (Nirvana album)

Bleach is the debut studio album by the American rock band Nirvana, released on June 15, 1989 by Sub Pop. After the release of its debut single "Love Buzz" on Sub Pop in November 1988, Nirvana practiced for two to three weeks in preparation for recording a full-length album; the main recording sessions for Bleach took place at Reciprocal Recording in Seattle, Washington between December 1988 and January 1989. Bleach was well received by critics; when the album was reissued internationally by Geffen Records in 1992 following the success of Nirvana's second album, its major label version debuted at number 89 on the Billboard 200, peaked at number 33 on the UK Albums Chart and 34 on the Australian albums chart. In 2009, Sub Pop released a 20th anniversary edition of Bleach featuring a live recording of a Nirvana show in Portland, Oregon from 1990 as extra material. Bleach had sold 40,000 copies in North America before the release of Nevermind, it has since been certified Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America and has sold more than 1.9 million copies in the United States alone.

It is Sub Pop's best-selling album to date. Frontman Kurt Cobain's death in April 1994 led to a resurgence of popularity for the album, with it reaching number one on the Top Pop Catalog Albums chart. In April 2019, Bleach was ranked No. 13 on Rolling Stone's 50 Greatest Grunge Albums list. After the release of its debut single "Love Buzz" on Sub Pop in November 1988, Nirvana practiced for two to three weeks in preparation for recording a full-length album though Sub Pop had only requested an EP; the main sessions for Bleach took place at Reciprocal Recording Studios in Seattle, with local producer Jack Endino. Nirvana began recording with a five-hour session on December 24, 1988; the band recorded again on December 29–31, on January 14 and 24. Three of the album's songs – "Floyd the Barber", "Paper Cuts", "Downer" – were recorded during a previous session at Reciprocal Studios in 1988, featuring Dale Crover on drums. Despite attempts to re-record them with new drummer Chad Channing, the band decided to remix the versions recorded with Crover for the final version of Bleach.

"Big Long Now" was omitted from the album because vocalist/guitarist Kurt Cobain felt "there was enough slow heavy stuff on Bleach, he'didn't want that song to go out'", according to Endino. The album was edited and sequenced, but Sub Pop head Bruce Pavitt ordered that the album be re-sequenced; the record was further delayed for several months until Sub Pop was able to secure sufficient funds to issue it. Lead singer Kurt Cobain felt pressured to create music for Bleach that conformed to the grunge music style favored by his record label and the contemporary Seattle music scene; the album is regarded as quite bleak. Endino billed the band thirty hours of recording at $606.17. Jason Everman, a guitarist, impressed by Nirvana's demo with Dale Crover, supplied the money, he joined the group as second guitarist. Everman was credited as a guitarist on the album sleeve, is the other guitarist on the cover of the album though he did not perform on the album. Bassist Krist Novoselic explained, "We just wanted to make him feel at home in the band."

According to Cobain, the music on Bleach conformed with the grunge genre Sub Pop endorsed. "There was this pressure from Sub Pop and the grunge scene to play'rock music'", Cobain said, noted that he " it down and it sound like Aerosmith." Cobain felt he had to fit the expectations of the grunge sound to build a fanbase, hence suppressed his arty and pop songwriting traits while crafting the record. Krist Novoselic said in a 2001 interview with Rolling Stone that the band had played a tape in their tour van that had an album by The Smithereens on one side and one by the extreme metal band Celtic Frost on the other, noted that the combination played an influence as well; the songs were described as "deliberately bleak and lyrically sparse, with none of the manic derangement or sense of release of the live performance". Cobain said that the song structures were "one–dimensional", said that he sought to present a more "polished and urbane side of happy". Describing the various songs on Bleach, Christopher Sandford wrote: "'Paper Cuts' includes a folk-influence melody and ponderous rhythm of an early Led Zeppelin number.

