Commissioners' Plan of 1811
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design for the streets of Manhattan above Houston Street and below 155th Street, which put in place the rectangular grid plan of streets and lots that has defined Manhattan to this day. It has been called "the single most important document in New York City's development," and the plan has been described as encompassing the "republican predilection for control and balance... distrust of nature". It was described by the Commission that created it as combining "beauty and convenience."The plan originated when the Common Council of New York City, seeking to provide for the orderly development and sale of the land of Manhattan between 14th Street and Washington Heights, but unable to do so itself for reasons of local politics and objections from property owners, asked the New York State Legislature to step in. The legislature appointed a commission with sweeping powers in 1807, their plan was presented in 1811; the Commissioners were a Founding Father of the United States.
Their chief surveyor was John Randel Jr., 20 years old when he began the job. The Commissioners' Plan is arguably the most famous use of the grid plan or "gridiron" and is considered by many historians to have been far-reaching and visionary. Since its earliest days, the plan has been criticized for its monotony and rigidity, in comparison with irregular street patterns of older cities, but in recent years has been viewed more favorably by urban planners. There were a few interruptions in the grid for public spaces, such as the Grand Parade between 23rd Street and 33rd Street, the precursor to Madison Square Park, as well as four squares named Bloomingdale, Hamilton and Harlem, a wholesale market complex, a reservoir. Central Park, the massive urban greenspace in Manhattan running from Fifth Avenue to Eighth Avenue and from 59th Street to 110th Street, was not a part of the plan, as it was not envisioned until the 1850s; the gridiron as a concept for the layout of a town or city is not new.
Gridirons can be found in the Old and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt, in Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley in 2154 BCE with a population of 40,000 people, where many historians claim it was invented, from where it may have spread to Ancient Greece. When the Greek city of Miletus was sacked by the Persians in 494 BCE and liberated by Athens in 476 BCE, over the next three centuries it was rebuilt on the grid plan, with Hippodamus – called "the father of European urban planning" – as the local originator of the rectilinear grid system for the city's center, a concept he did not invent, but had heard about from elsewhere. Hippodamus went on to spread the grid to Piraeus and other cities in Greece; the grid plan, or "Hippodamian plan", was utilized by the Ancient Romans for their fortified military encampments, or castra, many of which evolved into towns and cities. Over time and under the pressure of the needs of other cultures and Roman settlements, built using the grid became obliterated or so adapted that it is difficult to perceive the remains of the grid.
Most Muslim cities, for instance, are not built according to a strict gridiron, although there may be fractured grids within them. In France and Wales, castra evolved into bastides, agricultural communities under a centralized monarchy; this example was followed on the European continent in cities such as New Brandenburg in Germany, which the Teutonic Knights founded in 1248, in the many town planned and built in the 14th century in the Florentine Republic. The gridiron idea spread with the Renaissance, although in many cities, for instance London following the Great Fire of 1666, it failed to take root; however the rapid expansion of cities In the British Empire necessitated adoption of new neoclassical urban plans in particular the Scottish Enlightenment'New Towns' of Edinburgh of 1767 and Glasgow of 1781 were influential in the English-speaking countries. In some European cities, such as Amsterdam and Paris, destruction of parts of the city by fire and other calamities offered an opportunity for the grid system to be used to replace more evolutionary street layouts in outlying areas, while the central city sheltered behind medieval walls, remained organic and undesigned.
