click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Effingham County, Illinois

Effingham County is a county located in the southern part of the U. S. state Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 34,242, its county seat and largest city is Effingham. Some other cities in Effingham County, Illinois include Altamont, Beecher City, Dieterich, Watson, Edgewood and Funkhouser. Effingham County comprises IL Micropolitan Statistical Area. Effingham County was formed in 1831 out of Crawford counties, it may have been named after Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham, who resigned his commission as general in the British army in 1775, refusing to serve in the war against the Colonies. The name is Anglo-Saxon for "Effa's house". New information suggests that the county was named after a surveyor who surveyed the area whose last name was Effingham. There is no written proof. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 480 square miles, of which 479 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. Just west of Effingham on Interstate 70 there is a 198-foot white cross.

It is one of the world's tallest crosses, took over 200 short tons of steel to erect. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Effingham have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −29 °F was recorded in January 1915 and a record high of 111 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.38 inches in January to 4.51 inches in July. Cumberland County - northeast Jasper County - east Clay County - south Fayette County - west Shelby County - northwest Interstate 57 Interstate 70 U. S. Route 40 U. S. Route 45 Illinois Route 32 Illinois Route 33 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 128 As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 34,242 people, 13,515 households, 9,302 families residing in the county; the population density was 71.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 14,570 housing units at an average density of 30.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 0.8% from two or more races.

Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 41.6% were German, 10.0% were Irish, 9.3% were American, 8.8% were English. Of the 13,515 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.2% were non-families, 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 39.2 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,509 and the median income for a family was $61,373. Males had a median income of $40,951 versus $28,209 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,843. About 7.8% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.1% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Altamont Effingham Mason Beecher City Dieterich Edgewood Montrose Shumway Teutopolis Watson Effingham County is divided into fifteen townships: In its early years Effingham County was owing to its anti-Civil War German-American population powerfully Democratic.

Until Woodrow Wilson’s harsh policies towards Germany following World War I drove many voters to the GOP’s Warren G. Harding, it had voted an absolute majority to the Democratic presidential candidate in every election since the county’s formation. Opposition to the New Deal caused a considerable swing away from Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936, combined with local opposition to Roosevelt’s war policies in 1940 to cause FDR to only win the county by forty-seven votes from Wendell Willkie. Since that election, the county has voted Republican in every election except 1948 and 1964, no Democrat since Jimmy Carter in 1976 has reached 35 percent of the county’s vote. Effingham County is one of Illinois’ most Republican counties, rivalled by a number of southern counties like Edwards. In the 2008 U. S. Presidential election, John McCain carried the county by a 36% margin over Barack Obama, making it McCain's strongest county in the state, with Obama carrying his home state by a 25.1% margin over McCain.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Effingham County, Illinois Specific GeneralHistory of Southern Illinois, George Washington Smith, 1912. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States Board on Geographic Names United States National Atlas Effingham County History & Genealogy

Rufus C. Holman

Rufus Cecil Holman was an American politician and businessman in the state of Oregon. A conservative Republican and native Oregonian, he served as United States Senator for a single term during World War II, he had been the state treasurer and served on the Multnomah County Board of Commissioners. Running for re-election in May 1944, Holman was defeated in the Republican primary by Wayne Morse, he thereafter retired from political life. Rufus Holman was born in Portland, Oregon, on October 14, 1877. There he received his education in the public schools and became a teacher in 1896. After leaving teaching in 1898, he worked in various fields from farming and operating a steamboat, to pursuits related to the accounting field until 1910; that year Holman began making record keeping books and paper boxes in Portland. He worked in the cold storage business and was active in civic affairs. Holman won his first election to political office in 1914, when he was elected to the Multnomah County Board of Commissioners, where he served two four-year terms During the middle 1920s, Holman was an active member of the Ku Klux Klan in Oregon, serving as an officer in that organization.

In 1931, Oregon Governor Julius L. Meier appointed him as state Treasurer after Thomas B. Kay died in office, he began in office on May 1, 1931, winning election to a full four-year term in 1932, winning re-election in 1936. He resigned from the office in 1938, leaving on December 27, 1938. Holman was concerned about the environment. In 1937, he garnered publicity when he demonstrated the polluted state of the Willamette River by holding a cage of salmon in the water quickly pulling them out dying to a shocked audience. In 1938, he was elected to the United States Senate; as Senator, Holman was critical of the foreign policy of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, taking a isolationist position which placed him on the right wing of Oregon politics; as a Senator Holman was a staunch opponent of liberalizing immigration laws to allow easier immigration by Jews and other persecuted Europeans, a position, resented by Oregon's small but politically potent Jewish population, who came to view the former KKK member Holman as anti-semitic and who sought his electoral defeat.

