Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphs combined logographic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters. Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood; the hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Sinaitic script that evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Through the Phoenician alphabet's major child systems, the Greek and Aramaic scripts, the Egyptian hieroglyphic script is ancestral to the majority of scripts in modern use, most prominently the Latin and Cyrillic scripts and the Arabic script and Brahmic family of scripts; the use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC, with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty. Egyptian hieroglyphs developed into a mature writing system used for monumental inscription in the classical language of the Middle Kingdom period.

The use of this writing system continued through the New Kingdom and Late Period, on into the Persian and Ptolemaic periods. Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD. With the final closing of pagan temples in the 5th century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost. Although attempts were made, the script remained undeciphered throughout the Middle Ages and the early modern period; the decipherment of hieroglyphic writing was accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone. The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek adjective ἱερογλυφικός, a compound of ἱερός and γλύφω; the glyphs themselves, since the Ptolemaic period, were called τὰ ἱερογλυφικὰ "the sacred engraved letters", the Greek counterpart to the Egyptian expression of mdw.w-nṯr "god's words". Greek ἱερογλυφός meant "a carver of hieroglyphs". In English, hieroglyph as a noun is recorded from 1590 short for nominalised hieroglyphic, from adjectival use.

Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt. For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing. Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" recovered at Abydos in 1998 or the Narmer Palette; the first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty. There are around 800 hieroglyphs dating back to the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom Eras. By the Greco-Roman period, there are more than 5,000. Geoffrey Sampson stated that Egyptian hieroglyphs "came into existence a little after Sumerian script, invented under the influence of the latter", that it is "probable that the general idea of expressing words of a language in writing was brought to Egypt from Sumerian Mesopotamia".

There are many instances of early Egypt-Mesopotamia relations, but given the lack of direct evidence for the transfer of writing, "no definitive determination has been made as to the origin of hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt". Instead, it is pointed out and held that "the evidence for such direct influence remains flimsy” and that “a credible argument can be made for the independent development of writing in Egypt..." Since the 1990s, the discoveries of glyphs at Abydos, dated to between 3400 and 3200 BCE, may challenge the classical notion according to which the Mesopotamian symbol system predates the Egyptian one. However, Egyptian writing does make a sudden apparition at that time, while on the contrary Mesopotamia has an evolutionary history of sign usage in tokens dating back to circa 8000 BCE. Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that function like an alphabet; as writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic and demotic scripts.

These variants were more suited than hieroglyphs for use on papyrus. Hieroglyphic writing was not, eclipsed, but existed alongside the other forms in monumental and other formal writing; the Rosetta Stone contains three parallel scripts – hieroglyphic and Greek. Hieroglyphs continued to be used under Persian rule, after Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt, during the ensuing Ptolemaic and Roman periods, it appears that the misleading quality of comments from Greek and Roman writers about hieroglyphs came about, at least in part, as a response to the changed political situation. Some believed that hieroglyphs may have functioned as a way to distinguish'true Egyptians' from some of the foreign conquerors. Another reason may be the refusal to tackle a foreign culture on its own terms, which characterized Greco-Roman approaches to Egyptian culture generally. Having learned that hieroglyphs were sacred writing, Greco-Roman authors imagined the complex but rational system as an allegorical magical, system transmitting secret


The Alstom Avelia Euroduplex, more known as just Euroduplex, is a high-speed double decker electric multiple unit train manufactured by Alstom. It is operated by the French national railway company SNCF, in operation with the Moroccan national railway company ONCF, it is the 3rd generation of the TGV Duplex. The Euroduplex trains are interoperable, containing equipment allowing them to travel between several European continental countries with various types of electrification and signalling systems such as France, Switzerland and Luxembourg. A Moroccan variation is the first high speed train; the Euroduplex trains still share the main features. The drive is of type SNCF TGV POS asynchronous traction motors, European signaling system European Rail Traffic Management System; the trailers feature new interiors, electric sockets fitted in both classes and improved information systems. The main differences with the TGV Duplex Dasye: UIC loading gauge with more headroom upstairs Improved windows Passenger Information System with voice announcements as in the TER trains.

