The BNSF Railway Company is the largest freight railroad network in North America. One of eight North American Class I railroads, BNSF has 44,000 employees, 32,500 miles of track in 28 states, more than 8,000 locomotives, it has three transcontinental routes that provide rail connections between the western and eastern United States. BNSF trains traveled over 169 million miles in 2010, more than any other North American railroad; the BNSF and Union Pacific have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the Western U. S. and share trackage rights over thousands of miles of track. The BNSF Railway Company is the principal operating subsidiary of parent company Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC. Headquartered in Fort Worth, the railroad's parent company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway, Inc. According to corporate press releases, the BNSF Railway is among the top transporters of intermodal freight in North America, it hauls bulk cargo, including enough coal to generate around ten per cent of the electricity produced in the United States.
The creation of BNSF started with the formation of a holding company on September 22, 1995. This new holding company purchased the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Burlington Northern Railroad, formally merged the railways into the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway on December 31, 1996. On January 24, 2005, the railroad's name was changed to BNSF Railway Company using the initials of its original name. On November 3, 2009, Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway announced it would acquire the remaining 77.4 percent of BNSF it did not own for $100 per share in cash and stock — a deal valued at $44 billion. The company is acquiring $10 billion in debt. On February 12, 2010, shareholders of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation voted in favor of the acquisition. BNSF's history dates back to 1849, when the Aurora Branch Railroad in Illinois and the Pacific Railroad of Missouri were formed; the Aurora Branch grew into the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, a major component of successor Burlington Northern.
A portion of the Pacific Railroad became the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway was chartered in 1859. It built one of the first transcontinental railroads in North America, linking Chicago and Southern California; the Interstate Commerce Commission denied a proposed merger with the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in the 1980s. The Burlington Northern Railroad was created in 1970 through the consolidation of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, the Great Northern Railway, the Northern Pacific Railway and the Spokane and Seattle Railway, it absorbed the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway in 1980, its main lines included Chicago-Seattle with branches to Texas and Montgomery and access to the low-sulfur coal of Wyoming's Powder River Basin. On June 30, 1994, BN and ATSF announced plans to merge. S. Class I railroads; the long-rumored announcement was delayed by a disagreement over the disposition of Santa Fe Pacific Gold Corporation, a gold mining subsidiary that ATSF agreed to sell to stockholders.
This announcement began the next wave of mergers, as the "Super Seven" were merged down to four in the next five years. The Illinois Central Railroad and Kansas City Southern Railway, two of the five "small" Class Is, announced on July 19 that the former would buy the latter, but this plan was called off on October 25; the Union Pacific Railroad, another major Western system, started a bidding war with BN for control of the SF on October 5. The UP gave up on January 1995, paving the way for the BN-ATSF merger. Subsequently, the UP acquired the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1996, Eastern systems CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern Railway split Conrail in 1999. On February 7, 1995, BN and ATSF heads Gerald Grinstein and Robert D. Krebs both announced shareholders had approved the plan, which would save overhead costs and combine BN's coal and ATSF's intermodal strengths. Although the two systems complemented each other with little overlap, in contrast to the Santa Fe-Southern Pacific merger, which failed because it would have eliminated competition in many areas of the Southwest, BN and ATSF came to agreements with most other Class Is to keep them from opposing the merger.
