A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of drops in the course of a stream or river. Waterfalls occur where meltwater drops over the edge of an iceberg or ice shelf. Waterfalls are commonly formed in the course of a river. At these times the channel is narrow and deep. When the river courses over resistant bedrock, erosion happens slowly, as the watercourse increases its velocity at the edge of the waterfall, it plucks material from the riverbed. Whirlpools created in the turbulence as well as sand and stones carried by the increase the erosion capacity. This causes the waterfall to carve deeper into the bed and to recede upstream, often over time, the waterfall will recede back to form a canyon or gorge downstream as it recedes upstream, and it will carve deeper into the ridge above it. The rate of retreat for a waterfall can be as high as one, the outcropping, more resistant cap rock will collapse under pressure to add blocks of rock to the base of the waterfall.
Waterfalls normally form in an area due to erosion. After a long period of being formed, the water falling off the ledge will retreat. Eventually, as the pit grows deeper, the waterfall collapses to be replaced by a steeply sloping stretch of river bed, a river sometimes flows over a large step in the rocks that may have been formed by a fault line. Waterfalls can occur along the edge of a trough, where a stream or river flowing into a glacier continues to flow into a valley after the glacier has receded or melted. The large waterfalls in Yosemite Valley are examples of this phenomenon, another reason hanging valleys may form is where two rivers join and one is flowing faster than the other. Waterfalls can be grouped into ten classes based on the average volume of water present on the fall using a logarithmic scale. Class 10 waterfalls include Niagara Falls, Paulo Afonso Falls and Khone Falls, young Wrote Waterfalls and process this work made waterfalls a much more serious topic for research for modern Geoscientists.
Ledge waterfall, Water descends vertically over a cliff, maintaining partial contact with the bedrock. Block/Sheet. Classical, Ledge waterfalls where fall height is equal to stream width. Curtain, Ledge waterfalls which descend over a larger than the width of falling water stream
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand, formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2, Thailand is the worlds 51st-largest country and it is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok and its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. The Thai economy is the worlds 20th largest by GDP at PPP and it became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing and tourism are leading sectors of the economy and it is considered a middle power in the region and around the world.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens, by outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym Siam. The word Siam has been identified with the Sanskrit Śyāma, the names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word. The word Śyâma is possibly not its origin, but a learned, another theory is the name derives from Chinese, Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam, the signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut King of the Siamese, giving the name Siam official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it reverted to Thailand. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means free man in the Thai language, ratcha Anachak Thai means kingdom of Thailand or kingdom of Thai. Etymologically, its components are, ratcha, -ana- -chak, the Thai National Anthem, written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as, prathet Thai.
The first line of the anthem is, prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai, Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh. There is evidence of habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire, Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire. The Menam Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati in the 7th century, the History of the Yuan mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
Vorma is a river in Norway that brings water from lake Mjøsa into the Glomma river. The Vorma is 30 kilometres long and flows through the town of Eidsvoll, the Vorma flows from Lake Mjøsa at the village of Minnesund to join with the Glomma at Årnes. Vorma was so named because it was a river that never freezes over. The junction of the Vorma with the Glomma at Årnes and Nes is the site of the Funnefoss on the Glomma, the Eidsivating was, according to tradition, founded by Halvdan Svarte, and served as the ting place for all of the Opplands and Viken. Saint Olav held a ting there and built a church at this site in 1017, in 1795 a landslide totally blocked the Vorma at Disen for 111 days, completely drying the riverbed. A channel was cut around it to prevent a major overflow, on the Vorma, south of Eidsvoll, lies the Svanfoss where the water level in Lake Mjøsa is regulated. A 6-by-60-metre lock, which bypassed the Svanfoss, lifting boats 3 metres to allow the bypassing of the fall, the Vorma discharges from Lake Mjøsa at the village of Minnesund on the southern lakeshore.
The southern shore of Lake Mjøsa is a moraine deposit formed by a pause in the glacial ice retreat that occurred ~9,400 years before the present. The terminal moraine is characterized by substantial clay and gravel deposits, the Vorma has eroded through these deposits, leaving steep banks with many high gradient tributaries forming cascades as they join the Vorma. The river cut down until it met the less-easily eroded intrusive sill at the center of Eidsvoll where it formed the Svanfoss. Falls are found where the Vorma meets the Glomma - the Funnefoss, the glacial deposits dammed up a side valley, forming lake Hurdalssjøen. The Hurdalssjøen discharges to the Vorma river at Eidsvoll via the tributary Andelva river, other tributaries include the Julsrudåa, the Jøndalsåa, and the Holtåa. East Norway and its Frontier by Frank Noel Stagg, George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.1956 An overview of Norwegian canals, including one on the Vormas
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Districts of Norway
The country Norway is historically divided into a number of districts. Many districts have deep roots, and only partially coincide with todays administrative units of counties and municipalities. The districts are defined by geographical features, often valleys, mountain ranges, plains, or coastlines, many such regions were petty kingdoms up to the early Viking age. A high percentage of Norwegians identify themselves more by the district live in or come from. Thus and regional commonality in folk culture tended to correspond to those same geographical units, the construction of railroads between distant parts of the country. The opening of dozens of new airports all over the country through the 1960s and 1970s, the release of private cars from government rationing and import restrictions from the 1950s onwards. A concrete display of the Norwegian habit of identifying themselves by district can be seen in the many regional costumes, called bunad, the following list is non-exhaustive and partially overlapping.
