SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Einhard

Einhard was a Frankish scholar and courtier. Einhard was his son Louis the Pious. Einhard was from the eastern German-speaking part of the Frankish Kingdom. Born into a family of landowners of some importance, his parents sent him to be educated by the monks of Fulda, one of the most impressive centers of learning in the Frank lands. Due to his small stature, which restricted his riding and sword-fighting ability, Einhard concentrated his energies on scholarship the mastering of Latin, he was accepted into the hugely wealthy court of Charlemagne around 791 or 792. Charlemagne sought to amass scholarly men around him and established a royal school led by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin. Einhard evidently was a talented builder and construction manager, because Charlemagne put him in charge of the completion of several palace complexes including Aachen and Ingelheim. Despite the fact that Einhard was on intimate terms with Charlemagne, he never achieved office in his reign. In 814, on Charlemagne's death, his son Louis.

Einhard retired from court during the time of the disputes between Louis and his sons in the spring of 830. He died at Seligenstadt in 840. Einhard was married to Emma. There is a possibility that their marriage bore Vussin, their marriage appears to have been exceptionally liberal for the period, with Emma being as active as Einhard, if not more so, in the handling of their property. It is said that in the years of their marriage Emma and Einhard abstained from sexual relations, choosing instead to focus their attentions on their many religious commitments. Though he was undoubtedly devoted to her, Einhard wrote nothing of his wife until after her death on 13 December 835, when he wrote to a friend that he was reminded of her loss in ‘every day, in every action, in every undertaking, in all the administration of the house and household, in everything needing to be decided upon and sorted out in my religious and earthly responsibilities’. Einhard made numerous references to himself as a "sinner" according to his strong Christian faith.

He erected churches at both of his estates in Mulinheim. In Michelstadt, he saw fit to build a basilica completed in 827 and sent a servant, Ratleic, to Rome with an end to find relics for the new building. Once in Rome, Ratleic robbed a catacomb of the bones of the Martyrs Marcellinus and Peter and had them translated to Michelstadt. Once there, the relics made it known they were unhappy with their new tomb and thus had to be moved again to Mulinheim. Once established there, they proved to be miracle workers. Although unsure as to why these saints should choose such a "sinner" as their patron, Einhard nonetheless set about ensuring they continued to receive a resting place fitting of their honour. Between 831 and 834 he founded a Benedictine Monastery and, after the death of his wife, served as its Abbot until his own death in 840. Local lore from Seligenstadt portrays Einhard as the lover of Emma, one of Charlemagne's daughters, has the couple elope from court. Charlemagne forgave them; this account is used to explain the name "Seligenstadt" by folk etymology.

Einhard and his wife were buried in one sarcophagus in the choir of the church in Seligenstadt, but in 1810 the sarcophagus was presented by the Grand Duke of Hesse to the count of Erbach, who claims descent from Einhard as the husband of Imma, the reputed daughter of Charlemagne. The count put it in the famous chapel of his castle at Erbach in the Odenwald; the most famous of Einhard's works is his biography of Charlemagne, the Vita Karoli Magni, "The Life of Charlemagne", which provides much direct information about Charlemagne's life and character, written sometime between 817 and 830. In composing this he relied upon the Royal Frankish Annals. Einhard's literary model was the classical work of the Roman historian Suetonius, the Lives of the Caesars, though it is important to stress that the work is much Einhard's own, to say he adapts the models and sources for his own purposes, his work was written as a praise of Charlemagne, whom he regarded as a foster-father and to whom he was a debtor "in life and death".

The work thus contains an understandable degree of bias, Einhard taking care to exculpate Charlemagne in some matters, not mention others, to gloss over certain issues which would be of embarrassment to Charlemagne, such as the morality of his daughters. Einhard is responsible for three other extant works: a collection of letters, On the Translations and the Miracles of SS. Marcellinus and Petrus, On the Adoration of the Cross; the latter dates from ca. 830 and was not rediscovered until 1885, when Ernst Dümmler identified a text in a manuscript in Vienna as the missing Libellus de adoranda cruce, which Einhard had dedicated to his pupil Lupus Servatus. Royal Frankish Annals "Der hessische Spessart". HR Online. Retrieved 25 March 2010. Dümmler, Ernst. "Ein Nachtrag zu Einhards Werken". Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde. 11: 231–38. Retrieved 25 March 2010. "Einhard c. 770-840". Enotes. Retrieved 25 March 2010. Hodgkin, T.. Charles the Great. London: Macmillan. Levison, Wilhelm.

Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter, Vorzeit und Karolinger: Heft. Die Karolinger vom Anfang des

Laporte rule

The Laporte rule is a spectroscopic selection rule that only applies to centrosymmetric molecules and atoms. It states that electronic transitions that conserve parity, either symmetry or antisymmetry with respect to an inversion centre — i.e. g → g, or u → u respectively—are forbidden. Allowed transitions in such molecules must involve a change in either g → u or u → g; as a consequence, if a molecule is centrosymmetric, transitions within a given set of p or d orbitals are forbidden. A designation of g for an orbital means; that is, if all the atoms are inverted across the inversion center, the resulting orbital would look the way it did before having inversion applied to it.. A designation of u means the orbital is antisymmetric with respect to the inversion center, changes sign everywhere upon inversion; the rule originates from a quantum mechanical selection rule that, during an electron transition, parity should be inverted. However, forbidden transitions are allowed if the centre of symmetry is disrupted, indeed, such forbidden transitions are observed in experiments.

Disruption of the centre of symmetry occurs for various reasons, such as the Jahn-Teller effect and asymmetric vibrations. Complexes are not symmetric all the time. Transitions that occur as a result of an asymmetrical vibration of a molecule are called vibronic transitions, such as those caused by vibronic coupling. Through such asymmetric vibrations, transitions that would theoretically be forbidden, such as a d → d transition, are weakly allowed; the rule is named after Otto Laporte. It is relevant, in particular, to the electronic spectroscopy of transition metals. Octahedral complexes have a center of symmetry so that d → d transitions are forbidden by the Laporte rule and are observed to be quite weak; however tetrahedral complexes have no center of symmetry so that the Laporte rule does not apply, have more intense spectra. Ligand field theory Tanabe-Sugano diagram Selection rule

Cottbus Zoo

The Cottbus Zoo is a zoo in the town Cottbus in region Brandenburg, Germany. The Zoo was founded in 1954, covers 25 hectares; the park includes a lot of trees. The Zoo is breeding over 70 species of waterfowl, its symbol of the Zoo is the Red-breasted goose; the Zoos first director, Erhard Frommhold, developed the park into a real Zoological park, the zoo had status as a Zoo in 1960.1966 the director was followed by Kunz Rauschert, followed by Klaus Jacob.1969 was the year of arrival of the first elephant, Sundali.2002 director Klaus Jacob was retired and replaced by Dr. Jens Kämmerling. List of zoos in Germany The elephant Database: All elephants at Cottbus Zoo in GermanyOfficial website Cottbus Zoo at Zoo-Infos.de