Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Adha or Eid Qurban called the "Festival of the Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year, considered the holier of the two. It honours the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son as an act of obedience to God's command. But, before Abraham could sacrifice his son, God provided a goat to sacrifice instead. In commemoration of this intervention, an animal is sacrificed ritually and divided into three parts. One share is given to the poor and needy, another is kept for home, the third is given to relatives. In the Islamic lunar calendar, Eid al-Adha falls on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, lasts for four days. In the international calendar, the dates vary from year to year shifting 11 days earlier each year. In languages other than Arabic, the name is simply translated into the local language, such as English Feast of the Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului, Hungarian Áldozati ünnep. In Spanish it is known as Fiesta del Borrego.

In Kurdish it is known as. It is known as Eid Qurban in Persian speaking countries such as Afghanistan and Iran, Kurban Bayramı in Turkey, কোরবানীর ঈদ in Bangladesh, as عید الكبير the big Feast in the Maghreb, as Iduladha, Hari Raya Aiduladha, Hari Raya Haji or Qurban in Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines, as بکرا عید "Goat Eid" or بڑی عید "Greater Eid" in India and Pakistan, Bakara Eid in Trinidad and Tobago, as Tabaski or Tobaski in The Gambia and Senegal, as Odún Iléyá by the Yorúbà people of NigeriaThe following names are used as other names of Eid al-Adha: عیدالاضحیٰ is used in Urdu, Assamese, Bengali and Austronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian. العيد الكبير meaning "Greater Eid" is used in Yemen and North Africa. Local language translations are used لوی اختر in Pashto, Kashmiri and Hindi, বড় ঈদ in Bengali and Malayalam as well as Manding varieties in West Africa such as Bambara, Jula etc.. عید البقرة meaning "the Feast of Cows" is used in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the Middle East.

Although the word ‏بقرة‎ properly means a cow, it is semantically extended to mean all livestock sheep or goats. This extension is used in Hindi and Urdu as a similar name ईद-उल-अज़हा is used for the occasion; the Feast of Sacrifice is used in Uzbekistan. The Hajj Feast is used in the Philippines. Big Sallah in Nigeria. "Ram Sallah" is used, as it refers to the rams that are being sacrificed on that day. The word عيد means'festival','celebration','feast day', or'holiday', it itself is a triliteral root ‏عيد‎ with associated root meanings of "to go back, to rescind, to accrue, to be accustomed, habits, to repeat, to be experienced. Arthur Jeffery contests this etymology, believes the term to have been borrowed into Arabic from Syriac, or less Targumic Aramaic; the words أضحى and قربان are synonymous in meaning'sacrifice','offering' or'oblation'. The first word comes from the triliteral root ضحى with associated meanings of "immolate. No occurrence of this root with a meaning related to sacrifice occurs in the Qur'an but in the Hadith literature.

Arab Christians use the term to mean the Eucharistic host. The second word derives from the triliteral root ‏‏قرب‎‎ with associated meanings of "closeness, proximity... to moderate. Arthur Jeffery recognizes the same Semitic root, but believes the sense of the term to have entered Arabic through Aramaic. Compare Hebrew korban קָרבן. One of the main trials of Ibrahim's life was to face the command of God to sacrifice his beloved son; the earliest Islamic traditions identify Isma’il as the son, sacrificed. Upon hearing this command, Abraham prepared to submit to the will of God. During this preparation, Shaytaan tempted Abraham and his family by trying to dissuade them from carrying out God's commandment, Ibraham drove Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. In commemoration of their rejection of Satan, stones are thrown at symbolic pillars during the Stoning of the Devil during Hajj rites. Facing a dilemma, Ibrahim consulted his son about the commandment. Ismail told him to do what he was asked. Allah did not allow Ismail to be sacrificed.

Acknowledging that Ibrahim was willing to sacrifice what is dear to him, an animal was sacrificed instead. Ibraham had passed the test by his willingness to carry out God's command; this story originates in the Torah, the first book of Moses. The Quran refers to the Akedah as follows: The word "Eid" appears once in Al-Ma'ida, the fifth sura of the Quran, with the meaning "solemn festival". Devotees offer the Eid al-Adha prayers at the mosque; the Eid al-Ad

Geology of North Korea

The geology of North Korea has been studied by the Central Geological Survey of Mineral Resources, rare international research and by inference from South Korea's geology. Some international dating work around 1973 indicated that most basement rock in North Korea dates to the Proterozoic or the earlier Archean; the North Kyangsong Province gneiss samples indicated ages to 2.12 billion years ago and in 1985, the Sangni Metamorphic Supergroup and the Sangni Revolution were proposed as names for the gneiss-schist and gneiss formation. These groupings have been used to make sense of the 2.1 billion year old Punchon Granitic Gneiss, the Wonnan Group and the P'yonghae Group. The Machyollong Metamorphic Supergroup is widespread in the northeast, overlying older basement rock near the Yalu River; the supergroup is up to 10 kilometers thick with magnesite-bearing marble, mica schist and quartzite. The western edge of the Machyollong Zone is known as the Iwon Mobile Belt and contains extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks.