Moustache' addressed itself to Nirvana's male fans. Sandford felt "School" – which features only four lines of lyrics – was memorable for its chorus that "served as the rip". While "Scoff" is "a parting salvo at ", "Negative Creep" was written by Cobain about himself. According to Sandford, "About a Girl" has a "chiming melody and ironic chorus". In Sounds magazine, Keith Cameron said the song "was exhilarating and it was exciting because, the nature of the music, but there was an palpable sense of danger, that this whole thing could fall apart any second. There was never any relaxation from the first note to the last". In his book Nirvana: The Stories Behind Every Song, Chuck Crisafulli writes that the song "stands out in the Cobain canon as a song with a specific genesis and a real subject". In one of his first interviews, Cobain told Sounds journalist John Robb, "When I write a song the lyrics are the least important thing. I can go through two or three different subjects in a song and the title can mean nothing at all.

Sometimes I try to make things harder

Malawi Prison System

The Malawi prison system, managed by the Malawi Prison Service, has 23 district prison stations, which are either first class or second class prisons. Zomba Central Prison built in 1935 is the only maximum security prison in the country, holding prisoners with long sentences or serious offences. Severe overcrowding throughout the prison system provides a conducive environment for the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis; the prison system dates back to colonial times. In the Southern Province were 9 jails and in the Northern 10; the Prison Department employed fewer than 200 personnel distributed into several posts such as, superintendents and guards. The jails that were in the districts were for holding prisoners with short sentences, they were controlled by a District Commissioner with civil police as guards. The Zomba Central Prison held people with much longer sentences and was under the control of the King's African Rifles, it held Europeans and Africans. Males and females were separate.

The jail in Blantyre, under the charge of a superintendent held Europeans only. When Malawi gained independence in 1964 problems such as racial discrimination, arbitrary arrests and forced labor were still rampant in the criminal justice system. Under "Life President", Dr Hastings Kamuzu Banda, political prisoners were held without trial and mistreated by prison guards. Since the onset of democratic government in 1994, the prison system in Malawi has changed. A Chief Commissioner of Prisons, who works under the Minister of Home Affairs and Internal Security, heads the Malawi Prison Service; the system has its head office in Zomba and is divided into five divisions: Operations, Prison Clinic, Prison Training School and General Administration. Among the large prisons are: The old maximum security prison, Zomba Central Prison, built in 1935, which has six cell blocks: one for juvenile offenders, one for first offenders, two for recurrent offenders, one for women, one for condemned prisoners. Maula Prison built in the 1960s in the capital city of Lilongwe.

Chichiri Prison a large prison in the commercial city of Blantyre. Malawi, as a developing country, faces many problems in its prisons the fast spread of HIV/AIDS and TB, which are caused by the increasing number of inmates. For example, Maula Prison was intended to house 800 inmates but now holds 1,805 inmates, all but 24 of them men. Malawian prisons are estimated to exceed their capacity by 200%; these large numbers make for unsanitary conditions. This in combination with bad nutrition gives an abnormally high death rate. Prisoners deal with dirty water, foul toilets and intermittently working showers.4 Cells built for 50 or 60 people now hold up to 150 people. Prisoners sleep on blankets on the floor too packed to turn around. One inmate awakens the rest each night for mass turnovers; the most privileged inmates sleep on their backs. Everyone else sleeps on his side. There are no prison uniforms, no blankets with which to cover themselves, no soap. Inmates have a monotonous diet of nsima and beans with water.

These conditions, together with rampant diseases like scabies and tuberculosis, are the main reasons that Maula Prison lost an average of 30 prisoners a year in 2003 and 2004, about 1 death per 60 inmates. Zomba Prison loses one in 20 inmates annually; when prisoners are found with these diseases, they are not given medical attention or quarantined, which allows the diseases to spread further. Malawi prisons with HIV/Aids patients have high death rates due the prisoners’ weak immune systems worsened by the lack of an appropriate diet and anti-retroviral therapy. Several organizations have challenged the government through the courts to consider having a well-balanced diet for the prisoners who are HIV positive. Another major issue is the lack of legal representation available to the average Malawian. Malawi's 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 citizens have 28 legal aid attorneys and eight prosecutors with law degrees. There are jobs for 32 prosecutors but salaries are so low that vacancies go unfilled.

