Einsatzgruppen were Schutzstaffel paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings by shooting, during World War II in German-occupied Europe. The Einsatzgruppen were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia, including members of the priesthood and cultural elite of Poland, had an integral role in the implementation of the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" in territories conquered by Nazi Germany. All of the people they killed were civilians, beginning with the intelligentsia and swiftly progressing to Soviet political commissars and Romani people as well as actual or alleged partisans throughout Eastern Europe. Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941; the Einsatzgruppen worked hand-in-hand with the Order Police battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, the Rumbula massacre.
As ordered by Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, the Wehrmacht cooperated with the Einsatzgruppen, providing logistical support for their operations, participated in the mass killings. Historian Raul Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen, related agencies, foreign auxiliary personnel killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million of the 5.5 to 6 million Jews murdered during the Holocaust. After the close of World War II, 24 senior leaders of the Einsatzgruppen were prosecuted in the Einsatzgruppen trial in 1947–48, charged with crimes against humanity and war crimes. Fourteen death sentences and two life sentences were handed out. Four additional Einsatzgruppe leaders were tried and executed by other nations; the Einsatzgruppen were formed under the direction of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich and operated by the Schutzstaffel before and during World War II. The Einsatzgruppen had their origins in the ad hoc Einsatzkommando formed by Heydrich to secure government buildings and documents following the Anschluss in Austria in March 1938.
Part of the Sicherheitspolizei, two units of Einsatzgruppen were stationed in the Sudetenland in October 1938. When military action turned out not to be necessary due to the Munich Agreement, the Einsatzgruppen were assigned to confiscate government papers and police documents, they secured government buildings, questioned senior civil servants, arrested as many as 10,000 Czech communists and German citizens. From September 1939, the Reichssicherheitshauptamt had overall command of the Einsatzgruppen; as part of the drive by the Nazi regime to remove so-called "undesirable" elements from the German population, from September to December 1939 the Einsatzgruppen and others took part in Action T4, a program of systematic murder of persons with physical and mental disabilities and patients of psychiatric hospitals. Aktion T4 took place from 1939 to 1941, but the killings continued until the end of the war; the victims were shot by the Einsatzgruppen and others, but gas chambers were put into use by spring 1940.
In response to Adolf Hitler's plan to invade Poland on 1 September 1939, Heydrich re-formed the Einsatzgruppen to travel in the wake of the German armies. Membership at this point was drawn from the SS, the Sicherheitsdienst, the police, the Gestapo. Heydrich placed SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Best in command, who assigned Hans-Joachim Tesmer to choose personnel for the task forces and their subgroups, called Einsatzkommandos, from among educated people with military experience and a strong ideological commitment to Nazism; some had been members of paramilitary groups such as the Freikorps. Heydrich instructed Wagner in meetings in late July that the Einsatzgruppen should undertake their operations in cooperation with the Ordnungspolizei and military commanders in the area. Army intelligence was in constant contact with Einsatzgruppen to coordinate their activities with other units. Numbering 2,700 men, the Einsatzgruppen's mission was to kill members of the Polish leadership most identified with Polish national identity: the intelligentsia, members of the clergy and members of the nobility.
As stated by Hitler: "... There must be no Polish leaders. SS-Brigadeführer Lothar Beutel, commander of Einsatzgruppe IV testified that Heydrich gave the order for these killings at a series of meetings in mid-August; the Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen — lists of people to be killed — had been drawn up by the SS as early as May 1939, using dossiers collected by the SD from 1936 forward. The Einsatzgruppen performed these murders with the support of the Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, a paramilitary group consisting of ethnic Germans living in Poland. Members of the SS, the Wehrmacht, the Ordnungspolizei shot civilians during the Polish campaign. 65,000 civilians were killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, they killed Jews, Romani people, the mentally ill. Psychiatric patients in Poland were killed by shooting, but by spring 1941 gas vans were used. Seven Einsatzgruppen of battalion s
Misdongarde Betolngar is a retired football player from Chad. His last club was Renaissance, he played for Chad national team. His given name is sometimes spelled his surname Betoligar or Betonligar. In 2011, Betolngar was the highest paid athlete from Chad, making an annual salary of $21,500 with FK Metalac Gornji Milanovac. Betolngar began his career in Chad by Renaissance FC in his hometown N'Djamena where he became the league's top scorer in 2005, he played for Union Douala and was the top scorer of the Cameroon Première Division during the season 2007. He first came on trial, but satisfied the club and signed by FK Crvena Zvezda Belgrade after signing from Cameroonian club Union Douala for 120,000 euros. Misdongarde played his first game against Olympiacos F. C. and he scored his first goal in a competitive match after five appearances. Betolngar wasn't eligible to play in European matches that season. In December 2008, he moved to FK Budućnost Podgorica. After only a half year in Podgorica he signed with FK Metalac Gornji Milanovac.