The late Proterozoic Sangwon Synthem is widespread in the Pyongnam Basin and other, smaller basins in North Korea and experienced deformation during orogenies in the Mesozoic. The Late Ordovician Miru Series was identified beginning in 1971 as the Koksan Series and subsequently renamed after 1975; the 170 meter thick limestone and siltstone centered around the P'yongnam Basin has extensive crinoid and gastropod fossils. Paleogeography researchers have suggested that corals formed in the Miru Sea—a branch of the South Yangtze Sea; the discovery of Ordovician fossils meant that the previous Koksan Series was revised to be younger, encompassing Silurian slate and siltstone in the Singye-Koksan area up to 280 meters thick. It includes Rugosa fossils. For years, geologists in the Korean Peninsula were puzzled about the early Paleozoic fossils found in the early Mesozoic Taedong Synthem. However, in 1991, Kang and Pak inferred an origin from the Koksan Series. Marine fossils are widespread in the Imjin Group, first recognized in 1962 in the Kaesong-Kumchon-Cholwon area.

The three kilometer thick unit is subdivided into the Anhyop and Saknyong Series and is widespread throughout the Imjinang Fold Belt in central North Korea. The Anhyop Series represents one kilometer of schist, limestone and sandstone; the 1.1 kilometer Puapsan Series and one kilometer Saknyong Series are both similar, although the Saknyong has siltstone and volcanic rocks. North Korean geologists have identified the Imjin Group as a continental rift basin, correlated with similar rocks on the Shandong Peninsula across the Yellow Sea in China. Many of the rocks have experienced low-grade metamorphism and volcanic sequences are comparatively thick. At the base of the Taedong Synthem is the P'yong'an Supergroup, which lies disconformably atop older Paleozoic rocks. In the Pyongyang Coalfield it is divided into the 650 meter sandstone and conglomerate of the Nogam Formation, the 500 meter Kobangsan Formation, 350 meter coal-bearing Sadong Formation and 250 meter chert-bearing Hongjom Formation, all assigned to an Upper Permian shallow marine environment.

During the Mesozoic, the region experienced the Songnim Orogeny, named for overturned, overthrusted Choson and P'yong'an synthem rocks near Songnim, north of Pyongyang. This event is associated with the 240 to 190 million year old Triassic and Jurassic Hyesan Complex pluton. Taebo, a place north of Pyongyang is the namesake of the Taebo orogeny, a period of tectonic activity that emplaced the Taebo Granite around 180 million years ago; the orogeny, evidenced in the Okchon Supergroup, is related to the separation of Japan from Asia. North of Pyongyang, Precambrian basement rocks are unconformably overlain by a Jurassic limestone conglomerate ascending to layers of siltstone and mudstone; the Upper Jurassic Shinuiju Formation northwest of Shinuiju has sandstone and mudstone up to two kilometers thick. Offshore drilling in the West Korea Bay Basin indicates these rocks are the onshore extension of offshore units, it is subdivided into fluvial rocks and Upper Jurassic black shale, limestone and sandstone formed in a lake environment.

Longstanding terrestrial conditions prevailed through much of the Cenozoic, until the recent geological past, when the a marine regression flooded the area around the peninsula. Few Cenozoic sediments are known from either Korea as a result of erosion due to uplift of the peninsula. Submarine normal faults along the eastern coastline may have driven crustal tilting; the 350 meter thick Bongsan Coalfield in Hwanghae Province on the west coast preserves and coal-bearing layers dating to the Eocene. Further to the north, in the West Korea Bay Basin Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks up to three kilometers thick unconformably overlie Mesozoic rocks, formed in lakes and coal swamps during the Paleogene. Amurian Plate Geography of North Korea Geology of South Korea 946 eruption of Paektu Mountain Mining in North Korea