Therefore, except in special cases like murder and manslaughter all accused go to trial without lawyers. Malawi's High Court, which has to pass judgment on all capitals crimes, has not heard a single homicide case in the last year because there is no money to assemble lawyers and witnesses for hearings in the localities where the crimes occurred. There are many cases of people. Malawi still has a death penalty; the current president and the previous president have made an attempt to show amnesty and at the same time relieve the pressure on prisons by pardoning large numbers of prisoners at one time. The previous president Dr Baliki Muluzi in 1995 released 650 prisoners on Malawi's 31st Independence Day celebrations; the former president Dr Bingu Wa Mutharika, ordered the release of 398 prisoners in 2007. These were prisoners who were of good behavior; the new Mzimba Prison has conditions high above those of many other Malawian prisons, with beds and comfortable mattresses. Prisoners have well-ventilated cells.

The facility provides services and activities for prisoners, such as teaching them skills so they go back into society as law-abiding citizens. The Malawi Prison Service plans to open additional prisons in Rumphi Mchinji and Salima

Celtic Warriors

The Celtic Warriors were a rugby union team from Wales, who played in the 2003–04 Celtic League and the 2003–04 Heineken Cup following the introduction of regional rugby union teams in Wales. They were a temporary merger of Pontypridd RFC and Bridgend RFC; the Celtic Warriors played just one season before disbanding. The Warriors were one of the five original regions of the Welsh Regional Rugby Era; the club came into being in the summer of 2003 when the Welsh Rugby Union controversially elected to reduce the current top tier of Welsh Professional Rugby from nine clubs into five regions, attempting to mirror the successful formats of rugby union in Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand. Representing the mid-Glamorgan area, including Merthyr Tydfil, Pontypridd, Caerphilly and Bridgend, south Powys, the Celtic Warriors was in practice a combination of two Welsh Premier Division clubs, Pontypridd RFC and Bridgend RFC. With Bridgend RFC having clinched the 2002–03 Welsh Premier League title and Pontypridd RFC being strong in those competitions, the Warriors were considered one of the strongest line-ups of the five Welsh regions.

However, problems dogged the region from the start, as they did with the other merged regions of the Neath-Swansea Ospreys and the Newport Gwent Dragons. Discussions and arguments abounded about the team name and home grounds for most of the summer of 2003; the name "Valley Ravens" was a controversial choice but seen by many as a fair compromise, however various marketing persons within the Welsh Rugby Union did not like it. "The Crusaders" and "Celtic Crusaders" met with widespread disapproval from both sets of fans as it incorporated neither team's identity. "Celtic Warriors" was decided upon more out of the need for a name than from any real agreement. Argument over team colours ran alongside the naming problem until a compromise blue and white shirt was unveiled and satisfied most people, as did the initial decision to play an equal number of games at Bridgend's Brewery Field and Pontypridd's Sardis Road; the team itself performed well for a squad completely rebuilt over the summer, acquitting themselves well in both the 2003–04 Celtic League and the 2003–04 Heineken Cup.

However financial problems at Pontypridd RFC led to the sale of their half of the Warriors to Bridgend RFC owner Leighton Samuel, which he in turn gave to the WRU, a move that would condemn the club. Further problems occurred as Samuel made the decision to abandon Pontypridd's Sardis Road in favour of playing all Warriors games in Bridgend; this brought the club into conflict with a large proportion of its fan base and attendances fell. Trouble followed in the Spring and early Summer of 2004 where Leighton Samuel threatened and revoked threats of selling the club; this transaction was considered to be binding, the Warriors became 100% owned by the WRU who decided to liquidate the club on 1 June 2004. Samuels claimed that the WRU had promised to keep the region going for a second season but reneged on the deal, he challenged the Union over this in a high court case which the Union settled just before it came to court. With the demise of the club, players' contracts were torn up as they were pushed around to fill positions in the other four regional sides.