UP was satisfied with a single segment of trackage rights from Abilene, Kansas to Superior, which BN and ATSF had both served. KCS gained haulage rights to several Midwest locations, including Omaha, East St. Louis, Memphis, in exchange for BNSF getting similar access to New Orleans. SP requesting far-reaching trackage rights throughout the West, soon agreed on a reduced plan, whereby SP acquired trackage rights on ATSF for intermodal and automotive traffic to Chicago, other trackage rights on ATSF in Kansas, south to Texas, between Colorado and Texas. In exchange, SP assigned BNSF trackage rights over the former Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad between El Paso and Topeka and haulage rights to the Mexican border at Eagle Pass, Texas. Regional Toledo and Western Railway obtained trackage rights over BN from Peoria to Galesburg, Illinois, a BN hub where it could interchange with SP; the Interstate Commerce Commission approved the BNSF merger on July 20, 1995, less than a month before UP announced on August
Needles is a city in San Bernardino County, United States. It lies on the western banks of the Colorado River in the Mohave Valley subregion of the Mojave Desert, near the borders of Arizona and Nevada and 110 miles from the Las Vegas Strip, it is the easternmost city of the San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area. Needles is geographically isolated from other cities in the county. Barstow, the nearest city within the county, is separated from Needles by over 140 miles of desert and 2 mountain ranges; the city is accessible via Interstate 40 and U. S. Route 95; the population was 4,844 at the 2010 census, up from 4,830 at the 2000 census. Needles was named after "The Needles", a group of pinnacles in the Mohave Mountains on the Arizona side of the river to the south of the city; the large Mohave Native American community shares the nearby Fort Mojave Indian Reservation and the town. Needles is a gateway to the Mojave National Preserve; the Mohave, one of the traditional Colorado River Indian Tribes, are Native Americans that have been living in the Mojave Valley area for thousands of years prior to the European exploration of the area.
In the Mohave language, they call themselves the ʼAha Makhav. Their name comes from two words: ʼaha, meaning "river", makhav, meaning "along" or "beside", to them it means "people who live along the river"; these people traded with the tribes of coastal Southern California following the Mohave Trail. The Franciscan missionary Francisco Garcés, was the first European to visit the Mohave people and travel on the trail and report on the route in 1776. From 1829 to 1848, part of this trail became a part of the route of the Old Spanish Trail between New Mexico and Southern California; the historic Mojave Road, now goes through the Mojave National Preserve following the route of the Mohave Trail. Along it, in 1859, Fort Mohave was built and the road established to protect new pioneer immigrants to California from New Mexico and other travelers from the Mohave during the Mohave War; the city was founded in May 1883 as a result of the construction of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which crossed the Colorado River at Eastbridge, Arizona three miles southeast of modern downtown Needles.
The name was derived from the Needles, pointed mountain peaks at the south end of the valley with wind-blown holes in them, visible only by boat from the Colorado River. This point on the Colorado River was a poor site for such a bridge, lacking firm banks and a solid bottom. Additionally, the bridge was not of the best quality, which led to criticism that it was a "flimsy looking structure", was an obstruction to navigation, since it lacked a draw to allow boat traffic; the flooding and meandering of the Colorado River destroyed the bridge in 1884, 1886 and 1888. The railroad surrendered to nature and built the Red Rock Bridge, a high cantilever bridge, at a much narrower point with solid rock footings ten miles downstream near modern Topock; the bridge was completed in May 1890. A tent town for railroad construction crews, the railroad company built a hotel, car sheds, shops and a roundhouse. Within a month the town boasted a Chinese wash-house, a newsstand, a restaurant, a couple of general stores, nine or ten saloons.
The town became the largest port on the river above Arizona. The railway and the Fred Harvey Company built the elegant Neoclassical and Beaux-Arts style El Garces Hotel and Santa Fe Station in 1908, considered the "crown jewel" of the entire Fred Harvey chain; the landmark building is being restored. Needles was a major stop on the historic U. S. Route 66 highway from the 1920s through the 1960s. For immigrants from the Midwest Dust Bowl in the 1930s, it was the first town that marked their arrival in California; the city is lined with other shops from that era. The "Carty's Camp", which appears in The Grapes of Wrath as the Joad family enters California from Arizona, is now a ghost tourist court, its remains located behind the 1940s-era 66 Motel. In 1949, the United States Bureau of Reclamation began an extensive project to dredge a new channel for the Colorado River that would straighten out a river bend, causing serious silt problems since the Hoover Dam was completed. Needles is a tradition going back many decades.