Dogon languages

The Dogon languages are a small, close-knit language family spoken by the Dogon people of Mali, believed to belong to the larger Niger–Congo family. There are about 600,000 speakers of a dozen languages, they are tonal languages – most, like Dogul, having two tones. The basic word order is subject–object–verb; the evidence linking Dogon to the Niger–Congo family is weak, their place within the family, assuming they do belong, is not clear. Various theories have been proposed, placing them in Gur, Mande, or as an independent branch, the last now being the preferred approach; the Dogon languages show no remnants of the noun class system characteristic of much of Niger–Congo, leading linguists to conclude that they diverged from Niger–Congo early. Roger Blench comments, Dogon is both lexically and structurally different from most other families, it lacks the noun-classes regarded as typical of Niger–Congo and has a word order that resembles Mande and Ịjọ, but not the other branches. The system of verbal inflections, resembling French is quite unlike any surrounding languages.

As a consequence, the ancestor of Dogon is to have diverged early, although the present-day languages reflect an origin some 3–4000 years ago. Dogon languages are territorially coherent, suggesting that, despite local migration histories, the Dogon have been in this area of Mali from their origin. And: Dogon is a well-founded and coherent group, but it has no characteristic Niger–Congo features and few lexical cognates. It could well be an independent language family; the Bamana and Fula languages have exerted significant influence on Dogon, due to their close cultural and geographical ties. Blench suggests that Bangime and Dogon languages may have a substratum from a "missing" branch of Nilo-Saharan that had split off early from Proto-Nilo-Saharan, tentatively calls that branch "Plateau"; the Dogon consider themselves a single ethnic group, but recognise that their languages are different. In Dogon cosmology, Dogon constitutes six of the twelve languages of the world. Jamsay is thought to be the original Dogon language, but the Dogon "recognise a myriad of tiny distinctions between parts of villages and sometimes individuals, strive to preserve these".

The best-studied Dogon language is the escarpment language Toro So of Sanga, due to Marcel Griaule's studies there and because Toro So was selected as one of thirteen national languages of Mali. It is mutually intelligible with other escarpment varieties. However, the plains languages—Tene Ka, Tomo Ka, Jamsay, which are not intelligible with Toro so—have more speakers, Jamsay and Tommo so are most conservative linguistically. Calame-Griaule appears to have been the first to work out the various varieties of Dogon. Calame-Griaule classified the languages as follows, with accommodation given for languages which have since been discovered, or have since been shown to be mutually intelligible; the two standard languages are asterisked. Plains Dogon: Jamsai,* Tɔrɔ tegu, Western Plains Escarpment Dogon West Dogon: Duleri, Ampari–Penange. Blench noted that the plural suffix on nouns suggests that Budu is closest to Mombo, so it has been tentatively included as West Dogon above, he notes that Walo–Kumbe is lexically similar to Naŋa.

The similarities between these languages may be shared with Yanda. These are all poorly known. Bangime language considered a divergent branch of Dogon, turns out not to be Dogon at all, is a language isolate. Blench believes. Additionally, Blench suggests that there is a Nilo-Saharan substratum in the Dogon languages, with the Nilo-Saharan substrate being a extinct branch of Nilo-Saharan that Blench tentatively refers to as "Plateau." Comparison of numerals in individual languages: Languages of Mali Bendor-Samuel, John & Olsen, Elizabeth J. & White, Ann R.'Dogon', in Bendor-Samuel & Rhonda L. Hartell The Niger–Congo languages: A classification and description of Africa's largest language family. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America. Bertho, J.'La place des dialectes dogon de la falaise de Bandiagara parmi les autres groupes linguistiques de la zone soudanaise,' Bulletin de l'IFAN, 15, 405–441. Blench, Roger. "A survey of Dogon languages in Mali: Overview". OGMIOS: Newsletter of Foundation for Endangered Languages.

3.02: 14–15. Retrieved 2011-06-30.. Blench, Roger'Baŋgi me, a language of unknown affiliation in Northern Mali', OGMIOS: Newsletter of Foundation for Endangered Languages, 3.02, 15-16. Calame-Griaule, Geneviève Les dialectes Dogon. Africa, 26, 62-72. Calame-Griaule, Geneviève Dictionnaire Dogon Dialecte tɔrɔ: Langue et Civilisation. Paris: Klincksieck: Paris. Heath, Jeffrey A grammar of Jamsay. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Hochstetler, J. Lee. A.. I. K. Durieux-Boon. Sociolinguistic Survey of the Dogon Language Area. SIL