In what would become the United States, the gridiron now predominates. In areas that were under Spanish control, the 1753 Laws of the Indies specified the use of the gridiron, the results can be seen in Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico. By the time of the passage of the federal Land Ordinance of 1785, the grid plan was established in the US; the Ordinance required newly created states to have rectilinear boundaries, rather than boundaries shaped by natural features, within the new areas, beginning in the Northwest Territory, everything was to be divided into rectangles: townships were six miles by six miles, sections were one mile by one mile, individual lots were 60 by 125 feet. Cities such as Anchorage, Alaska. There was significant variation in the size of the grids used. Carson City, may have the smallest at 180-foot square and 60-foot streets, while Salt Lake City, Utah, is much larger at 600-foot square blocks surrounded by 120-foot streets; the most popul
Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan
Hell's Kitchen, sometimes known as Clinton, is a neighborhood on the West Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City. It is traditionally considered to be bordered by 34th Street to the south, 59th Street to the north, Eighth Avenue to the east, the Hudson River to the west; the area provides transport and warehouse-infrastructure support to Midtown's business district. Once a bastion of poor and working class Irish Americans, Hell's Kitchen's location in Midtown has changed its personality since the 1970s. Though Hell's Kitchen's gritty reputation had long held real-estate prices below those of most other areas of Manhattan, by 1969, the City Planning Commission's Plan for New York City reported that development pressures related to its Midtown location were driving people of modest means from the area. Since the early 1990s, the area has been gentrifying, rents have risen rapidly. Located close to both Broadway theatres and the Actors Studio training school, Hell's Kitchen has long been a home to learning and practising actors, and, in recent years, to young Wall Street financiers.
Hell's Kitchen is part of Manhattan Community District 4 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10018, 10019, 10036. It is patrolled by the 18th Precincts of the New York City Police Department; the name "Hell's Kitchen" refers to the area from 34th to 59th Streets. Starting west of Eighth Avenue and north of 43rd Street, city zoning regulations limit buildings to six stories; as a result, most of the buildings are older, are walk-up apartments. For the most part, the neighborhood encompasses the ZIP Codes 10019 and 10036; the post office for 10019 is called Radio City Station, the original name for Rockefeller Center on Sixth Avenue. The neighborhood overlaps the Times Square Theater District to the east at Eighth Avenue. On its southeast border, it overlaps the Garment District on Eighth Avenue. Here, two landmarks reside – the New Yorker Hotel and the dynamic Manhattan Center building. Included in the transition area on Eighth Avenue are the Port Authority Bus Terminal at 42nd Street, the Pride of Midtown fire station, several theatres including Studio 54, the original soup stand of Seinfeld's "The Soup Nazi"' and the Hearst Tower.
The northern edge of Hell's Kitchen borders the southern edge of the Upper West Side. 57th Street is the traditional boundary between the two neighborhoods. However, Hell's Kitchen is considered to extend further north to 59th Street, the southern edge of Central Park starting at Eighth Avenue, where the avenue names change. Included in the 57th to 59th Street transition area are the Time Warner Center at Columbus Circle, Hudson Hotel, Mount Sinai West, where John Lennon died in 1980 after being shot, John Jay College; the southern boundary is at Chelsea, but the two neighborhoods overlap and are lumped together as the "West Side" since they support the Midtown Manhattan business district. The traditional dividing line is 34th Street; the transition area just north of Madison Square Garden and Pennsylvania Station includes the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center; the western border of the neighborhood is the Hudson River at the Hudson River Park and West Side Highway. Several explanations exist for the original name.
An early use of the phrase appears in a comment Davy Crockett made about another notorious Irish slum in Manhattan, Five Points. According to the Irish Cultural Society of the Garden City Area: When, in 1835, Davy Crockett said, "In my part of the country, when you meet an Irishman, you find a first-rate gentleman, he was referring to the Five Points. According to an article by Kirkley Greenwell, published online by the Hell's Kitchen Neighborhood Association: No one can pin down the exact origin of the label, but some refer to a tenement on 54th Street as the first "Hell's Kitchen." Another explanation points to an infamous building at 39th as the true original. A gang and a local dive took the name as well.... A similar slum existed in London and was known as Hell's Kitchen. Local historian Mary Clark explained the name thus:...first appeared in print on September 22, 1881 when a New York Times reporter went to the West 30s with a police guide to get details of a multiple murder there. He referred to a infamous tenement at 39th Street and Tenth Avenue as "Hell's Kitchen" and said that the entire section was "probably the lowest and filthiest in the city."