The city is the eastern gateway to a scenic desert area. The city has a desert climate with a subtropical temperature range, with a mean annual temperature of 74.2 °F.. Needles, like Death Valley to the northwest, is known for extreme heat during the summer; the Needles weather station is reported by the United States government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as the site of the highest daily temperature recorded in the U. S. during the desert summers. Needles sets national or world daily temperature records, along with other related records associated with extreme desert heat. For instance, on July 22, 2006, Needles experienced a record high low temperature of 100 °F at 6:00 AM with a high temperature exceeding 120 °F, making it one of the few locations on Earth that have recorded a triple-digit overnight low temperature. On August 13, 2012, Needles experienced a thunderstorm that deposited rain at a temperature of 115 °F starting at 3:56 PM, setting a new record for the hottest rain in world history.
The air temperature was 118 °F. Since the humidity was only 11%, the rain evaporated so that "only a trace of precipitation was recorded in the rain gauge". Weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera reported that this was the lowest
National Register of Historic Places architectural style categories
In the United States, the National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of architecture. Listed properties are given one or more of 40 standard architectural style classifications that appear in the National Register Information System database. Other properties are given a custom architectural description with "vernacular" or other qualifiers, others have no style classification. Many National Register-listed properties do not fit into the several categories listed here, or they fit into more specialized subcategories; the complete list of the 40 architectural style codes in the National Register Information System—NRIS follows: Obs — ARSTYLCD — ARSTYL 1 — 01 NO STYLE LISTED 2 — 10 COLONIAL 3 — 11 GEORGIAN 4 — 20 EARLY REPUBLIC 5 — 21 FEDERAL 6 — 30 MID 19TH CENTURY REVIVAL 7 — 31 GREEK REVIVAL 8 — 32 GOTHIC REVIVAL 9 — 33 ITALIAN VILLA 10 — 34 EXOTIC REVIVAL 11 — 40 LATE VICTORIAN 12 — 41 GOTHIC 13 — 42 ITALIANATE 14 — 43 SECOND EMPIRE 15 — 44 STICK/EASTLAKE 16 — 45 QUEEN ANNE 17 — 46 SHINGLE STYLE 18 — 47 ROMANESQUE 19 — 48 RENAISSANCE 20 — 49 OCTAGON MODE 21 — 50 LATE 19TH AND 20TH CENTURY REVIVALS 22 — 51 COLONIAL REVIVAL 23 — 52 CLASSICAL REVIVAL 24 — 53 TUDOR REVIVAL 25 — 54 LATE GOTHIC REVIVAL 26 — 55 MISSION/SPANISH REVIVAL 27 — 56 BEAUX ARTS 28 — 57 PUEBLO 29 — 60 LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY AMERICAN MOVEMENTS 30 — 61 PRAIRIE SCHOOL 31 — 62 EARLY COMMERCIAL 32 — 63 CHICAGO 33 — 64 SKYSCRAPER 34 — 65 BUNGALOW/CRAFTSMAN 35 — 70 MODERN MOVEMENT 36 — 71 MODERNE 37 — 72 INTERNATIONAL STYLE 38 — 73 ART DECO 39 — 80 OTHER 40 — 90 MIXED Some selected National Register Information System styles, with examples, include: Federal architecture was the classicizing architecture style built in the newly founded United States between c. 1780 and 1830.
Examples include: the Old Town Hall in Massachusetts, Plumb House in Virginia. Greek Revival architecture is a Neoclassical movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries in Europe, it emerged in the U. S. following the War of 1812 and while a revolutionary war in Greece attracted America's interest. Greek Revival architecture was popularized by Minard Lafever's pattern books: The Young Builders' General Instructor in 1829, the Modern Builders' Guide in 1833, The Beauties of Modern Architecture in 1835, The Architectural Instructor in 1850. Greek Revival in the U. S. includes vernacular versions such as the 1839 Simsbury Townhouse built by an unknown craftsman and the Dicksonia Plantation, high-style versions such as the Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia. Plantation houses Many plantation houses in the Southern United States were built in Greek Revival variations, including Millford Plantation, Melrose and Annandale Plantation Examples of the American revival of classical Palladian architecture include: The Rotunda by Thomas Jefferson at the University of Virginia, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis, Maryland.
