Vidya Balan is an Indian actress. Known for pioneering a change in the concept of a Hindi film heroine with her portrayals of strong-willed women, she is the recipient of several awards, including a National Film Award, six Filmfare Awards, six Screen Awards, she was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2014. Vidya aspired to a career in film from a young age and had her first acting role in the 1995 sitcom Hum Paanch, she pursued a master's degree in sociology from the University of Mumbai and made several unsuccessful attempts to start a career in film. She subsequently featured in television commercials and music videos. In 2003 she made her feature film debut as the protagonist of the independent Bengali drama Bhalo Theko. In 2005 Vidya garnered praise for her first Hindi film, the drama Parineeta, followed it with a leading role in the top-grossing comedy film Lage Raho Munna Bhai; this breakthrough was followed by roles in the romantic comedies Heyy Babyy and Kismat Konnection which had negative reviews.
Vidya went on to establish herself as a leading actress of Hindi cinema by playing five consecutive roles to wide critical acclaim in the 2009 drama Paa, the 2010 black comedy Ishqiya, the 2011 semi-biographical thriller No One Killed Jessica, the 2011 biopic The Dirty Picture, the 2012 thriller Kahaani. She followed this with a series of films that performed poorly at the box office, although her performance in Kahaani 2: Durga Rani Singh was praised; this changed in 2017. In addition to acting in films, Vidya promotes humanitarian causes and supports the empowerment of women, she drew criticism for her fluctuating weight and "questionable" dress sense, but was credited in the media for "not morphing herself to fit into any conventional slot". She became a member of the Indian Central Board of Film Certification in 2017. Vidya is married to the film producer Siddharth Roy Kapur. Vidya Balan was born on 1 January 1979 to parents of Tamilian descent, her father, P. R. Balan, is the executive vice-president of Digicable and her mother, Saraswathy Balan, is a homemaker.
According to Vidya, they speak a mix of Malayalam at home. Her elder sister, Priya Balan, works in advertising; the actress Priyamani is her second cousin. Vidya grew up in the suburban neighbourhood of Chembur and attended St. Anthony Girls' High School. From a young age, she aspired to a career in film and was inspired by the work of actors Shabana Azmi and Madhuri Dixit. At the age of 16, she starred in the first season of Ekta Kapoor's sitcom Hum Paanch as Radhika, a bespectacled teenager. After the series ended, Vidya refused director Anurag Basu's offer to star in a television soap opera, as she wanted to concentrate on a film career, her parents encouraged her to complete her education first. She attended St. Xavier's College to pursue a bachelor's degree in sociology and earned a master's degree from the University of Mumbai. While pursuing her master's degree, Vidya was cast as the female lead in the Malayalam film Chakram, opposite Mohanlal and was subsequently signed on for 12 other Malayalam language films.
However, due to production difficulties, Chakram was shelved. The postponement of a film starring Mohanlal was an unheard occurrence in Malayalam cinema and producers blamed Vidya for bringing "bad luck" to the project, she shifted focus to Tamil cinema. In 2001, she was cast as the female lead in N. Linguswamy's Run. However, after completing the first shooting schedule, she was unceremoniously dropped and replaced by Meera Jasmine, she was signed up under false pretences for a sex comedy, a genre she was uncomfortable with, decided to leave the project. Thereafter, she signed on for a third Tamil film, but was replaced by Trisha as the director was dissatisfied with her work. Kalari Vikraman, another Malayalam film that she completed work for in 2003, failed to get a theatrical release. After failing to start a film career, Vidya appeared in 60 television commercials and in music videos for Euphoria and Shubha Mudgal. In 2003, Vidya was signed on by Goutam Halder for his independent Bengali drama Bhalo Theko: her first film release.
