Nippes is the fifth city district of Cologne, Germany. Nippes was incorporated into the city of Cologne in 1888 and the district was created in 1975. A large Ford Europe production plant is located in the north-eastern part of the district. Nippes borders the Cologne districts of Chorweiler to the north, Mülheim to the east, Innenstadt to the south, Ehrenfeld to the south-west. Nippes consists of seven Stadtteile: Nippes is served by numerous railway stations and main highways. Stations include Köln-Nippes, Köln Geldernstraße/Parkgürtel, Köln-Longerich, as well as numerous light rail stations on Cologne Stadtbahn lines 12, 15, 16, 18. Bundesautobahn 57 connects Nippes to the Cologne motorway ring. Mülheimer Brücke Fritz Schramma, mayor of Cologne from 2000 until 2009 Gaby Köster and cabaret artist Official webpage of the district
Chorweiler is the Sixth city district of Cologne, Germany. Large portion of the district of Chorweiler were incorporated into the city of Cologne in 1922, the quarter of Chorweiler was created in the 1970s; the district has the lowest population density in Cologne and many areas are rural. The District of Chorweiler borders with the Cologne boroughs of Nippes and Ehrenfeld to the South, Rhein-Erft-Kreis to the West, Rhein-Kreis Neuss to the North, the Rhine to the East. On the other riverbank lies the city of Leverkusen. Chorweiler consists of twelve Stadtteile: Chorweiler is served by numerous railway stations and highway. Train station include Köln-Chorweiler, Köln-Chorweiler Nord, Köln-Volkhovener Weg and Köln-Worringen, as well as numerous light rail stations of Cologne Stadtbahn line 12 and 15; the Bundesautobahn 57 connects Chorweiler with the Cologne Beltway. Leverkusener Brücke Official webpage of the district
The Cologne Beltway is the collective term for the Autobahns encircling Cologne. It consists of the Bundesautobahn 1, the Bundesautobahn 3 and the Bundesautobahn 4; the beltway handles one of the highest traffic volumes in Germany. The Autobahns on the beltway cross Bundesautobahn 559, Bundesautobahn 555 and Bundesautobahn 57; the Bundesautobahn 59 is tied to the beltway at the interchange Leverkusen-West in the north and to Dreieck Heumar in the south. The beltway was constructed in a clockwise fashion beginning at Leverkusen. In 1936 the section between Leverkusen and Cologne-Mülheim was built as a component of the Autobahn Oberhausen-Wiesbaden and in 1937 the section to Siegburg was finished, thus today's Ostring was drivable at that time. In 1941, the Rodenkirchener Autobahnbrücke was completed and the connection between the A 3 and the Autobahn to Bonn was established. From 1957 to 1960 the Autobahn Cologne-Aachen was finished and the section from Kreuz Köln-Süd to the Kreuz Köln-West was put into service in 1958.
Construction of a second Autobahn-bridge across the Rhine in the north of Cologne began in 1961. At its completion, the beltway could be used along its entire length. In 1971, the A 1 was extended to the south beyond the Köln-West interchange and in 1974 the A 4 was connected to the A 3 from the east at the Köln-Ost interchange. Since the section between interchanges Kreuz Köln-Ost and Dreieck Heumar consists of two Autobahns, the A 3 and the A 4. Traffic volume on the Cologne Beltway has been increasing continuously since the 1950s. All sections, with the exception of a short stretch on the A1 between Kreuz Köln-West and 1km north of Köln-Lövenich, have since been expanded to three lanes in each direction, but since more than 180,000 cars use at least part of the Autobahnring every day, traffic jams are a frequent occurrence; the section between the interchanges Kreuz Köln-Ost and Dreieck Heumar was expanded to four lanes in each direction in 2005, a first for North Rhine-Westphalia. In 2008 the section with four lanes in each direction has been extended to the interchange Köln-Dellbrück.