According to this version, 39th Street between 9th and 10th Avenues became known as Hell's Kitchen and the name was expanded to the surrounding streets. Another version ascribes the name's origins to a German restaurant in the area known as Heil's Kitchen, after its proprietors, but the most common version traces it to the story of "Dutch Fred the Cop", a veteran policeman, who with his rookie partner, was watching a small riot on West 39th Street near Tenth Avenue. The rookie is supposed to have said, "This place is hell itself", to which Fred replied, "Hell's a mild climate; this is Hell's Kitchen." The 1929 book Manna-Hatin: The Story of New York states that the Panic of 1857 led to gangs formed "in the notorious'Gas House District' at Twenty-First Street and the East River, or in'Hell's Kitchen', in the West Thirties."Hell's Kitchen has become the most used name of the neighborhood though real estate developers have offered alternatives of "Clinton" and "Midtown West", or "the Mid-West".
The "Clinton" name, used by the municipality of New York City, originated in 1959 in
New York City Department of Transportation
The New York City Department of Transportation is the agency of the government of New York City responsible for the management of much of New York City's transportation infrastructure. Polly Trottenberg is the current Commissioner of the Department of Transportation, was appointed by Mayor Bill de Blasio on January 1, 2014; the Department of Transportation's responsibilities include day-to-day maintenance of the city's streets, highways and sidewalks. The Department of Transportation is responsible for installing and maintaining the city's street signs, traffic signals and street lights. DOT supervises street resurfacing, pothole repair, parking meter installation and maintenance, the management of a municipal parking facilities. DOT operates the Staten Island Ferry. DOT is the exclusive provider of day-to-day operations and maintenance on New York State-maintained roads and highways in city limits, while major repairs and capital improvements on state-owned roads are performed by the State DOT.
Both DOT and NYSDOT reserve the right to install signage and other roadway features on state highways, which become maintained on a daily basis by DOT. DOT sets the speed limit on all roads and highways in the city, including those owned by NYSDOT. DOT is responsible for oversight of transportation-related issues, such as authorizing jitney van services and permits for street construction. DOT advocates for transportation safety issues, including promotion of pedestrian and bicycle safety, its regulations are compiled in title 34 of the New York City Rules. Commissioner of Transportation First Deputy Commissioner Sidewalk Inspection and Management Staten Island Ferry Service Bridges Transportation Planning & Management Roadway Repair and Maintenance Information Technology and Telecommunications Borough Commissioners Brooklyn Borough Commissioner Manhattan Borough Commissioner Bronx Borough Commissioner Queens Borough Commissioner Staten Island Borough Commissioner Policy External Affairs Finance and Program Management Human Resources and Facilities Management Legal As of 2017, DOT had the budget and staff as follows: The DOT operates 794 roadway and pedestrian bridges throughout New York City, including 25 movable bridges.