Her portrayal of Anandi, a young woman reminiscing about her past, won her an Anandalok Purashkar for Best Actress. Vidya made her Hindi film debut in 2005 with Pradeep Sarkar's musical drama Parineeta. Before being cast, she had to undergo extensive auditions for six months; the film, an adaptation of Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay's novel of the same name, narrated the love story of an idealist Lalita and a musician Shekhar, the son of a capitalist businessman. Her performance in the film was praised by critics. Parineeta fetched her a Best Female Debut award and a nomination for Best Actress at the annual Filmfare Awards ceremony; the following year, Vidya appeared opposite Sanjay Dutt in Rajkumar Hirani's comedy film Lage Raho Munna Bhai. She portrayed the role of Jhanvi, a radio jockey and the love interest of the protagonist Munna Bhai. To prepare for her role, she watched them at work, her performance was critically well received, the film emerged as a major financial success with earnings of ₹1.19 billion.
In 2007 Vidya featured in a supporting role in Mani Ratnam's semi-
Udaipur known as the "City of Lakes", is a city governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Udaipur Metropolitan Region. It is the historic capital of the kingdom of Mewar in the former Rajputana Agency, it was founded in 1558 by Maharana Udai Singh II of the Sisodia clan of Rajput, when he shifted his capital from the city of Chittorgarh to Udaipur after Chittorgarh was besieged by Akbar. It remained as the capital city till 1818 when it became a British princely state, thereafter the Mewar province became a part of Rajasthan when India gained independence in 1947. Udaipur is located in the southernmost part near the Gujarat border, it is surrounded by Aravali Range. It is around 660 km from Delhi and 800 km from Mumbai, placed in the middle of two major Indian metro cities. Besides, connectivity with Gujarat ports provide Udaipur a strategic geographical advantage. Udaipur is well connected with nearby cities and states by means of road and air transportation facilities, including Maharana Pratap Airport at dabok.
Common languages spoken include Hindi and Rajasthani. Dubbed "the most romantic spot on the continent of India" by British administrator James Tod, Udaipur is a tourist destination and is known for its history, scenic locations and the Rajput-era palaces, it is popularly known as the "City of Lakes" because of its sophisticated lake system. It has seven lakes surrounding the city. Five of the major lakes, namely Fateh Sagar Lake, Lake Pichola, Swaroop Sagar Lake and Doodh Talai Lake have been included under the restoration project of the National Lake Conservation Plan of the Government of India. Besides lakes, Udaipur is known for its historic forts and palaces, galleries, natural locations and gardens, architectural temples, as well as traditional fairs and structures; the Udaipur economy is driven by tourism, though minerals, marble processing, chemical manufacturing and development, electronic manufacturing and the handicraft industry are contributors. Udaipur hosts several state and regional public offices, including offices of Director of Mines and Geology, Commissioner of Excise, Commissioner of Tribal Area Development, Hindustan Zinc Limited, Rajasthan State Mines and Mineral Corporation Limited.
Besides, Udaipur is rising as educational hub as well, with 5 Universities, 14 colleges and more than 160 high schools. Udaipur is home to IIM Udaipur, the fifth best management institution in the country according to NIRF ranking released by MHRD; the Ahar River bank was inhabited by men in about 2000 B. C. There are footprints of two different civilizations, which provides claims about earliest inhabitants of the Ahar culture: the first ones are the Bhil/Bheels, the indigenous tribes originated at this place, are still residing in the area in large numbers; the second footprints were of Rajputs, who once entered the enclosed valley, continued to live in this place for centuries. Udaipur was founded in 1559, by Maharana Udai Singh II in the fertile circular Girwa Valley to the southwest of Nagda, on the Banas River; the city was established as the new capital of the Mewar kingdom. This area had a thriving trading town, which had served as capital of Mewar in the 10th through 12th centuries; the Girwa region was thus well known to Chittaud rulers who moved to it whenever the vulnerable tableland Chittaurgarh was threatened with enemy attacks.
