In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft in an emergency. In most designs, the seat is propelled out of the aircraft by an explosive charge or rocket motor, carrying the pilot with it; the concept of an ejectable escape crew capsule has been tried. Once clear of the aircraft, the ejection seat deploys a parachute. Ejection seats are common on certain types of military aircraft. A bungee-assisted escape from an aircraft took place in 1910. In 1916 Everard Calthrop, an early inventor of parachutes, patented an ejector seat using compressed air; the modern layout for an ejection seat was first proposed by Romanian inventor Anastase Dragomir in the late 1920s. The design featured a parachuted cell, it was tested on 25 August 1929 at the Paris-Orly Airport near Paris and in October 1929 at Băneasa, near Bucharest. Dragomir patented his "catapult-able cockpit" at the French Patent Office; the design was perfected during World War II.
Prior to this, the only means of escape from an incapacitated aircraft was to jump clear, in many cases this was difficult due to injury, the difficulty of egress from a confined space, g forces, the airflow past the aircraft, other factors. The first ejection seats were developed independently during World War II by Heinkel and SAAB. Early models were powered by compressed air and the first aircraft to be fitted with such a system was the Heinkel He 280 prototype jet-engined fighter in 1940. One of the He 280 test pilots, Helmut Schenk, became the first person to escape from a stricken aircraft with an ejection seat on 13 January 1942 after his control surfaces iced up and became inoperative; the fighter had been being used in tests of the Argus As 014 impulse jets for Fieseler Fi 103 missile development. It had its usual HeS 8A turbojets removed, was towed aloft from the Erprobungsstelle Rechlin central test facility of the Luftwaffe in Germany by a pair of Bf 110C tugs in a heavy snow-shower.
At 2,400 m, Schenk found he had no control, jettisoned his towline, ejected. The He 280 was never put into production status; the first operational type built anywhere to provide ejection seats for the crew was the Heinkel He 219 Uhu night fighter in 1942. The Hungarian RMI-8 experimental interceptor fighter had two DB 605 engines in a push-pull configuration in order to achieve 800 km/h top speed. To save pilots a spring-driven catapult seat was developed in a few months time, but the prototype has been destroyed in 1944 during an air raid, shortly before its maiden flight. No one other prototype was finished before the fall of Budapest. In Sweden, a version using compressed air was tested in 1941. A gunpowder ejection seat was developed by Bofors and tested in 1943 for the Saab 21; the first test in the air was on a Saab 17 on 27 February 1944, the first real use occurred by Lt. Bengt Johansson on 29 July 1946 after a mid-air collision between a J 21 and a J 22; as the first operational military jet in late 1944 to feature one, the winner of the German Volksjäger "people's fighter" home defense jet fighter design competition.
In this system, the seat rode on wheels set between two pipes running up the back of the cockpit. When lowered into position, caps at the top of the seat fitted over the pipes to close them. Cartridges identical to shotgun shells, were placed in the bottom of the pipes, facing upward; when fired, the gases would fill the pipes, "popping" the caps off the end, thereby forcing the seat to ride up the pipes on its wheels and out of the aircraft. By the end of the war, the Dornier Do 335 Pfeil — from it having a rear-mounted engine powering a pusher propeller located at the aft end of the fuselage presenting a hazard to a normal "bailout" escape — and a few late-war prototype aircraft were fitted with ejection seats. After World War II, the need for such systems became pressing, as aircraft speeds were getting higher, it was not long before the sound barrier was broken. Manual escape at such speeds would be impossible; the United States Army Air Forces experimented with downward-ejecting systems operated by a spring, but it was the work of James Martin and his company Martin-Baker that proved crucial.
The first live flight test of the Martin-Baker system took place on 24 July 1946, when fitter Bernard Lynch ejected from a Gloster Meteor Mk III jet. Shortly afterward, on 17 August 1946, 1st Sgt. Larry Lambert was the first live U. S. ejectee. Lynch demonstrated the ejection seat at the Daily Express Air Pageant in 1948, ejecting from a Meteor. Martin-Baker ejector seats were fitted to prototype and production aircraft from the late 1940s, the first emergency use of such a seat occurred in 1949 during testing of the jet-powered Armstrong Whitworth A. W.52 experimental flying wing. Early seats used a solid propellant charge to eject the pilot and seat by igniting the charge inside a telescoping tube attached to the seat; as aircraft speeds increased still further, this method proved inadequate to get the pilot sufficiently clear of the airframe. Increasing the amount of propellant risked damaging the occupant's spine, so experiments with rocket propulsion began. In 1958, the Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was the first aircraft to be fitted with a rocket-propelled seat.
Martin-Baker developed a similar design. The greater thrust from this configuration had the advantage of being able to eject the pilot to a safe height if the aircraft was on or near the ground. In the early
Donald Katz is the founder and executive chairman of Audible, Inc. Founded in 1995 and headquartered in Newark, NJ. since 2007, Audible.com serves millions of listeners and offers over 300,000 downloadable audiobooks, audio editions of periodicals, other programs. Audible commercialized the first portable digital audio player in 1997, four years before the introduction of the iPod. In 2004, Mr. Katz was awarded the Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award for New Jersey. Audible was a publicly traded Nasdaq company until it was acquired and became a subsidiary of Amazon.com in early 2008. Audible operates sixteen global outlets, including websites in the UK, France, Italy and most Canada. Named one of NJ.com’s “25 Most Influential People in New Jersey” in 2016, Donald Katz has been recognized as one of America’s Top 25 Disruptive Leaders by Living Cities for his work on behalf of urban transformation in Newark. Mr. Katz was the recipient of a Tribeca Disruptive Innovation Award in 2013; the story of Audible, a Business 2.0 magazine profile contends, is “precisely the kind Katz would have loved to write, complete with its big ideas about how an audacious writer turned businessman hopes to spearhead a literary revolution by reviving the ancient art of oral storytelling using modern technology.