Outside SIVE dynamic light display indicating the number of the train, its route and the number of the car Fixed filler gaps on all doors, Control over the train hot boxes Overall control of each axle Improved accessibility for wheelchairs Riding on the success of the concept TGV Duplex, praised by customers, the company decided to develop a fleet of interoperable trains suitable for 15 kV 16 ⅔ Hz, the train is a tricurrent version of TGV Duplex. The Euroduplex has entered commercial operation by the French national railway company on 11 December 2011. In parallel with the development of high-speed lines internationally, Alstom SA won a tender for the supply of equipment for high-speed TGV Morocco, the first high-speed train on the African continent. In June 2007, in addition to 25 extra TGV Dasye sets, the SNCF has placed a large order for 55 Alstom tricurrent high speed trains, TGV 2N2; these 55 trains can be divided into: 30 trains "3UA", numbered 4701-4730 for services from France to Germany and Switzerland.

Prototypes were tested from August 2010, the remaining deliveries expected between 2011 and 2014. In April 2010, the first train RGV, numbered 4701, was tested at La Rochelle. On 16 June 2010, the train arrived at the site of ELWT Conflans to be equipped with different systems to perform many tests in the coming months before commercial operation. Between 20 and 30 July 2010, the train conducted speed tests in Switzerland, the Netherlands and the French Alps. SNCF and Alstom organized the symbolic delivery of the first train on May 2011 on the LGV Est.. The 2007 contract included an option for 40 additional trains. SNCF exercised this option to take delivery of the second batch of Euroduplex sets from 2015; these sets will have 95 cars. These trains will be able to replace some sets on TGV Atlantique or LGV Est services in 2016. In December 2010, the Moroccan company ONCF ordered 14 sets of the Euroduplex for Kenitra–Tangier high-speed rail line; the contract of €400 million expected commissioning in 2015.

The trains are electrified at 25 kV and 3 kV and can operate at up to 320 km/h on the section TangiersKenitra and between 160–220 km/h on the Moroccan conventional network. The Moroccan trainsets have a total capacity of 533 passengers in two first class carriages, five second class carriages, a catering coach, instead of the French configuration of three first class coaches, four second class coaches, a catering coach; the first two cars will be delivered during the summer of 2015, transported from the port of La Rochelle by the ship Ville de Bordeaux. The project being more than two years late on its initial schedule, Alstom Transport incurs additional costs, in particular through the forced storage of several trains in its factories; the first dynamic tests of a train began in January 2016, on the classic line connecting Tangier to Casablanca, with drivers who were specially trained. At the same time, the twelve trains were delivered1. LGV testing began in February 2017 and was completed in June 2018.

The maintenance center, with a total capacity of 30 trains and an area of 14 hectares, is located in Tangier-Moghogha. It is operated in partnership with SNCF, within the framework of the joint venture "Moroccan high-speed train maintenance company". Since November 26 2018, the Moroccan trains make the connections between Tanger and Casablanca via Rabat; the name of the commercial service is Al Boraq. Since its introduction into commercial service, the 4700 numbered trains operate priority international services: Alleo Paris-EstStuttgartMunich Alleo FrankfurtStrasbourgLyon-Part-DieuMarseille Lyria Paris-Gare de LyonBaselZürich since January 2012 The trains ar

Rai Coast Rural LLG

Rai Coast Rural LLG is a local-level government of Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. 01. Bonga 04. Kepolak 05. Baru 06. Mamgak 07. Mur 08. Umboldi 09. Kakimar 10. Saidor 11. Yaimas 12. Waibol 13. Biliau 14. Sibog 15. Suri 16. Bagalawa 17. Lamtup 18. Maibang 19. Yorkia 20. Sari 21. Sorang 22. Kiambaui 23. Matako 24. Gogou 25. Sarakiri 26. Kwongo 27. Wado 28. Simimididi 29. Wongetuo 30. Ganglau 31. Orinma 32. Mebu 33. Batoto 34. Matafun 35. Bok 36. Malala 37. Ward 37 38. Ward 38 39. Ward 39 40. Ward 40 41. Ward 41 42. Ward 42 OCHA FISS. "Papua New Guinea administrative level 0, 1, 2, 3 population statistics and gazetteer". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9. United Nations in Papua New Guinea. "Papua New Guinea Village Coordinates Lookup". Humanitarian Data Exchange. 1.31.9