Late Victorian architecture is distributed on the register's listings, for many building types in every state. The Carpenter Gothic style was popular for Late Victorian wooden churches; the Queen Anne style was popular in American Victorian architecture, after the earlier Italianate style, is frequent on NRHP residential listings. The Shingle Style is an American variation of Queen Anne. A grouping of historicist architecture Revival styles, with the title Late 19th and 20th Century Revivals, has been applied by the NRHP for many listings. There are numerous listed buildings designed in an amalgam of several to many revival styles that defy a singular or simpler classification title. Mission/Spanish Revival is an amalgam of two distinct styles popular in different but adjacent eras: the late-19th-century Mission Revival Style architecture and early-20th-century Spanish Colonial Revival architecture; the combined term, or the individual terms, are used in the style classifications of NRHP listed buildings.
Pueblo Revival Style architecture is a revival style based on traditional Native American Pueblo architecture of adobe dwellings–communities in the Pueblo culture in present-day New Mexico, northeastern Arizona, southwestern Colorado. Examples include the Institute of American Indian Arts, La Fonda on the Plaza, the Mabel Dodge Luhan House in New Mexico, the Painted Desert Inn in Arizona. Exotic Revival architecture is another style that may reflect a mix of Moorish Revival architecture, Egyptian Revival architecture, other influences. Just a few of many National Register-listed places identified with this style are El Zaribah Shrine Auditorium, Odd Fellows Rest Cemetery, Fort Smith Masonic Temple, Algeria Shrine Temple. Examples in California include Grauman's Egyptian Theatre in Hollywood, the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose; the Mayan Revival architecture style blends Maya architectural and artistic motifs with those of other Mesoamerican cultures of Aztec architecture. Examples include: the Mayan Theater in Downtown Los Angeles.
S. Route 66 in Southern California. "Postmedieval English" architecture is a style term used for a number of NRHP listings, including William Ward Jr. House in Middlefield, Connecticut. "Late 19th and Early 20th Century American Movements" ar
Winslow station (Arizona)
Winslow is an Amtrak train station at 501 East Second Street in Winslow, Navajo County, eastern Arizona. It is served daily by Amtrak's Southwest Chief between Los Angeles; the Santa Fe Depot and La Posada Hotel Harvey House compound are the centerpiece of the La Posada Historic District. The Santa Fe Railway station was built in 1929, the adjacent La Posada Hotel and Gardens was completed in 1930. Both were designed by renowned architect Mary Jane Colter, she is the architect of various notable Fred Harvey Company buildings, including others at the South Rim of the Grand Canyon and in New Mexico. She considered La Posada Hotel as her integrated interior/exterior masterpiece. La Posada Hotel, the depot, combine elements of the Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival architecture styles. Characteristic Colter designed features include shaded colonnades and arcades, red clay tile roofs above massed stuccoed walls and acres of gardens, custom furniture, decorative wrought ironwork throughout.
The hotel building had two main entrances, a southern one on train platform and a northern one on the street for local people and U. S. Route 66 travelers. La Posada is one of the last of a series of hotel-depot complexes built across the Southwestern United States in a collaboration between Fred Harvey and the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway; the hotel was closed in 1957, turned into offices, abandoned. Bought in 1997 to save it, it was restored to reopen as a historic hotel and restaurant complex. Further restoration of the buildings and historic gardens is ongoing. A parking lot and field east of the hotel totaling 8 acres is being converted into a sculpture garden and potager garden by the Winslow Arts Trust; the Turquoise Room, the hotel's restaurant, was rated as one of the top 3 restaurants in the United States by Conde Naste in 2009. The Tina Mion Museum exhibits Mion's contemporary paintings in the hotel's former 3,000 square feet ballroom. La Posada Hotel is mentioned in the Lost Dogs song "Goodbye Winslow" about traveling Route 66, on their album Old Angel.