The agency's portfolio includes most of the East River and Harlem River bridges, as well as smaller bridges throughout the city. DOT operates two retractable bridges. Other agencies that operate road bridges in New York include the MTA, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the New York State DOT. At 1:30 a.m. on May 24 2012 DOT employee Harry Robinson ran over and killed Roxana Buta while operating a DOT truck. New York City Office of Administrative Trials and Hearings, for hearings conducted on summonses for quality of life violations issued by the Department New York State Department of Transportation Official website Department of Transportation in the Rules of the City of New York NYC DOT Real Time Traffic Information
Greenwich Village referred to by locals as "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Manhattan, New York City, within Lower Manhattan. Broadly, Greenwich Village is bounded by 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the east, Houston Street to the south, the Hudson River to the west. Greenwich Village contains several subsections, including the West Village west of Seventh Avenue and the Meatpacking District in the northwest corner of Greenwich Village. In the 20th century, Greenwich Village was known as an artists' haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement, the East Coast birthplace of both the Beat and'60s counterculture movements. Groenwijck, one of the Dutch names for the village, was Anglicized to Greenwich. Greenwich Village contains Washington Square Park, as well as two of New York's private colleges, New York University and the New School. Greenwich Village is part of Manhattan Community District 2, is patrolled by the 6th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
Greenwich Village has undergone extensive commercialization. The neighborhood is bordered by Broadway to the east, the North River to the west, Houston Street to the south, 14th Street to the north, centered on Washington Square Park and New York University; the neighborhoods surrounding it are the East Village and NoHo to the east, SoHo and Hudson Square to the south, Chelsea and Union Square to the north. The East Village was considered part of the Lower East Side and has never been considered a part of Greenwich Village; the western part of Greenwich Village is known as the West Village. The Far West Village is another sub-neighborhood of Greenwich Village, bordered on its west by the Hudson River and on its east by Hudson Street. Into the early 20th century, Greenwich Village was distinguished from the upper-class neighborhood of Washington Square—based on the major landmark of Washington Square Park or Empire Ward in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica's 1956 article on "New York" states that the southern border of the Village is Spring Street, reflecting an earlier understanding.
The newer district of SoHo has since encroached on this border. As Greenwich Village was once a rural, isolated hamlet to the north of the 17th century European settlement on Manhattan Island, its street layout is more organic than the planned grid pattern of the 19th century grid plan. Greenwich Village was allowed to keep the 18th century street pattern of what is now called the West Village: areas that were built up when the plan was implemented, west of what is now Greenwich Avenue and Sixth Avenue, resulted in a neighborhood whose streets are different, in layout, from the ordered structure of the newer parts of Manhattan. Many of the neighborhood's streets some curve at odd angles; this is regarded as adding to both the historic character and charm of the neighborhood. In addition, as the meandering Greenwich Street used to be on the Hudson River shoreline, much of the neighborhood west of Greenwich Street is on landfill, but still follows the older street grid; when Sixth and Seventh Avenues were built in the early 20th century, they were built diagonally to the existing street plan, many older, smaller streets had to be demolished.
Unlike the streets of most of Manhattan above Houston Street, streets in the Village are named rather than numbered. While some of the named streets are now numbered, they still do not always conform to the usual grid pattern when they enter the neighborhood. For example, West 4th Street runs east-west across most of Manhattan, but runs north-south in Greenwich Village, causing it to intersect with West 10th, 11th, 12th Streets before ending at West 13th Street. A large section of Greenwich Village, made up of more than 50 northern and western blocks in the area up to 14th Street, is part of a Historic District established by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; the District's convoluted borders run no farther south than 4th Street or St. Luke's Place, no farther east than Washington Square East or University Place. Redevelopment in that area is restricted, developers must preserve the main façade and aesthetics of the buildings during renovation. Most of the buildings of Greenwich Village are mid-rise apartments, 19th century row houses, the occasional one-family walk-up, a sharp contrast to the high-rise landscape in Midtown and Downtown Manhattan.
Politically, Greenwich Village is in New York's 10th congressional district. It is in the New York State Senate's 25th district, the New York State Assembly's 66th district, the New York City Council's 3rd district. In the 16th century, Native Americans referred to its farthest northwest corner, by the cove on the Hudson River at present-day Gansevoort Street, as Sapokanikan; the land was cleared and turned into pasture by Dutch and freed African settlers in the 1630s, who named their settlement Noortwyck. In the 1630s, Governor Wouter van Twiller farmed tobacco on 200 acres (0.81 k
Abingdon Square Park
Abingdon Square Park is located in the New York City borough of Manhattan in Greenwich Village. The park is bordered by Bank Street, Hudson Street and West 12th Street. Abingdon Square Park is one of New York City's oldest parks, at 0.25 acres, one of it smallest. It is maintained by the Abingdon Square Conservancy, a community-based park association, in cooperation with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. New York City acquired the land on which the park resides on April 22, 1831, it was enclosed with a cast-iron fence in 1836. In the 1880s, an effort was initiated by Mayor Abram Stevens Hewitt to expand public access to parks. Architect Calvert Vaux was part of a group; the square was part of a 300-acre estate purchased by Sir Peter Warren in 1740. Abingdon Square was named for a prominent eighteenth century area resident, Charlotte Warren, who married Englishman Willoughby Bertie, the 4th Earl of Abingdon and received the land as a wedding gift from her father. Although most explicitly British place names in Manhattan were altered after the Revolutionary War, Abingdon Square retained its name due to the well-known patriotic sympathies of Charlotte and the Earl.
