Eglin Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in western Florida, located about three miles southwest of Valparaiso in Okaloosa County. The host unit at Eglin is the 96th Test Wing; the 96 TW is the test and evaluation center for Air Force air-delivered weapons and guidance systems and Control systems, Air Force Special Operations Command systems. Eglin AFB was established 85 years ago in 1935 as the Valparaiso Gunnery Base, it is named in honor of Lt. Col. Frederick I. Eglin, killed in a crash of his Northrop A-17 attack aircraft on a flight from Langley to Maxwell Field, Alabama. Much of the base was part of a National Forest until the outbreak of war in Europe when a proving ground for aircraft armament was established at Eglin; the U. S. Forest Service ceded over 340,000 acres of the Choctawhatchee National Forest to the War Department on 18 October 1940. Eglin Air Force Base evolved from the 1933 creation of the Valparaiso Airport, when an arrowhead-shaped parcel of 137 acres was cleared for use as an airdrome.
In 1931, personnel of the Air Corps Tactical School, newly relocated to Maxwell Field, sought a location for a bombing and gunnery range. They saw the potential of the sparsely populated forested areas surrounding Valparaiso and the vast expanse of the adjacent Gulf of Mexico. From October 1941 to October 1945, an AAF Fixed Gunnery School operated at the base, supervised by the 75th Flying Training Wing. At its peak during World War II, the base employed more than 1,000 officers, 10,000 enlisted personnel and 4,000 civilians. After the war, Eglin became a pioneer in developing the techniques for missile launching and handling; the 1st Experimental Guided Missiles Group was activated at Eglin Field, Florida, on 6 February 1946, operating out of Auxiliary Field 3. By March 1950, the 550th Guided Missiles Wing, comprising the 1st and 2nd Guided Missile Squadrons, had replaced the 1st Experimental Guided Missiles Group; the 2nd Guided Missile Squadron, SSM, had 62 pilots manning 14 B-17s, three B-29s, four F-80 Shooting Stars, yellow-tailed drone aircraft used in the role of testing guided missiles.
In December 1955, the Air Munitions Development Laboratory was reassigned from the Wright Air Development Center at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, to the Air Force Armament Center at Eglin by Headquarters Air Research and Development Command. The responsibility for development of guns, rockets, guided missile warheads and other related equipment in the armament field was transferred from the Dayton, Ohio facility at this time. Work on nuclear weapons was not included in this mission; the USAF Special Air Warfare Center was activated 27 April 1962, with the 1st Combat Applications Group organized as a combat systems development and test agency under the SAWC. The 1st CAG concentrated on testing and evaluation of short-term projects which might improve Air Force counter-insurgency operations; the Special Air Warfare Center, located at Hurlburt Field, undertook to develop tactical air doctrine while training crews for special air warfare in places like Southeast Asia. By mid-1963, SAW groups were in Panama.
The USAF Tactical Air Warfare Center was activated on 1 November 1963. It would be re-designated as the USAF Air Warfare Center on 1 October 1991. With the increasing U. S. involvement in Southeast Asia in the 1960s, the need for increased emphasis on conventional weapons development made Eglin's mission more important. On 1 August 1968, the Air Proving Ground Center was redesignated the Armament Development and Test Center to centralize responsibility for research, development and evaluation, initial acquisition of non-nuclear munitions for the Air Force. On 1 October 1979, the Center was given division status; the Armament Division, redesignated Munitions Systems Division on 15 March 1989, placed into production the precision-guided munitions for the laser and infrared guided bombs. The Division was responsible for developing the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile, an Air Force-led joint project with the U. S. Navy; the Air Force Armament Museum was founded on base in 1975. In 1981 the original building housing the museum was condemned and the facility closed until 1984.
Selected on 27 April 1975, the installation served as one of four main U. S. Vietnamese Refugee Processing Centers operated by the Interagency Task Force for Indochina Refugees, where base personnel housed and processed more than 10,000 Southeast Asian refugees, the first 374 of which arrived on board a Northwest Orient Boeing 747 on 4 May 1975. In 1978, the USAF Tactical Air Warfare Center assumed responsibility for the USAF Air Ground Operations School. In the same year, the Electronic Warfare Evaluation Program became another one of the USAFTAWC's weapons system evaluation programs, resulted in the activation of the 4487th Electronic Warfare Aggressor Squadron in 1990. Construction began in 1984 on the Bob Hope Village, the only retirement facility that caters to enlisted military, opening in February 1985. Residents pay below market value for the 256 independent apartments. Col. Bob Gates, Bob Hope's USO pilot, was key in getting the comedian's support for the undertaking, as well as lending his name to the project.
He was named an honorary board member of the foundation in 1978 and held benefit concerts for nearly two decades. During a 1992 reorganization, the Air Force disestablished Eglin's p
Theotokos of Pochayiv is an Eastern Orthodox icon of the Virgin Mary, painted in a late Byzantine style, of the Eleusa iconographic type. Like many famous icons, it is now displayed with most of the surface covered by an elaborate frame in precious metals, or riza, except for the faces; the icon is venerated by Orthodox and Catholics. The origin of the icon is not clear, it is painted in old Byzantine manner, hence it could be made in either Byzantium or Bulgaria. It has been in the Pochayiv Lavra, in Ternopil oblast, since 1597, when it was given by a wealthy widow Anna or Hanna Hoyska, who owned the town of Pochayiv in second half of the 16th century. Anna had received the sacred image from the Greek metropolitan Neophyte. In 1773, Pope Clement XIV, meeting the request of the count Nicolas Potocki sent two small golden crowns for the icon - one for the Holy Virgin, the other for Jesus, thus the icon was acknowledged as wonder-making. According to some sources, the Virgin Mary depicted on the icon helped to heal Philip, the brother of Hanna Hoyska, from blindness.