In season 2009/10 he was part of the club's lineup 27 times. He was 25 times in the starting team, got substituted in 2 times, scored 7 goals. In season 2010/11 he played 28 scored 6 goals. In season 2011/12 Misdongard was part of the club's lineup 22 times, he was 12 times in the starting team, got substituted in 10 times, scoring 3 goals in ligue and 1 in national cup. In the summer of 2012 he moved to FK Mladost Lučani. After short spells with Serbian second level sides FK Borac Čačak and Sloga Kraljevo, Betolngar returned to Chad and joined his former club Renaissance in 2015, where he finished his career after playing the whole 2015 season, being the team's captain. Betolngar was a member of Chad national football team and has played over 20 games during his international career, he was part of the squad. He played in 2010 World Cup qualifiers, playing 3 scoring 1 goal. After 4 years of absence, he played a match for Chad again, against Malawi, on 16 June 2012, his last match for a national team.
Betolngar acquired the name Đorđe. Club: RenaissanceChad Premier League: 2004, 2005, 2006Individual: Chad Premier League top scorer: 2005 Cameroon Première Division top scorer: 2007 List of Chad international footballers Misdongarde Betolngar at National-Football-Teams.com Profile at Virtus International. Misdongarde Betolngar Stats at Utakmica.rs Stats from Montenegro at FSCG.co.me
Michal Krčmář is a Czech biathlete. At the 2018 Winter Olympics he finished second in the 10 km sprint event, he was a part of the silver junior men's relay at Biathlon Junior World Championships 2012. Since 2013–14 season he is competing at Biathlon World Cup, he competed at the Biathlon World Championships 2013 in Nové Město na Moravě. He competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics in the individual contest. At the 2018 Winter Olympics he finished second in the 10 km sprint event, his father Daniel, represented Slovakia in biathlon at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer. All results are sourced from the International Biathlon Union. 1 medal *The mixed relay was added as an event in 2014. 1 medal *During Olympic seasons competitions are only held for those events not included in the Olympic program. **The mixed relay was added as an event in 2005. Michal Krčmář at International Olympic Committee Michal Krčmář at Czech Olympic Committee Michal Krčmář at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Michal Krčmář at IBU Michal Krčmář at FIS
Dick's Picks Volume 34 is the 34th installment of the Dick's Pick's series of Grateful Dead concert recordings. It is a three CD set that contains the complete show recorded on November 5, 1977 at the Community War Memorial in Rochester, New York, it includes additional material recorded on November 2, 1977, at the Seneca College Field House in Toronto, Canada. Each volume of Dick's Picks has its own "caveat emptor" label, advising the listener of the sound quality of the recording; the one for volume 34 reads: "Dick's Picks Volume 34 was mastered directly from the original two-track analog reel-to-reel tapes running at 7.5 IPS. Some minor sonic anomalies remain, due to the unavoidable effects of the ravages of time and the fragile nature of 1/4" analog tape. Additionally, due to a missing reel from November 5, 1977, we have used the PA cassette master tapes from that show to fix the problem." Disc one November 5, 1977, Community War Memorial – first set:"New Minglewood Blues" – 5:52 "Mississippi Half-Step Uptown Toodeloo" – 12:08 "Looks Like Rain" – 8:26 "Dire Wolf" – 4:23 "Mama Tried" > – 2:24 "Big River" – 7:22 "Candyman" – 7:54 "Jack Straw" – 6:28 "Deal" – 6:45Disc two November 5, 1977, Community War Memorial – second set:"Phil Solo" – 2:06 "Take a Step Back" – 1:06 "Eyes of the World" > – 14:42 "Samson and Delilah" – 8:43 "It Must Have Been the Roses" – 7:16November 2, 1977, Seneca College Field House bonus tracks:"Might as Well" – 5:35 "Estimated Prophet" > – 11:08 "St. Stephen" > – 7:23 "Truckin'" > – 8:20 "Around and Around" – 8:46Disc three November 5, 1977, Community War Memorial – second set, continued:"Estimated Prophet" > – 11:13 "He's Gone" > – 12:00 "Rhythm Devils" > – 2:15 "The Other One" > – 12:23 "Black Peter" > – 11:02 "Sugar Magnolia" – 10:54November 5, 1977, Community War Memorial – encore:"One More Saturday Night" – 5:04November 2, 1977, Seneca College Field House bonus tracks:"Lazy Lightnin'" > – 3:31 "Supplication" – 5:19 Jerry Garcia – lead guitar, vocals Donna Jean Godchaux – vocals Keith Godchaux – keyboards Mickey Hart – drums Bill Kreutzmann – drums Phil Lesh – electric bass, vocals Bob Weir – rhythm guitar, vocals Betty Cantor-Jackson – recording David Lemieux – tape archivist Jeffrey Norman – CD mastering Eileen Law – archival research Jim Anderson – photography Robert Minkin – photography, cover art and package design Brian Walski – photography
Bohipora or Buhipora is a village in Kupwara District in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. According to the 2011 census of India, the village had a population of 2,563 people; the Government Degree College in Kupwara has been located at Bohipora since 2000. Bohipora is located about 1 km from kupwara town on kupwara poshpora road; the village is connected through two bridges on either side, Pumpshed bridge called'boud kadal', connects Bohipora with Kupwara town, Gushi Kadal, located over famed kahmil nala, connects Bohipora with village Gushi. After recurrent floods, which made the people to abandon their homes, some steps were taken to improve the safety of the village by creating bundhs and a bridge was allotted, but it is still incomplete. Bund work has been done to minimize damage due to floods as the village is prone to recurrent floods. D. I. E. T kupwara is located in Bohipora on the Bohipora - Poshpora Road. Public park for women and children is under construction which lies on the bank of Nala Tikkertar.