Maharana Udai Singh II, in the wake of 16th century emergence of artillery warfare, decided during his exile at Kumbhalgarh to move his capital to a more secure location. Ayad was flood-prone, hence he chose the ridge east of Pichola Lake to start his new capital city, where he came upon a hermit while hunting in the foothills of the Aravalli Range; the hermit blessed the king and guided him to build a palace on the spot, assuring him it would be well protected. Udai Singh II established a residence on the site. In November 1567, the Mughal emperor Akbar laid siege to the venerated fort of Chittor. To protect Udaipur from External attacks, Maharana Udai Singh built a six kilometre long city wall, with seven gates, namely Surajpole, Udiapole, Ambapole, Brahmpole and so on; the area within these walls and gates is still known as the walled city. As the Mughal empire weakened, the Sisodia rulers, reasserted their independence and recaptured most of Mewar except for Chittor. Udaipur remained the capital of the state, which became a princely state of British India in 1818.
Being a mountainous region and unsuitable for armoured Mughal horses, Udaipur remained safe from Mughal influence despite much pressure. At present, Maharana Mahendra Singh Mewar is the 76th custodian of the Mewar dynasty. Jharmar Kotra Stromatolite Fossil Park at Jharmar Kotra southweast of Udiapur has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism. Gossan in Rajpura-Dariba Mineralised belt nearby, consisting of gossan, has been declared the National Geological Monuments of India by the Geological Survey of India, for their protection, maintenance and enhancement of geotourism. Udaipur is located at 24.525049°N 73.677116°E / 24.525049. The city lies at an altitude of 598.00 m above sea level. It is located in the southern region near the Gujarat border; the city lies 403 km southwest of Jaipur and 250 km northeast from Ahmedabad. Udaipur with its lakes lies on the south slope of the Aravalli Range in Rajasthan.
The Northern part of the
Parineeta (2005 film)
Parineeta is a 2005 Indian musical romantic drama film adaptation of the 1914 Bengali novella, Parineeta by Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Directed by debutant Pradeep Sarkar, it was based upon a screenplay by the film's producer, Vidhu Vinod Chopra; the film featured Saif Ali Khan and Sanjay Dutt in the lead roles. Raima Sen plays the supporting role of Lalita's chirpy cousin. Sabyasachi Chakrabarty plays the pivotal role of Shekhar's father. Diya Mirza, with a cameo appearance as Shekhar's fiancé and Rekha, with a cameo performance of a night club singer, are other notable performances. Parineeta revolves around the lead characters and Shekhar. Since childhood and Lalita have been friends and this friendship blossoms into love. A series of misunderstandings surface and they are separated with the conniving schemes of Shekhar's father; the plot deepens with the arrival of Girish. Shekhar's love defies his father's greed and he seeks Lalita; the film has several notable allusions to the Indian cinema.
Despite the pre-release inhibitions, it received critical acclaim. It won the Filmfare Awards apart from several prominent awards; the director went on to win the National Award for Best Debut Film. Parineeta was showcased at prominent international film festivals; the story takes place in Kolkata. As the credits roll, scenes from erstwhile Calcutta are displayed along with the narrator's introduction of the era; the narration focuses on the night of the marriage of Shekhar and Gayatri Tantiya, a rich industrialist's daughter. The audience is introduced to Naveen Roy as Shekhar's father while we see Shekhar grooming himself for the occasion. While he is doing so, images of Lalita calling him by his name flash through his mind. Downstairs, musical celebrations begin as Shekhar meets Vasundhara, a widow from his neighbourhood, thankful to her son-in-law, for supporting their family after the death of her husband, Gurcharan. Lalita, present there, playfully confronts Shekhar as to why he is being indifferent to her.
Shekhar admonishes her for speaking so in spite of being married. An angry Shekhar comes back home to play a favourite tune from the past on his piano; the flashback shows a young Shekhar playing Rabindranath Tagore’s tune on his piano while young Lalita and Koel are around. Lalita, with her parents having died in a car accident, lives with Gurcharan’s family. Koel is her cousin; as this scene flashes across Shekhar’s mind, he sings a song full of sadness and loss. As time flies, they grow up to become close friends; the rebellious and musically inclined Shekhar spends his days playing the music of Rabindranath Tagore or Elvis Presley and composing his own songs with Lalita rather than becoming part of his shrewd father's business. Part of this rebellion involves resistance to meeting Gayatri Tantiya, the beautiful but devious daughter of a wealthy industrialist, whom his father would like Shekhar to marry. Meanwhile, Girish, a steel tycoon from London, makes a dramatic entry into Charu’s house.