In 2005, the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation recognized the park's then-recent renovation with a Village Award. On August 3, 2009, a small garden was established inside the park as a memorial to Adrienne Shelly, an actress and film producer, slain in her office located in 15 Abingdon Square. Abingdon Square Conservancy is a non-profit public charity exempt from federal income tax under Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code; the Conservancy's mission is to maintain the Square as a scenic and historic landmark. The Conservancy is dependent on private donations for its operations and receives no public funding; the Conservancy employs a horticulturalist to design and maintain plantings, provide gardening services, liaise with the City, supervise maintenance in the park. A groundskeeper is employed to keep the Square clean; the Square is maintained in cooperation with the New York City Parks and Recreation Department, which collects trash and locks and unlocks the gates. Annual Conservancy events include a spring tulip display, Tulip Celebration, a carved Pumpkin Patch on Halloween night and a winter holiday decoration and light display.
The M11 and M14A bus lines terminate at Abingdon Square. List of New York City Parks Park Conservancy Media related to Abingdon Square Park at Wikimedia Commons New York City Department of Parks and Recreation: Abingdon Square Park. January 2004 - Capital Project of the Month Literary Reading Interrupted - The Fool of Abingdon Square Park
A red-light district or pleasure district is a part of an urban area where a concentration of prostitution and sex-oriented businesses, such as sex shops, strip clubs, adult theaters, are found. Areas in many big cities around the world have acquired an international reputation as red-light districts; the term red-light district originates from the red lights. Red-light districts are mentioned in the 1882 minutes of a Woman's Christian Temperance Union meeting in the United States; the Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known appearance of the term "red light district" in print as an 1894 article from the Sandusky Register, a newspaper in Sandusky, OhioAuthor Paul Wellman suggests that this and other terms associated with the American Old West originated in Dodge City, home to a well-known prostitution district during the 19th century, which included the Red Light House saloon. This has not been proven, but the Dodge City use was responsible for the term becoming pervasive. A widespread folk etymology claims that early railroad workers took red lanterns with them when they visited brothels so their crew could find them in the event of an emergency.
However, folklorist Barbara Mikkelson regards this as unfounded. One of the many terms used for a red-light district in Japanese is akasen meaning "red-line". Japanese police drew a red line on maps to indicate the boundaries of legal red-light districts. In Japanese, the term aosen meaning "blue-line" exists, indicating an illegal district. In the United States during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the term "sporting district" became popular for legal red-light districts. Municipal governments defined such districts explicitly to contain and regulate prostitution; some red-light districts are places which are designated by authorities for legal and regulated prostitution. These red-light districts were formed by authorities to help regulate prostitution and other related activities, such that they were confined to a single area; some red-light districts are under video surveillance. This can help counter illegal forms of prostitution, in these areas that do allow regular prostitution to occur.
List of red-light districts Media related to Red-light districts at Wikimedia Commons
B (New York City Subway service)
The B Sixth Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored orange since it uses the IND Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan; the B operates on weekdays only, servicing between 145th Street in Harlem and Brighton Beach in Brooklyn, making express stops in Manhattan and in Brooklyn and local stops between 145th and 59th Streets in Manhattan. During rush hours, service extends beyond 145th Street and originates and terminates at Bedford Park Boulevard, making local stops in the Bronx; the B does not operate during late nights. The B used to run exclusively in Manhattan, from 168th Street in Washington Heights to 34th Street–Herald Square in Midtown Manhattan. In 1967, with the Chrystie Street Connection, the B started running via the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn. A short-lived yellow B service ran via the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan and the BMT West End Line in Brooklyn from 1986 to 1988 due to Manhattan Bridge renovation, while orange B service traveled the pre-1967 route between 168th and 34th Streets.