Widening work is going on between Köln-Dellbrück and Köln-Mülheim. It was scheduled to be complete in autumn 2012; the A1 has a speed limit of 100 km/h. It has been raised to 120 km/h northbound between Köln-Lövenich and Köln-Bocklemünd as well as between Kreuz Köln-Nord and Köln-Niehl. On the A4 the speed limit is 120 km/h. On the A3 there is a variable speed limit up to a maximum of 120 km/h. In preparation for the 2006 FIFA World Cup the A 3 was outfitted with a traffic management system, able to route traffic around congestion and construction sites. In the 1970s, a second beltway around Cologne was considered, incorporating existing Autobahns, instead of expanding the first one to more lanes. An expansion of the old beltway was considered as too expensive because of the large number of bridges, it was planned to incorporate some of Cologne's other Autobahns into this second Autobahnring. These plans were however never implemented. List of streets in Cologne Transport in Cologne Information about the Cologne Beltway at the Landesbetrieb Straßenbau NRW Autobahnatlas Online
Colonius is the Cologne telecommunications tower, finished in 1981. The Colonius possesses a cafeteria, viewing platform, a restaurant, apart from antennas for radio relay and radio services within the VHF range; because of a missing leaseholder, the visitor's area including restaurant and viewing platform is closed. At the time of its completion the Colonius was 252.9 meters high. In 2004 a radio tower added by helicopter increased the height to 266 meters; this addition allowed the broadcast of digital television from the tower in the Cologne/Bonn region. Colonius at Structurae
Porz is a city district or Stadtbezirk of Cologne, Germany. It is situated on the right side of the Rhine in the south-east of the city. Porz has 107,500 inhabitants. Porz borders with the Cologne boroughs of Kalk and Innenstadt to the North, Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis and Rhein-Sieg-Kreis to the East and South, the Rhine to the West. On the other riverbank lies the Cologne borough of Rodenkirchen. In 1951 the former independent town of Porz was awarded the town privileges. In the course of the local government reform in the 1970s in North Rhine-Westphalia, Porz was incorporated with Cologne. Porz consists of 16 Stadtteile: Organisations based in Porz include: The German Aerospace Center, TÜV Rheinland, The European Astronaut Centre of the European Space Agency and part of Cologne-Bonn airport. Engine manufacturer Deutz AG has an R&D facility in Porz; the Luftwaffenkaserne Wahn belongs to Porz and contributes to the local economy by the large number soldiers stationed there. Since the beginning of the 20th century, Porz has been known for its glass manufacture.
For car drivers, Porz can be reached from the Cologne-wolff Beltway via Bundesautobahn 59 and Bundesautobahn 559. Südbrücke Rodenkirchener Autobahnbrücke Porz is served by a number of railway stations. Regional train station include Porz-Wahn, Köln-Steinstraße and Köln-Airport Business Park. Porz has two light-rail stations of Stadtbahn-line 7. One is at Porz Steinstraße, the other in the town center at Porz Markt: Porz is "twinned" with the following cities: Brive-la-Gaillarde, France Dunstable, United Kingdom Hazebrouck, France Official webpage of the district
Gründerzeit was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s; this period is not dated, but in Austria the March Revolution of 1848 is accepted as the beginning of economic changes, in contrast to political reforms. In Germany, as a consequence of the large influx of capital resulting from French war reparations from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871, the subsequent unification of Germany, there followed an economic boom, giving rise to the description of these years as the "founders' years"; these years in Central Europe were a time that citizens influenced cultural development. This was the epoch of classical liberalism if the political demands of the time were only met, only in the period. Industrialisation posed aesthetic challenges, above all in the fields of architecture and craftsmanship, through development of existing forms, rather than innovation as such.
In common parlance the term Gründerzeitstil is mingled with Historicism, the predominant architectural style after 1850 until 1914, leading to a blurring of the terms. In historical context different decades are also called Gründerzeit. For this reason, the term Gründerzeit is used to refer to several periods; the German term Gründerzeit refers to the great economic upswing in the mid-19th century, when the founders of business could become rich overnight. Of particular importance for speedy economic development was the rise of a developed railway system. Not only was it a major factor in its own right on the business scene of the time, but it permitted further development through improved communication and migration. Rural migration to the cities assisted the development of a proletariat, with an attendant increase in social problems; the stock market crash of 1873, combined with economic overheating due to enormous French reparations from the war, put an abrupt end to this upswing, referred to in German as the founders’ crisis, resulting in a twenty-year period of economic stagnation.