While attenuating his isolationism after the December 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor, coming to support the war effort, Holman's name remained indissolubly tied with the now politically unpopular isolationist position and he faced a high profile challenge in the May 1944 Republican primary from progressive Wayne Morse. During his 1944 re-election bid, Holman publicly charged that Morse was a stalking horse for the Democrats, facing a severe deficit in party registrations in Oregon, needed a fissure in the Republican camp to capture the Senate seat in November; when this conspiratorial theory did not gain traction, Holman proffered a new theory detailing an alleged plot involving the Portland shipyards of Henry J. Kaiser were being systematically used to stack the Republican primary against him. Newspaper editors around Oregon made hay over the conspiratorially-minded Senator, with one declaring that "like the ants, he has misplaced the center of the universe."While the incumbent Holman won a majority of Oregon's counties, taking 20 to Morse's 16, it was Morse who dominated in populous Multnomah and Lane counties, winning the primary by a plurality of 10,000 votes out of more than 143,000 votes cast in a three-cornered race.

After his 1944 defeat, Holman returned to private life and never sought public office again. Holman returned to managing the Portland Paper Box Company in Portland, before retiring to his farm near Molalla, Oregon. Holman died on November 1959, in his home town of Portland, he was buried at River View Cemetery in Portland. Holman's great-nephew, Ralph M. Holman, was a justice of the Oregon Supreme Court. Picture of Holman in 1940

Toposa language

Toposa is a Nilo-Saharan language spoken in South Sudan by the Toposa people. Mutually intelligible language varieties include Jiye of South Sudan, Nyangatom of Ethiopia, Karimojong and Dodos of Uganda and Turkana of Kenya. Teso is lexically more distant. All consonants can occur in palatalized forms. +ATR -ATR Toposa, like many Nilotic languages, has vowel harmony with two sets of vowels: a set with the tongue root advanced and a −ATR set. +ATR is marked. The vowel /a/ is neutral with respect to vowel harmony. All nine vowels occur as devoiced, contrasting with their voiced counterparts; these voiceless vowels occur in prepause contexts. Some Toposa morphemes consist only of a high voiceless vowel. Toposa has tone, grammatical rather than lexical. Tone is used to mark case in tense in verbs. Schröder, Martin C.. "The Toposa Verb in Narrative Structure". Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. 20: 129–142. Schröder, Martin C.. "Voiceless Vowels in Toposa". Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. 12: 17–26. Schröder, Martin C..

"Vowel Harmony in Toposa". Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere. 12: 27–36

BLU-82

The BLU-82B/C-130 weapon system, known under program "Commando Vault" and nicknamed "Daisy Cutter" in Vietnam for its ability to flatten a section of forest into a helicopter landing zone, is an American 15,000-pound conventional bomb, delivered from either a C-130 or MC-130 transport aircraft or a CH-54 heavy-lift "SkyCrane" helicopter from the 1st Air Cavalry. 225 were constructed. It was used during military operations in Vietnam, the Gulf War and Afghanistan; the BLU-82 was retired in 2008 and replaced with the more powerful GBU-43/B MOAB. The designation "BLU" stands for Bomb Live Unit. Designed to create an instant clearing in the jungles of Vietnam, the BLU-82B/C-130 was test-dropped there from a CH-54 Tarhe "Flying crane" helicopter, it was used in Afghanistan as an anti-personnel weapon and as an intimidation weapon because of its large blast radius combined with a visible flash and audible sound at long distances. It is one of the largest conventional weapons used, outweighed only by a few earthquake bombs, thermobaric bombs, demolition bombs.

Some of these include the Grand Slam and T12 earthquake bombs of late World War II, more the Russian Air Force FOAB and USAF GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb, the Massive Ordnance Penetrator. The BLU-82 uses ammonium aluminium; the warhead contains 12,600 pounds of low-cost GSX slurry. The Daisy Cutter has sometimes been incorrectly reported as a fuel-air explosive device. FAE devices consist of a flammable liquid and a dispersing mechanism, take their oxidizers from the oxygen in the air. FAEs run between 500 and 2,000 pounds. Making an FAE the size of a Daisy Cutter would be difficult because the correct uniform mixture of the flammable agent with the ambient air would be difficult to maintain if the agent were so dispersed. A conventional explosive is much more reliable in that regard if there is significant wind or thermal gradient; the BLU-82 produces an overpressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch near ground zero, tapering off as distance increases. It is detonated just above ground by a 38-inch fuze extender.

This results in a maximum destruction at ground level without digging a crater. This system depends upon the accurate positioning of the aircraft by either a fixed ground radar or on-board navigation equipment; the ground radar controller, or aircrew navigator if applicable, is responsible for positioning the aircraft prior to final countdown and release. Primary aircrew considerations include accurate ballistic and wind computations provided by the navigator, precision instrument flying with strict adherence to controller instructions. Due to its powerful blast effects, the minimum safe altitude for releasing this weapon is 6,000 feet above ground level; the BLU-82 was designed to clear helicopter landing zones and artillery emplacements in Vietnam. The first use of a BLU-82 occurred on 22 March 1970, when one was dropped north of Long Tieng, Laos during Campaign 139. During Operation Lam Son 719 in 1971 25 BLU-82 bombs were dropped on NVA and Pathet Lao forces in Laos, they were dropped by U.