A number chose to turn their back on the Welsh game and moved to teams in England and France. This left. In the aftermath of the demise of the Warriors, a new rugby league club Celtic Crusaders was formed and played out of Brewery Field, they were funded by Leighton Samuel, who claimed that they were the reincarnation of the Warriors franchise. The club lasted four seasons in Bridgend before relocating to Wrexham under new ownership; the "Warriors" used both Brewery Sardis Road for their home games. Note: Flags indicate national union as has been defined under WR eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-WR nationality. Arwel Thomas and Caleb Ralph both agreed terms to join the Celtic Warriors for the 2004–05 season, as the region was disbanded before their contracts began, neither player represented the region. Richard Parks: Following his retirement from rugby, Parks embarked on the 737 Challenge; the challenge was to climb the highest mountain on each of the world's 7 continents and stand on all 3 poles within a 7-month period.

Parks completed the challenge on 12 July 2011 in a world record 6 Months, 11 Days, 7 Hours and 53 Minutes setting a new benchmark in the world of climbing and polar expeditions. The challenge raised hundreds of thousands of pounds for Marie Curie Cancer Care. Since the 737 challenge, Parks has appeared in a number of documentaries about his various expeditions, in Antarctica on 4 January 2014 he completed an unsupported and unassisted journey to the South Pole, covering 1,150 km in 29 days, 19 hours and 24 minutes, the fastest solo for a Briton. Gareth Thomas: Held the Welsh try scoring record and became the first Welsh player to gain 100 caps. Thomas represented Wales in both rugby union and rugby league, winning 4 rugby league caps for Wales and scoring 3 tries. Thomas came out as gay in December 2009, is stated to be the world's first gay professional Male Athlete; the following year he was voted the most influential gay person in the UK in the IoS Pink List and received Stonewall’s Hero of the Year award.

Neil Jenkins: Formerly the world record points scorer

Atractocarpus benthamianus

Atractocarpus benthamianus is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae growing in eastern Australia. It is an understorey species of tropical rainforest on fertile soils; the natural range of distribution is from New South Wales to central Queensland. This plant features beautifully scented flowers, it reaches 8 m tall. The trunk does not form buttresses but may be crooked, is covered by smooth grey bark with horizontal markings and long lenticels; the new growth is hairy in plants found north of Coffs Harbour. The large glossy dark green leaves are obovate to lanceolate and range from 8–20 cm long by 2–4 cm wide, arranged in whorls of 3-4 on the branches; the veins and midrib are prominent on the leaf. The small white fragrant flowers appear from June to November, occur in clusters of two or three and have five lanceolate petals around a tube; the orange oval-shaped fruit ripens in May to September, bears 14-18 seeds in a pulp. The fragrance of the flowers has been likened to that of the common gardenia.

The range is from Forster on the New South Wales mid-north coast north through to Nambour in Queensland. It is found in warm temperate to subtropical rainforests in areas of wetter climate, its bushy lush foliage, fragrant flowers and colourful fruit give it horticultural potential in gardens in warm temperate and subtropical climates. It moderately to brightly lit indoor spaces. Atractocarpus benthamianus was described by German naturalist and Victorian State Botanist Ferdinand von Mueller, who named it in honour of the botanist George Bentham, who wrote Flora Australiensis in 1870, it is known as native gardenia. Known for many years as Randia benthamiana, it gained its current binomial name in 1999 with the publishing of a genus revision by botanists Christopher Puttock and Christopher Quinn. "Atractocarpus benthamianus". Australian Plant Name Index, IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. World Checklist of Rubiaceae


Co-sleeping is a practice in which babies and young children sleep close to one or both parents, as opposed to in a separate room. Co-sleeping individuals sleep in sensory proximity to one another, where the individual senses the presence of others; this sensory proximity can either be triggered by touch, taste, or noise. Therefore, the individuals can be a few centimeters away or on the other side of the room and still have an effect on the other, it is standard practice in many parts of the world, is practiced by a significant minority in countries where cribs are used. Bed-sharing, a practice in which babies and young children sleep in the same bed with one or both parents, is a subset of co-sleeping. Co-bedding refers to infants sharing the same bed. There are conflicting views on bed-sharing safety and health compared to using a separate infant bed; the American Academy of Pediatrics does encourage room-sharing in its policy statement regarding SIDS prevention, but it recommends against bed-sharing with infants.