Girish seems smitten by Lalita. Shekhar is visibly jealous of Lalita’s close friendship with Girish. One day, a shocked Lalita, employed at the Roy’s office, remembers a hotel project from Gurcharan’s ancestral haveli. On an earlier occasion, Gurcharan had borrowed money from Naveen Roy after putting his haveli on mortgage, she understands that if the money is not repaid in a few months, Naveen Roy would take over the property. She thinks of asking Shekhar for monetary help. Unforeseen circumstances prevent this, Girish, upon realising this, alleviates their problem by making Gurcharan his business partner. Gurcharan repays the debt and the turn of events prompts Shekhar to think why Lalita chose to ask Girish for money instead of him. On one auspicious night and Lalita exchange garlands and consummate their "marriage" unbeknownst to anyone else. While Shekhar is off to Darjeeling on a business trip, Naveen Roy violently thunders at Lalita about the loss of his hotel project and humiliating her.
Roy gets Gurcharan's house symbolising the end of their association. Gurcharan, unable to digest this, suffers a heart attack. Upon Shekhar's return, Roy informs him of the ill-health of his mother and Gurcharan viciously adds a note of Lalita and Girish's marriage. Shekhar is disgusted to hear of the marriage and in his anger he scowls at Lalita, humiliating her like his father. Meanwhile, Girish takes them to London for the heart treatment. Misunderstandings follow and upon the family's return from London, Shekhar assumes that Girish and Lalita are married and agrees to marry Gayatri; the film returns to the night of Shekhar's marriage when Girish hands him the ownership papers of Gurcharan's haveli. He shocks Shekhar by telling him that he got married to Koel because Lalita denied his marriage proposal; as a conclusion, Shekhar confronts his father and symbolically breaks down the wall separating the two families. He brings Lalita to his home as his bride much to the delight of his mother. Vidya Balan as Lalita.
A woman of dignity with unflinching love for Shekhar. A lovely singer, who resigned to the circumstances, upholding her respect. Saif Ali Khan as Shekhar Roy. Shows a balance of love for Lalita and jealousy towards Girish, he is a passionate musician. Towards the end has utter hatred for himself for transforming into such a bitter person. Sanjay Dutt as Girish. Simple and straightforward character who plays Lalita's moral support with warmth and compassion
Shantanu Moitra is an Indian background music director who has composed songs for the Hindi film industry, is most known for his scores in the films Parineeta, Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi, Lage Raho Munnabhai and 3 Idiots, private albums, Mann ke Manjeere and Ab ke Saawan sung by Shubha Mudgal. In 2014, he received the National Film Award for Best Music Direction for Na Bangaaru Talli. Shantanu was born in Lucknow, he was young when he moved to Delhi with his family, where he lived in Patel Nagar in West Delhi, studied at Springdales School, Pusa Road. There, he was the leader and singer of a band, in 1982, the band hosted the school's first rock show. "What was better was receiving an award in school for my contribution to music at a time when my school, Springdales in Delhi, didn't give awards for music. When I look back now, I think the award instilled huge confidence in me," he said, they received musical training from urban-folk singer, Sushmit Bose, a Springdales alumnus, who would drop in and teach them.