The Theotokos of Pochayiv acquired a reputation as a miracle-working icon. The day of the Theotokos of Pochayiv icon is marked by Orthodox communities on 5 August
Gonzaga University is a private, Roman Catholic university in Spokane, Washington. It is accredited, by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. Founded in 1887 by Joseph Cataldo, an Italian-born priest and missionary, with the Society of Jesus; the university is named for the young Jesuit saint Aloysius Gonzaga. The campus houses 105 buildings on 152 acres of grassland alongside the Spokane River, in a residential setting one-half-mile from downtown Spokane; the university grants bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctoral degrees through its seven colleges – the College of Arts and Sciences, School of Business Administration, School of Education, School of Engineering & Applied Science, School of Law, School of Nursing and Human Physiology, the School of Professional Studies. Gonzaga University was founded in 1887 by Italian-American Joseph Cataldo, who had come in 1865 as a Jesuit missionary to the Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest. In 1880, Cataldo built a schoolhouse about 10 to 12 mi northeast of Spokane on the Peone Prairie, to serve children of the Upper Spokane Indians.
Cataldo was concerned about the influence and expansion of Protestant schools on the region's native people, by 1881 was discussing building a Jesuit college with other Jesuit leaders. The Jesuits chose a location at Spokane Falls due to its centrality in the Washington and Montana region; the Jesuits purchased 320 acres of prime real estate in the city's central business district north of the Spokane River for $936. The Northern Pacific Railway was holding the land in reserve, but Cataldo was able to convince railroad executive John W. Sprague to allow the sale to build the school; the City of Spokane offered to help pay to build the new college, on the condition that it be a whites only school, in spite of Cataldo's original purpose to educate the local native population. Cataldo's letters seeking the support Church leadership in Rome warned that Methodists and other Protestants were building schools and that the city funding could go to them if the Catholic school was not built soon enough.
Construction was delayed until 1886, the school opened in 1887 with Father James Rebmann the school's first Father Superior and seven boys enrolled. They were taught by 17 faculty made up of Jesuit Jesuits in training, scholastics. By the end of the year, more students enrolled, two were expelled, ending the year with a student body of 18 boys, all white. Father Joseph Joset, a Jesuit missionary, attempted to enroll two native American boys but was rebuffed due to the whites-only policy. Father Rebmann told Joset that the school was only open to "Americans," which he did not consider Indians to be. Non-Catholic boys were rejected, at least in the college's first years; the students, expelled might have run afoul of rules against offense like theft, disobedience, or impurity, were forbidden to have alcohol or tobacco. The boys were supervised at all times, not allowed off-campus without a chaperone present, they woke at 5:30 am, worked continuously until the 8:30 pm lights out. Students attended Mass six days a week, twice on Sundays, faced daunting advancement exams.
The school was divided into a Preparatory section for elementary school-age boys, an Academic section with Third and First divisions, an upper-division like a liberal arts college, for Poetry and Philosophy. In the second year, enrollment began the year with 35 boys. By 1890, 3 of the original 17 faculty remained; the original Father Superior was followed by Father Charles Mackin, replaced in 1891 by Father John Baptist Rene. He was replaced by Father Leopold Van Gorp. Students were not allowed to advance to higher forms except upon passage of rigorous examinations. Examinations were overseen by the Prefect of Studies; the examinations were so difficult that students would sometimes become ill from anxiety while preparing for them and some students withdrew rather than face them. In 1884, Gonzaga conferred its first Bachelor of Arts degrees, to two students. A four-story building was planned in 1897, opened in 1899, as the New Gonzaga In 1892, with an enrollment of 50 boys, called "college-down", was first played at Gonzaga on Thanksgiving Day.
The same year Gonzaga added a new dormitory, a wood-framed St. Aloysius Church, the campus had electric power service for the first time. In 2018, the Center for Investigative Reporting published evidence that the Cardinal Bea House, owned by the Jesuit order and located on Gonzaga's campus, was used by the Catholic Church as a retirement home for priests with histories of sexual predation and abuse from across the pacific northwest and Alaska, from the 1970s through 2016. Sexually abusive priests were kept there and out of contact with vulnerable populations, while at the same time protecting the priests from any liability for the abuses they had committed; the last abusive priest moved out of the Cardinal Bea House in 2016. The Spokane Spokesman-Review newspaper questioned Gonzaga President Thayne McCulloh's statements that he did not know and during his time as president, about the abusive priests kept on campus. Gonzaga's main campus has 105 buildings on 152 acres; the university has two large libraries.
Foley Center Library is Gonzaga's main graduate and undergraduate library, opened in 1992. Chastek Law Library serves the Gonzaga University School of Law, erected in 2000; the Rosauer School of Education building was completed in 1994. Gonzaga hosts many unique pieces of artwork devoted to historical religious figures and prominent Catholics