Recent legal rulings suggest that bed-sharing has been attributed as a factor of unintentional infant suffocation. For instance, parents under the influence of drugs or alcohol and whose children died while bed-sharing have been charged and, at times, prosecuted with manslaughter in several US states. Bed-sharing is standard practice in many parts of the world outside of North America and Australia, in the latter areas a significant minority of children have shared a bed with their parents at some point in childhood. One 2006 study of children age 3–10 in India reported 93% of children bed-sharing while a 2006 study of children in Kentucky in the United States reported 15% of infants and toddlers 2 weeks to 2 years engage in bed-sharing. Bed-sharing was practiced in all areas up to the 19th century, until the advent of giving the child his or her own room and the crib. In many parts of the world, bed-sharing has the practical benefit of keeping the child warm at night. Bed-sharing has been recently re-introduced into Western culture by practitioners of attachment parenting.

Proponents hold that bed-sharing saves babies' lives, promotes bonding, enables the parents to get more sleep and facilitates breastfeeding. Older babies can breastfeed during the night without waking their mother. Opponents argue, they cite concerns that a parent may smother the child or promote an unhealthy dependence of the child on the parent. In addition, they contend that this practice may interfere with the parents' own relationship, by reducing both communication and sexual intercourse at bedtime, argue that modern-day bedding is not safe for co-bedding; because children become accustomed to behaviors learned in early experiences, bed-sharing in infancy will increase the likelihood of these children to crawl into their parent's bed in ages past infancy. Health care professionals disagree about bed-sharing techniques and ethics; the U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission and the American Academy of Pediatrics discourage bed-sharing because of the risk of suffocation or strangulation, but some pediatricians and breast-feeding advocates have opposed this position.

One study reported mothers getting more sleep and breast-feeding by co-sleeping than other arrangements. Parents experience less exhaustion with such ease in feeding and comforting their child by reaching over to the child; as a result, co-sleeping increases the responsiveness of parents to their child's needs. It has been argued that co-sleeping evolved over five million years, that it alters the infant's sleep experience and the number of maternal inspections of the infant, that it provides a beginning point for considering unconventional ways of helping reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Stress hormones are lower in mothers and babies who co-sleep the balance of the stress hormone cortisol, the control of, essential for a baby's healthy growth. In studies with animals, infants who stayed close to their mothers had higher levels of growth hormones and enzymes necessary for brain and heart growth; the physiology of co-sleeping babies is more stable, including more stable temperatures, more regular heart rhythms, fewer long pauses in breathing than babies who sleep alone.

Besides physical developmental advantages, co-sleeping may promote long-term emotional health. In long-term follow-up studies of infants who slept with their parents and those who slept alone, the children who co-slept were happier, less anxious, had higher self-esteem, were less to be afraid of sleep, had fewer behavioral problems, tended to be more comfortable with intimacy, were more independent as adults; some parents pose threats to infants due to their behaviors and conditions, such as smoking or drinking taking drugs, a history of skin infections, obesity, or any other specific risk-increasing traits. In addition, there are certain dangerous behaviors that increase SIDS and should be avoided whether placing a baby in a crib or co-sleeping: infants should always sleep on their backs on a firm surface, mattresses should intersect the bedframe there should be no stuffed animals or soft toys near the baby, blankets should be light, a baby's head should never be covered, other SIDS risk factors should be avoided.

Co-sleeping deaths in Texas reached at least 182 in the 2013-2014 fiscal year, which ends on August 31