After 1989, the B north of 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center used the IND Eighth Avenue Line to 168th Street on weekdays, the IND 63rd Street Line on evenings and weekends. Late night service ran as a shuttle on the West End Line. Weekday service was rerouted to the Concourse Line in 1998, while off-peak service along 63rd Street ceased in 2000; the B started using the Brighton Line in 2004 after work on the north side of the Manhattan Bridge was completed. The designation B was intended for express trains originating from the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan and operating in Midtown Manhattan on the IND Sixth Avenue Line. However, the original B service, beginning with the opening of the Sixth Avenue Line on December 15, 1940, ran as a rush-hour only local service between 168th Street–Washington Heights and 34th Street–Herald Square; this service was designated BB, conforming with the Independent Subway System convention using double letters to indicate local services. The Chrystie Street Connection and the express tracks of the Sixth Avenue Line opened on November 26, 1967, radically changing service.
BB trains were combined with the former T service, which ran on the BMT West End Line in Brooklyn and the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan. This created a through service from 168th Street to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue via the Sixth Avenue Line express tracks and the Manhattan Bridge. During middays, service to and from Brooklyn terminated at West 4th Street. During late night hours and Sundays when B service did not operate, TT shuttles continued to operate on the West End Line. On July 1, 1968, the B was rerouted to terminate at 57th Street in Midtown Manhattan during middays and evenings, extending to 168th Street only during rush hours; the West End Line shuttles were made part of the B route. On June 1, 1976, the New York City Transit Authority announced changes in subway service that were expected to save $12.6 million annually and were the third phase of the agency's plan to realign subway service to better reflect ridership patterns and reduced ridership. As part of the changes, which took effect on August 30, 1976, B service began running between 57th Street and Coney Island during all times, replacing K service, alternate B trains commenced operating between 168th Street and Coney Island during rush hours.
On December 14, 1976, the NYCTA announced severe cuts in bus and subway service in order to cut its budget by $30 million over the following 18 months in order to achieve a balanced budget, at the request of the Emergency Financial Control Board. As part of the cuts, late night B service was cut back to running as a shuttle between 36th Street and Coney Island via the West End Line; this change took effect on August 27, 1977. The 57th Street station was to be closed during late nights. However, a B shuttle operated during late nights, running between 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center and 57th Street; the NYCTA approved four changes in subway service on April 27, 1981, including an increase in B service. The changes were made as part of the $1 million, two-year Rapid Transit Sufficiency Study, were expected to take place as early as 1982, following public hearings and approval by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority board; as part of the changes, midday B service was going replacing AA service.
B service on the West End Line and Fourth Avenue Line express was to be supplemented by a new rush hour T train, running between Bay Parkway and Chambers Street on the Nassau Street Line. On June 1, 1983, the NYCTA proposed changes to increase service along Sixth Avenue and better connecting the line to the Bronx and Queens; as part of the changes, B train service would run to 168th Street at all times, with service to 57th Street during non-rush hours replaced by a new H train running between 57th Street and World Trade Center. With the extension of B service to 168th Street, AA service would be eliminated; the changes would have gone into effect in spring or summer pending approval by the MTA board. The reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 affected B service as the bridge's north side tracks, which led to the Sixth Avenue Line, were closed multiple times; these closures severed the connection between the southern portions of the route. B service was split into two different services starting on April 26, 1986, with an expected completion date of October 26, 1986.
The closure of the bridge's north side tracks caused the return of pre-November 1967 service patterns, before the opening of the Chrystie Street Connection: The orange B duplicated the former BB service, an