He moved to Chittaranjan Park in South Delhi. He studied at Deshbandhu College, Delhi University and has a degree in Economics. Moitra started his career as a client servicing executive at an ad agency, while music remained a hobby, he started composing music for advertising jingles accidentally, when he was asked to compose a jingle at the last minute by Pradeep Sarkar the Creative Head of the agency. The jingle was "Bole mere lips. I love Uncle Chipps" for the chips brand Uncle Chipps, he composed several jingles for Pradeep Sarkar, several advertising brands. This led to composing music for Indipop albums that were hits including Ab ke Saawan, Mann ke Manjeere: an album of women's dreams for Breakthrough, Sapna Dekha Hai Maine for Shubha Mudgal. Moitra moved to Mumbai in 2002, when he started working for Sudhir Mishra's Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi, his first signed film, he soon formed a team with lyricist Swanand Kirkire, starting with the song "Bawara Mann..". Before Parineeta was made, he had created a song called Raath Hamari To, sung by Chitra, which Vidhu Vinod Chopra the producer of Parineeta heard, subsequently on his recommendation, he went on do his first Bollywood project- Parineeta, directed by Pradeep Sarkar.
Moitra gained recognition with his music in Parineeta. His music was critically acclaimed and he received a nomination for the Filmfare Best Music Director Award; that same year he won the Filmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent. In 2009, he composed the score for Antaheen, he was a judge for two seasons of Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Bengal, a regional spinoff of the show Sa Re Ga Ma Pa. He wrote the book Ferari Mon - Memories by Santanu Moitra in Bengali, published by Sudhangshu Sekhar Dey, Dey's Publishing. National Film AwardsNational Film Award for Best Music Direction -Na Bangaaru Talli Filmfare AwardsFilmfare RD Burman Award for New Music Talent – ParineetaMirchi Music AwardsBackground Score of the Year - Madras Cafe Shantanu Moitra, official website Shantanu Moitra on IMDb Shantanu Moitra news article
Raima Sen is an Indian actress, known for her work in Bengali and Hindi Film industry. Raima Sen was born on 11 November 1979 in Mumbai, Maharashtra to Moon Moon Sen and Bharat Dev Barma and the granddaughter of actress Suchitra Sen, once regarded as the "Mahanayika" of Bengali Cinema, her sister Riya Sen is in the Bollywood industry. Their father Bharat Dev Varma is a member of the royal family of Tripura, her paternal grandmother, Ila Devi, was the princess of Cooch Behar, whose younger sister Gayatri Devi was the Maharani of Jaipur. Her paternal great-grandmother Indira was the only daughter of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda. Raima's maternal great-grandfather Adinath Sen was a prominent Kolkata businessman, whose son Dinanath Sen – a relative of former Union Law Minister Ashoke Kumar Sen- was the Diwan or a Minister of the Maharaja of Tripura; the sisters are credited on-screen under their mother's maiden name, although their official papers carry the surname Dev Varma. Sen made her debut in the film Godmother, a critically acclaimed success, but her minor role may have been overlooked in favour of the protagonist, played by Shabana Azmi.
She starred in the film Daman playing Raveena Tandon's daughter, where her small performance was appreciated. Her breakthrough role came. After a few more average movies she had a critically acclaimed hit in 2005 with Parineeta, where she played the playmate of the film's heroine, played by the debutante Vidya Balan. Since she has had two more hits with the action thriller Dus and the Bengali film Antar Mahal. In 2006, she appeared in the film The Bong Connection. In 2007, she worked in the thriller Manorama Six Feet Under with Abhay Deol. In 2011, she starred opposite Parambrata Chatterjee. 2014 saw Sen as the leading lady in the critically acclaimed Hrid Majharey, the first Bengali movie based on the works of William Shakespeare, presented as a tribute on the 450th year of birth of the Bard. She co-stars with Abir Chatterjee and Indrasish Roy in this dark love-story by debutant filmmaker Ranjan Ghosh; the film has earned a rare recommendation from the prestigious Film London in its list of world cinema based on the plays of Shakespeare.