Vaihingen station is located on the Gäu Railway in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It is served by regional services and Stuttgart S-Bahn lines S1, S2 and S3, it is a hub for public transport to the Filder plain. The Royal Württemberg State Railways opened the Gäu Railway from Stuttgart to Freudenstadt together with Vaihingen auf den Fildern station on 2 September 1879; this was about 400 metres southeast of Vaihingen village and consisted of the existing entrance building and a freight terminal building. In 1891, the Filder Railway Company decided to establish a line from Möhringen to Vaihingen station, approved by the government on 14 April 1896; the first train ran to Vaihingen on 23 December 1897. The metre gauge tracks were to the east of the State Railways’ standard gauge tracks. In 1898 a Rollbock facility was built at the station to enable standard gauge freight wagons to be transferred from Vaihingen on the Filder Railway to run to Degerloch and Neuhausen. In 1902, the Filder Railway replaced the metre gauge tracks with dual gauge tracks for freight.
The Degerloch–Vaihingen section was electrified in 1904 and a connection was built from the Wallgraben to Schillerplatz with the transfer of the line to the State Railways. On 22 November 1905, a second track was completed on the line between Stuttgart West station and Böblingen. Additional tracks were built at the station during the next two years. To avoid confusion with Vaihingen station on the Western Railway, Vaihingen station was changed to Vaihingen station; the Württembergische Nebenbahnen AG closed the connection to Vaihingen Ort station on 15 April 1915 so that its copper wire could be used for military purposes during World War I. The line was reopened on 28 October 1929 as the Urban Filder Railway and connected to the Stuttgart tramways. With the incorporation of Vaihingen in the city of Stuttgart on 1 April 1942, the station's name was changed a second time to Stuttgart-Vaihingen. On 15 May 1944, Stuttgart Tramways commenced passenger services from Möhringen to Vaihingen station and trams stopped running to Vaihingen Ort.
The track to Möhringen was still served by freight until it was closed in 1981. From until 2008, the SSB used the line for the transfer of U-Bahn carriages, but it now ends at a buffer; the creation of a loop via Herrenbergerstraße and Emilienstraße resulted in the establishment of new tram stops in 1963. One of these was near the station in Vollmoellerstraße. Deutsche Bundesbahn rebuilt the station between 1980 and 1985 as part of the extension of the S-Bahn. Freight handling was moved to the eastern side and the level crossing of Mitterwurzerstraße was closed; the platforms were raised to conform with S-Bahn standards. At the same time a storage area for S-Bahn trains was created south of the station. A four-track Stuttgart station was opened in the station forecourt. With the commissioning of the Verbindungsbahn on 29 September 1985, S-Bahn operations began and regional trains no longer called at Stuttgart-Vaihingen; the station has three platform tracks and is served by Stuttgart S-Bahn lines S1, S2 and S3.
Track 1 is served by S1 services to Böblingen. S-Bahn services to Stuttgart Flughafen/Messe stop on track 2. Services of all three lines to Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof stop on track 3; the station is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 3 station. The following four Stadtbahn lines end at the Stadtbahn station at Vaihingen station. Andreas M. Räntzsch. Stuttgart und seine Eisenbahnen. Die Entwicklung des Eisenbahnwesens im Raum Stuttgart. Heidenheim: Verlag Uwe Siedentop. ISBN 3-925887-03-2. Hans-Wolfgang Scharf. Die Gäubahn von Stuttgart nach Singens. Freiburg im Breisgau: EK-Verlag. ISBN 3-88255-701-X. G. Bauer. Theurer. Jeanmaire. Straßenbahnen um Stuttgart. Villigen: Verlag Eisenbahn. ISBN 3-85649-047-7. Christine Bührlen-Grabinger. Vaihingen / Rohr / Büsnau und Dürrlewang. Aus der Geschichte eines Stadtbezirks. Stuttgart: Verlag Karl Scharr und WEGRAhistorik-Verlag. ISBN 3-929315-01-7