This crisis caused the theory of economic liberalism to lose ground, it was this time which saw the introduction of business control mechanisms, as well as protective customs tariffs. The Vienna stock market crash led to the Panic of 1873 in the United States, resulting in the Long Depression; the need for housing rose in consequence of industrialisation. Complete housing developments in the so-called Founding Epoch Architecture style arose in green fields, today in Central European cities large numbers of buildings from this time can be found together along one single road or in complete districts; these 4- to 6-story buildings constructed by private property developers sported richly decorated façades in the form of Historicism such as Gothic Revival, Renaissance Revival, German Renaissance and Baroque Revival. Not only magnificent palaces for nouveau-riche citizens were built, but infamous rental housing for the expanding urban lower classes; this phase was important for the integration of new technologies in architecture and design.
A determining factor was the development of the Bessemer process in steel production, which made possible the construction of steel façades. A classical example of this new form is the steel and glass construction of the Crystal Palace, completed in 1851, revolutionary for the time and an inspiration to subsequent decades. In Austria the Gründerzeit began after 1840 with the industrialisation of Vienna, as well as the regions of Bohemia and Moravia. Liberalism reached its zenith in Austria in 1867 during the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and remained dominant until the mid-1870s. Vienna, the capital and residence of Emperor Franz Joseph, after the failed uprising of 1848, became the fourth largest city in the world with the inclusion of suburbs and an influx of new residents from regions of Austria. In the place where the city wall had once stood, a ring road was built, ambitious civic buildings—including the Opera House, Town Hall, Parliament—were constructed. In contrast to agricultural workers and urban labourers, an wealthy upper-middle class built itself monuments and mansions.
This occurred on a smaller scale in cities such as Graz, but on the periphery, thereby preserving the old city from destructive redevelopment. In the mindset of many Germans, the epoch is intrinsically linked with Kaiser Wilhelm I and Chancellor Bismarck, but it did not end with them but continued well into the reign of Kaiser Wilhelm II, it was a Golden Age for Germany in which the disasters of the Thirty Years' War and the Napoleonic Wars were remedied, the country competed internationally on a world-class level in the domains of science, technology and commerce. This was the time when the German middle class increased their standard of living, buying modern furniture, kitchen fittings and household machines; the social effects of Industrialization were the same as in other European nations: Increased agricultural efficiency and introduction of new agricultural machines led to a polarized distribution of income in the countryside. The landowners won out to the disadvantage of the agrarian unpropertied workforce.
Emigration, most of all to America, urbanization were a consequence. In the growing industrial cities, new workers' dwellings were erected, lacking in comfort by today's standar
Districts of Cologne
Since the last administrative reform in 1975, the City of Cologne is made up of nine Stadtbezirke and 86 Stadtteile. Stadtbezirk translates as city district, which are further subdivided into Stadtteile; the Stadtteile of Cologne's old and new town further consist of quarters, known as "Veedel" in both Kölsch and most the Rhinelandic regiolect, as well. City districts are differentiated of being links- or rechtsrheinisch – left or right of the Rhine, with the old town being left of the Rhine, as are 230,25 km², while 174,87 km² lie right of the Rhine. In regard to population, Cologne is the largest city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth largest city in Germany. Since the city's foundation in 38 BC, Cologne grew through numerous extensions and incorporation of surrounding municipalities. Since the construction of the Medieval wall in 1180, the area of the old imperial city of Cologne has not changed for more than 600 years and was only extended over the old city walls in 1794, just short before the arrival of French troops and Cologne's incorporation into the First French Empire.
After 1815, the Kingdom of Prussia enforced the construction of fortifications which again hindered any growth for the city. Only with the acquisition of these fortifications in 1881, the city of Cologne had the possibility of a gradual territorial expansion. On 12. November 1883 a strip of territory from parts of the municipalities of Ehrenfeld, Longerich, Müngersdorf and Rondorf was added to the city. At the time of the industrial revolution, industrial enterprises avoided the densely populated areas inside of the city limits and settled in the small towns outside the fortified area, while maintaining close economic links to the city of Cologne. More than half of the estates here were in the hands of citizens of Cologne or the same becoming residents in these areas. Since 1886, the Cologne City Council intensified negotiations with the surrounding communities, on 1 April 1888 ended in a first major incorporation. Since the city has expanded with major reorganizations in 1910, 1914, 1922 and 1975.
Source: Historical Archive of the City of Cologne Official site of the Stadtbezirke