The film and its screenplay have been included in the prestigious UGC Literature Archive. It is famous for being the only other Bengali film after Sabuj Dweeper Raja to be shot in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In 2016, she was seen in Bollywood Diaries, a film written and directed by K. D. Satyam; the film stars Ashish Vidyarthi and Salim Diwan. Sen is said to resemble her grandmother much more than either her sister. In an interview, she says while she enjoys Mumbai's faster pace of life, its gyms and its nightclubs, she misses her family in Kolkata, her dog Cuddles, Kolkata's street food, notably Jhal Muri and Aloo chaat. ||" Hello " || web series|| Bengali ||2017 2006: BFJA-Most Promising Actress Award for Nishi Japan Raima Sen at AllMovie Raima Sen on IMDb Raima Sen biography at Koimoi
Dharma is a key concept with multiple meanings in Indian religions like Hinduism, Jainism and others. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism, dharma signifies behaviors that are considered to be in accord with Ṛta, the order that makes life and universe possible, includes duties, laws, virtues and "right way of living". In Buddhism, dharma means "cosmic law and order", is applied to the teachings of Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy, dhamma/dharma is the term for "phenomena". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings. For Sikhs, the word dharm means the path of proper religious practice; the word dharma was in use in the historical Vedic religion, its meaning and conceptual scope has evolved over several millennia. The ancient Tamil moral text of Tirukkural is based on aṟam, the Tamil term for dharma; the antonym of dharma is adharma. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma or the Prakrit Dhaṃma are a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, keep", takes the meaning of "what is established or firm", hence "law".
It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm". Figuratively, it means "sustainer" and "supporter", it is semantically similar to the Greek Themis. In Classical Sanskrit, the noun becomes thematic: dharma-; the word dharma derives from Proto-Indo-European root *dʰer-, which in Sanskrit is reflected as class-1 root dhṛ. Etymologically it is related to Avestan dar-, Latin firmus, Lithuanian derė́ti, Lithuanian dermė and darna and Old Church Slavonic drъžati. Classical Sanskrit word dharmas would formally match with Latin o-stem firmus from Proto-Indo-European dʰer-mo-s "holding", were it not for its historical development from earlier Rigvedic n-stem. In Classical Sanskrit, in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Atharvaveda, the stem is thematic: dhárma-. In Prakrit and Pāli, it is rendered dhamma.
In some contemporary Indian languages and dialects it alternatively occurs as dharm. Ancient translationsWhen the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka wanted in the 3rd century BCE to translate the word "Dharma" into Greek and Aramaic, he used the Greek word Eusebeia in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription and the Kandahar Greek Edicts, the Aramaic word Qsyt in the Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription. Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian religion, it has multiple meanings in Hinduism and Jainism. It is difficult to provide a single concise definition for dharma, as the word has a long and varied history and straddles a complex set of meanings and interpretations. There is no equivalent single-word synonym for dharma in western languages. There have been numerous, conflicting attempts to translate ancient Sanskrit literature with the word dharma into German and French; the concept, claims Paul Horsch, has caused exceptional difficulties for modern commentators and translators. For example, while Grassmann's translation of Rig-veda identifies seven different meanings of dharma, Karl Friedrich Geldner in his translation of the Rig-veda employs 20 different translations for dharma, including meanings such as "law", "order", "duty", "custom", "quality", "model", among others.
However, the word dharma has become a accepted loanword in English, is included in all modern unabridged English dictionaries. The root of the word dharma is "dhri", which means "to support, hold, or bear", it is the thing that regulates the course of change by not participating in change, but that principle which remains constant. Monier-Williams, the cited resource for definitions and explanation of Sanskrit words and concepts of Hinduism, offers numerous definitions of the word dharma, such as that, established or firm, steadfast decree, law, custom, right, virtue, ethics, religious merit, good works, character, property. Yet, each of these definitions is incomplete, while the combination of these translations does not convey the total sense of the word. In common parlance, dharma means "right way of living" and "path of rightness"; the meaning of the word dharma depends on the context, its meaning has evolved as ideas of Hinduism have developed through history. In the earliest texts and ancient myths of Hinduism, dharma meant cosmic law, the rules that created the universe from chaos, as well as rituals.
In certain contexts, dharma designates human behaviours considered necessary for order of things in the universe, principles that prevent chaos and action necessary to all life in nature, family as well as at the individual level. Dharma encompasses ideas such as duty, character, religion and all behaviour considered appropriate, correct or morally upright; the antonym of dharma is adharma, meaning that, "not dharma"
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for