S. C-130 aircraft not only to clear landing zones, but to strike against specific targets such as warehouses, vehicle parks, enemy troop concentrations. South Vietnamese VNAF aircraft dropped BLU-82 bombs on NVA positions in desperation to support ARVN troops in the Battle of Xuân Lộc in the last days of the Vietnam War. During the Mayaguez incident, a Lockheed MC-130 dropped one BLU-82 to assist U. S. Marine forces attempting to extract themselves from Koh Tang island. Eleven BLU-82Bs were palletized and dropped in five night missions during the 1991 Gulf War, all from Special Operations MC-130 Combat Talons; the initial drop tested the ability of the bomb to breach mine fields. Bombs were dropped as much for their psychological effect as for their anti-personnel effects. Due to the size of the conventional blast, a British SAS unit that witnessed the explosion mistakenly assumed the U. S. had used a nuclear weapon and radioed back to their headquarters exclaiming, "Sir, the blokes have just nuked Kuwait!".

The U. S. Air Force dropped several BLU-82s during the campaign to destroy Taliban and al-Qaeda bases in Afghanistan to attack and demoralize personnel and to destroy cave complexes. American forces began using the bomb in November 2001 and again a month during the Battle of Tora Bora. On 15 July 2008, airmen from the Duke Field 711th Special Operations Squadron, 919th Special Operations Wing dropped the last operational BLU-82 at the Utah Test and Training Range. M-121 Thermobaric weapon "Bomb Live Unit." U. S. Air Force National Museum. Pike, John. "BLU-82B." Federation of American Scientists, 24 March 2004. "Daisy Cutter." 3D Animated Short Film by Enrique Garcia & Ruben Salazar

Donald Coleman

Donald Richard Coleman, CBE, JP, DL was the Labour Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom for Neath from 1964 until his death in 1991. Coleman was born in Barry, the son of a coalminer, Albert Archer Coleman, his wife, Winifred Marguerite. For most of the inter-war years, his father was unemployed, did not find permanent work until 1939; this instilled in his son a lifelong belief in the evils of unemployment. He was educated at Cardiff Technical College, he attended University College of Wales Swansea as a mature student between 1950 and 1954. He held a number of technical positions at various laboratories at Cardiff and Swansea before securing an appointment in 1954 as metallurgist to the Research Department of the Steel Company of Wales, Abbey Works, Port Talbot, in which position he remained until his election to parliament in the General Election of October 1964. Coleman had joined the Labour Party in November 1948 and became a member of the Co—operative Party in 1955, he had stood as a Labour candidate for Swansea Borough Council in 1960.

Until the 1960s, Neath was regarded, as a predominantly coal—mining constituency, as a seat where the nominee of the National Union of Mineworkers would have a considerable advantage at the selection conference. Indeed, both of Coleman's long-serving predecessors had been NUM nominees. However, against the expectations, was chosen at the fourth ballot and thus inherited one of the safest Labour seats in the whole of Britain. Coleman served as PPS to George Thomas, Secretary of State for Wales, was thus in effect a junior minister, he was an opposition whip, 1970–1974, Lord of the Treasury 1974–1978, Vice-Chamberlain of the Household 1978–1979, opposition spokesman on Welsh affairs, 1981–1983. He served as delegate to the Council of Europe. Coleman was regarded as being on the right wing of the Labour Party and in September 1983 he backed Peter Shore, rather than his Welsh colleague Neil Kinnock for party leader and Denzil Davies, the MP for Llanelli, for deputy leader. Following Kinnock's election as leader, Coleman did not hold another front bench position.

Coleman announced in early 1990 that he intended to stand down from parliament at the next General Election. Coleman was prominent in the public life of Neath and West Glamorgan, his leisure interests included membership of the chorus of the Welsh National Opera, he married, in 1949, Phyllis Eileen Williams, who died in 1963. They had one son. In January 1966 he married Margaret Elizabeth Morgan and they had one daughter. Although he had announced his retirement the previous year, Coleman remained an MP when he died on 14 January 1991, he was cremated at Margam Crematorium. Peter Hain succeeded him as MP for Neath. Jones, John Graham. "Donald Coleman". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales. Retrieved 14 June 2016

Earth Inferno (album)

Earth Inferno is a mixed version of three live performances by Fields of the Nephilim which shares its name with a self-published book by occult artist Austin Osman Spare. The live venues used for the recordings were from the group's 1990 Sumerland tour at Wolverhampton Civic Centre, Brixton Academy and Hamburg Sportshalle; the record was released in April 1991 by Beggars Banquet Records and peaked at number 39 in UK album charts. All tracks by Fields of the Nephilim "Intro For Her LightAt the Gates of Silent Memory" – 16:08 "Moonchild" – 5:25 "Submission" – 7:34 "Preacher Man" – 4:51 "Love Under Will" – 6:17 "Sumerland" – 8:26 "Last Exit for the Lost" – 10:18 "Psychonaut" – 9:05 "Dawnrazor" – 9:09 Carl McCoy – lead vocals Tony Pettitt – bass Paul Wright – lead guitar Peter Yates – rhythm guitar Alexander "Nod" Wright – drums Paul Chousmer – keyboards Earth Inferno at MusicBrainz