SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Eight-hour day

The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses. It is claimed it had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life. At that time, the working day could range from 10 to 16 hours, the work week was six days a week and the use of child labour was common. Robert Owen had raised the demand for a ten-hour day in 1810, instituted it in his socialist enterprise at New Lanark. By 1817 he had formulated the goal of the eight-hour day and coined the slogan: "Eight hours' labour, Eight hours' recreation, Eight hours' rest". Women and children in England were granted the ten-hour day in 1847. French workers won the 12-hour day after the February Revolution of 1848. A shorter working day and improved working conditions were part of the general protests and agitation for Chartist reforms and the early organisation of trade unions.

The International Workingmen's Association took up the demand for an eight-hour day at its Congress in Geneva in 1866, declaring "The legal limitation of the working day is a preliminary condition without which all further attempts at improvements and emancipation of the working class must prove abortive", "The Congress proposes eight hours as the legal limit of the working day." Karl Marx saw it as of vital importance to the workers' health, writing in Das Kapital: "By extending the working day, capitalist production...not only produces a deterioration of human labour power by robbing it of its normal moral and physical conditions of development and activity, but produces the premature exhaustion and death of this labour power itself."Although there were initial successes in achieving an eight-hour day in New Zealand and by the Australian labour movement for skilled workers in the 1840s and 1850s, most employed people had to wait to the early and mid twentieth century for the condition to be achieved through the industrialised world through legislative action.

The first country to adopt eight-hour working day nationwide was Uruguay. The eight-hour day was introduced on November 1915, in the government of José Batlle y Ordóñez; the law was not effective on all type of works. Spain became on April 3, 1919 the first country in the world to introduce an universal law effective on all type of works, restricting the workday to a maximum of eight hours; the "Real decreto de 3 de abril de 1919" was signed by the prime minister, Álvaro de Figueroa, 1st Count of Romanones. The first international treaty to mention it was the Treaty of Versailles in the annex of its thirteenth part establishing the International Labour Office, now the International Labour Organization; the eight-hour day was the first topic discussed by the International Labour Organization which resulted in the Hours of Work Convention, 1919 ratified by 52 countries as of 2016. The eight-hour day movement forms part of the early history for the celebration of Labour Day, May Day in many nations and cultures.

In Iran in 1918, the work of reorganizing the trade unions began in earnest in Tehran during the closure of the Iranian constitutional parliament Majles. The printers' union, established in 1906 by Mohammad Parvaneh as the first trade union, in the Koucheki print shop on Nasserieh Avenue in Tehran, reorganized their union under leadership of Russian-educated Seyed Mohammad Dehgan, a newspaper editor and an avowed Communist. In 1918, the newly organised union staged a 14-day strike and succeeded in reaching a collective agreement with employers to institute the eight-hours day, overtime pay, medical care; the success of the printers' union encouraged other trades to organize. In 1919 the bakers and textile-shop clerks formed their own trade unions; however the eight-hours day only became as code by a limited governor's decree on 1923 by the governor of Kerman and Balochistan, which controlled the working conditions and working hours for workers of carpet workshops in the province. In 1946 the council of ministers issued the first labor law for Iran, which recognized the eight-hour day.

The first company to introduce an eight-hour working day in Japan was the Kawasaki Dockyards in Kobe. An eight-hour day was one of the demands presented by the workers during pay negotiations in September 1919. After the company resisted the demands, a slowdown campaign was commenced by the workers on 18 September. After ten days of industrial action, company president Kōjirō Matsukata agreed to the eight-hour day and wage increases on 27 September, which became effective from October; the effects of the action were felt nationwide and inspired further industrial action at the Kawasaki and Mitsubishi shipyards in 1921. The eight-hour day did not become law in Japan until the passing of the Labor Standards Act in April 1947. Article 32 of the Act specifies a 40-hour week and paragraph specifies an eight-hour day, excluding rest periods. In Indonesia, the first policy regarding working time regulated in Law No. 13 of 2003 about employment. In the law, it stated that a worker should work for 7 hours a day for 6 days a week or 8 hours a day for 5 days a week, excluding rest periods.

The 8-hour work day was introduced in Belgium on September 9, 1924. The 8-hour work day was first introduced in 1907. Within the next few decades, the 8-hour system spread across technically all branches of work. A worker receives 150% payment from the first two extra hours, 200% salary if the work day exceeds 10 hours; the eight-hour day was enacted in France by Georges Clemenceau, as a way to avoid unemployment and diminish communist support. It was succeeded by a strong French support o

Hunslet Mill

The Hunslet Mill and Victoria Works Complex is a series of large disused mill buildings in Goodman Street in Leeds. Hunslet Mill was constructed by William Fairbairn for John Wilkinson and completed circa 1842. By 1847 some 1,500 female staff were employed in the mill reeling flax, it was occupied by a firm of linen manufacturers called Richard Buckton and Son from 1868 and by a firm of blanket weavers called Dodgson and Hargreaves from the mid-1920s until it closed in 1966. Victoria Works was constructed for W B Holdsworth and was completed in 1838, it was occupied by a tailoring company called Botterill & Senior from the 1930s and was owned by a firm of ironmongers called R H Bruce before they moved out in the early 1970s. The complex, derelict, is now owned by developers Evans and Caddick

Rieux, Morbihan

Rieux is a commune in the Morbihan department of Brittany in north-western France and bordering on Ille-et-Vilaine and Loire Atlantique. Rieux is near its station; the town is bordered by the Vilaine. Rieux is between Nantes and Vannes and most beautiful villages of Brittany as Rochefort-en-Terre, La Roche-Bernard, La Gacilly. Before the building of the dam of Arzal, tides were to go here. In the 3rd century, Rieux was lived by Romains, the town had more than 10,000 inhabitants and was called Duretie. In the Middle Ages, Rieux was affected by the foundation of Redon Abbey in 832. During the Second World War, Rieux was occupied by German Army who destroyed the bell tower in 1944 causing a fire in the church, it was rebuilt in 1956; the town was liberated in August 1945. Inhabitants of Rieux are called in French Rieuxoise in the feminine form. In 2016, there were 2,831 inhabitants. St Melaine Church Medieval castle ruins A campsite near a little marina. Communes of the Morbihan department Mayors of Morbihan Association INSEE commune file Map of Rieux on Michelin