The first name is the name in Bokmål, the second Nynorsk, helgeland Lofoten Ofoten Salten Vesterålen See Finnmark, Hålogaland and Troms
Feiring is an area in the Eidsvoll municipality in Akershus county, Norway. Feiring lies on the west side of the lake Mjøsa, in 1870 the area became a municipality in its own right when it was split from Hurdal. Feiring had an area of 102.45 km² and it merged into the municipality Eidsvoll in 1964. Norwegian National Road 33, the road between Minnesund and Østre Toten, which runs through Feiring, was built in the 1890s. Feiring church was built in 1870, the original plan had been to restore the old church from 1693, but after debate in the local council it was decided to build a new church. All the same, much of the material which was used to build the new church was borrowed from the old church, in the 17th century about 20 copper-mines were set up to the north and north-west of the church, with the smelting works by Flesvikelva. From 1806 to 1818 Carsten Anker ran the Feiring Iron Works by Skreikampen, Feiring Ironworks is one of the best preserved post-Industrial Revolution ironworks in Norway.
The housing stands almost completely untouched to this day, the ironworks sites and the remains of the smelter have been restored and Eidsvoll Historical Society has erected information-posts around the work area. In recent years an annual play has been performed in the grounds of the ironworks. Ironworks Weekend is held in August, the treatment and rehabilitation centre for heart disease, run by the Norwegian Heart and Lung Patient Organization lies in the centre of Kirkebygda, down towards Lake Mjøsa. One can still see the mile-marker by Norwegian National Road 33, the border signpost between Feiring and Eidsvoll has been removed, so that visitors no longer know when they are driving into the heartlands of Romerike. The Norse form of the name was Fegringar, the name is derived from fagr fair and the meaning is the beautiful district. Aage Lunde, Maja Feirings historie ISBN 82-90320-01-9
Cruciform means having the shape of a cross or Christian cross. Christian churches are described as having a cruciform architecture. In the Western churches, a cruciform architecture usually, though not exclusively and this layout comprises the following, An east end, containing an altar and often with an elaborate, decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day. A west end, which contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, in which water can be firstly, blessed. North and south transepts, being arms of the cross and often containing rooms for gathering, small chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ. The crossing, which in designs often was under a tower or dome, in churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as liturgical east and so forth. Another example of ancient cruciform architecture can be found in Herods temple, DNA can undergo transitions to form a cruciform shape, otherwise known as a Holliday junction.
This structure is important for the biological processes of DNA recombination. A cruciform joint is a joint in which 4 spaces are created by the welding of 3 plates of metal at right angles. A cruciform manuscript was a form of Anglo-Saxon / Insular manuscript written with the words in a block shaped like a cross. In music, a melody of four pitches where a line drawn between the outer pair bisects a straight line drawn between the inner pair, thus forming a cross. In its simplest form, the melody is a changing tone. Often representative of the Christian cross, such melodies are cruciform in their retrogrades or inversions, johann Sebastian Bach, whose last name may be represented in tones through a musical cryptogram known as the BACH motif that is a cruciform melody, employed the device extensively. The subject of the fugue in c-sharp minor from The Well-Tempered Clavier Book I is cruciform, the plain sword used by knights, distinctive due to the flat bar used as a guard. The overall shape of the sword when held point down is that of a cross and it is believed this shape was encouraged by the church to remind Knights of their religion.
It was however very popular due to the protection it offered to the hand, some airplanes use a cruciform tail design, wherein the horizontal stabilizer is positioned midway up the vertical stabilizer, forming a cruciform shape when viewed from the front or rear. Some examples are the F-9 Cougar, the F-10 Skyknight and the Sud Aviation Caravelle, cruciform web designs use a cross-shaped web page that expands to fill the width and height of the web browser window. There are a number of different approaches to implementing them, in addition to common cross-shaped products, such as key chains and magnets, certain designers have gone so far as to create cruciform devices and accessories
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government