But Katz himself is the story now.”Mr. Katz founded Newark Venture Partners, a venture fund focused on creating a high tech innovation hub in Newark; the fund is housed in Audible’s headquarters and provides capital, company-building services and residence to innovative tech startups. The fund’s inaugural accelerator class launched September, 2016. Mr. Katz assumed the position of founder and executive chairman on January 2, 2020. Bob Carrigan, former CEO of Dun & Broadstreet, stepped into the role of chief executive officer of Audible. Katz was born in Chicago, Illinois on January 30, 1952. Katz graduated from New York University in 1974, where he studied with Ralph Ellison, made Albert Schweitzer Professor of Humanities. Katz credits his idea to work in the field of audiobooks to studying under Ellison, with his emphasis on literature being something more than text and something that should be heard and performed, saying “I studied literature with Ralph as much as I read his work and talked about writing… Audible is testament, in many ways, to what I learned from him.”.
He attended The University of Chicago as well as The London School of Economics, from which he holds an MSc Economics. He lives in New Jersey. Before founding Audible, Katz was an journalist for twenty years, he is the author of Home Fires: An Intimate Portrait of One Middle-Class Family in Postwar America, nominated for a National Book Critics Circle Award. Katz served as a contributing editor for Rolling Stone, Outside, Sports Illustrated, Men's Journal and Worth, he received an Overseas Press Club award for his coverage of foreign affairs, his writing won or was nominated for several National Magazine Awards. A two-volume collection of Katz's award-winning magazine stories, King of the Ferret Leggers and Other True Stories and Valley of the Fallen and Other Places was published in 2001. Home Fires was reissued in 2014 in audiobook and ebook formats, featuring a new introduction by Jonathan Alter. Home Fires: An Intimate Portrait of One Middle-Class Family in Postwar America. 1992, 2014. ISBN 0060190094 The King of the Ferret Leggers and Other True Stories.
2001. ISBN 978-0-679-64702-7 The Valley of the Fallen and Other Places. 2001. ISBN 978-0-679-64722-5 Just Do It: The Nike Spirit in the Corporate World. 1994. ISBN 978-1-55850-479-0 The Big Store: Inside the Crisis and Revolution at Sears. 1987. ISBN 978-0-14-011525-3 Official site
Ajit Singh Rathore "Jimmy" is an Indian Sound Designer from Indian film industry. He has designed sound for films such as Hasee Toh Phasee, Saare Jahan Se Mehnga, Jo Dooba So Paar, Hansaa, Man's woman and other stories, Sonchidi and many more, he has designed sound for popular televisions shows like Fear Factor: Khatron Ke Khiladi Season 5 anchored by Rohit Shetty, Shyam Benegal's Samvidhaan, Zor Ka Jhatka anchored by Shahrukh Khan, an Indian version of AXN's show Wipeout. He has composed title music for Indian version of Fear Factor anchored by Akshay Kumar; the president of India, Mrs. Pratibha Patil awarded National Award for Best Sound Design for film “Kramasha” in 2009. Citation of the jury was: For the innovative Sound Design enhances the mood of the film and draws one into the magical ambience replete with fairy tales, he started playing drums at an early age of 14 and has worked as a child actor in the educational film projects of government of India commissioned to Indian Space Development Organization.
His introduction to filmmaking and interest in music lead him to studying Audiography at Film and Television Institute of India in Pune, regulated by the Government of India. At FTII he met Amit Dutta and was the Sound Designer for his films like Kramasha, Man's woman and Other Stories and Sonchidi, which they co-produced together. In 2009, Ajit won a National Award for Best Sound Design for film “Kramasha” and in the same year won the Critics Award for Best Film for Man's Woman and Other Stories at Venice Film Festival in 2009, his films have been a regular official entry in most of the prestigious film festival around the world. He started his career as a Sound Recordist with Vidhu Vinod Chopra’s film Eklavya as Foley FX supervisor, assisting Biswadeep Chatterjee. Did Sound Recording for Sushil Rajpal’s “Antardwand”, the film that got the National Award in 2009 as “The Best Film on Social Issue”. Joined Whistling Woods International, a film school started by renowned filmmaker Subhash Ghai, in department of Sound Design and Recording.
He worked as an associate Sound Recordist to Sound Designer Manoj Sikka and worked on films like Chandni Chowk to China, Delhi Safari, Kaalo. He works from his studio in Versova, Andheri West, India that houses multiple sound post production, music composing and programming set ups under one roof, he has done numerous documentaries like Cinema City Mumbai, multiple films on tribes of Maharashtra and Gujarat, 6 hour long docu-drama on spiritual guru Babuji Maharaj, Ad Films for Dungarpur Films, one of the leading production houses in making Ad Films. Between 2009-2013, he was the drummer of JFK band, which he co-founded with his Music composer friend Manish J. Tipu, they played Indian Folk music from different parts of India and in different languages. He is part of a new band with Rakshit Thantry on Bass and Electronics and Brince Bora on Keyboard and Computers, he has produced content as the director of the series of gigs called “Masters of Guitar”, which features collaboration between India's best Guitar players and renowned Guitar players from outside India.
The first edition of "Masters of Guitar" featured Bernie Marsden. He has directed a corporate film for “Mahatma Gandhi College and Hospital” in Jaipur in the year 2008, he has shot live gigs for series “Masters of Guitar” Edition-1 featuring Sushmit Sen and Bernie Marsden. A documentary shot in London during the London 2012 Olympics; the president of India, Mrs. Pratibha Patil awarded National Award for “Best Sound Design” for Film “KRAMASHA” in the year 2009