The Santa Fe Depot building serves as the present day Winslow Amtrak station. It was renovated by the Winslow Arts Trust to house the Route 66 Art Museum, celebrating the culture of Winslow and the historic U. S. Route 66 in Arizona corridor. In June 2016, work began to convert the depot section into a fine art museum. Attractions near La Posada Hotel in adjacent historic Downtown Winslow include: Old Trails Museum, in a 1920 bank building. Snowdrift Art Space, in the 1914 Babbitt Brothers department store building. Winslow Visitor Center, in the former 1917 Winslow Hubble Trading Post building. La Posada Historic District Mary Jane Colter Buildings Media related to La Posada Hotel, Arizona at Wikimedia Commons Winslow, AZ – Amtrak USA Rail Guide—TrainWeb: Winslow Amtrak Station La Posada Hotel website Great American Stations: Winslow
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. Chartered in February 1859, the railroad reached the Kansas-Colorado border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado, in 1876. To create a demand for its services, the railroad set up real estate offices and sold farm land from the land grants that it was awarded by Congress. Despite the name, its main line never served New Mexico, as the terrain was too difficult; the Santa Fe was a pioneer in intermodal freight transport, an enterprise that included a tugboat fleet and an airline. Its bus line extended passenger transportation to areas not accessible by rail, ferryboats on the San Francisco Bay allowed travelers to complete their westward journeys to the Pacific Ocean; the AT&SF was the subject of a popular song, Harry Warren and Johnny Mercer's "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe", written for the film, The Harvey Girls. The railroad ceased operations on December 31, 1996, when it merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway was chartered on February 11, 1859, to join Atchison and Topeka, with Santa Fe, New Mexico. In its early years, the railroad opened Kansas to settlement. Much of its revenue came from wheat grown there and from cattle driven north from Texas to Wichita and Dodge City by September 1872. Rather than turn its survey southward at Dodge City, AT&SF headed southwest over Raton Pass because of coal deposits near Trinidad and Raton, New Mexico; the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad was aiming at Raton Pass, but AT&SF crews arose early one morning in 1878 and were hard at work with picks and shovels when the D&RGW crews showed up for breakfast. At the same time the two railroads had a series of skirmishes over occupancy of the Royal Gorge west of Cañon City, Colorado. Federal intervention prompted an out-of-court settlement on February 2, 1880, in the form of the so-called "Treaty of Boston", wherein D&RG was allowed to complete its line and lease it for use by Santa Fe.
D&RG paid an estimated $1.4 million to Santa Fe for its work within the Gorge and agreed not to extend its line to Santa Fe, while Santa Fe agreed to forego its planned routes to Denver and Leadville. Building across Kansas and eastern Colorado was simple, with few natural obstacles, but the railroad found it economically impossible because of the sparse population, it set up real estate offices in the area and promoted settlement across Kansas on the land, granted to it by Congress in 1863. It offered discounted fares to anyone. AT&SF reached Albuquerque in 1880. In March 1881 AT&SF connected with the Southern Pacific at Deming, New Mexico, forming the second transcontinental rail route; the railroad built southwest from Benson, Arizona, to Nogales on the Mexican border where it connected with the Sonora Railway, which the AT&SF had built north from the Mexican port of Guaymas. AT&SF purchased the Southern California Railway on Jan. 17, 1906. The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was chartered in 1866 to build west from Springfield, along the 35th parallel of latitude to a junction with SP at the Colorado River.
The infant A&P had no rail connections. The line, to become the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway would not reach Springfield for another four years, SP did not build east from Mojave to the Colorado River until 1883. A&P started construction in 1868, built southwest into what would become Oklahoma, promptly entered receivership. In 1879 A&P struck a deal with the Santa Frisco railroads to construct a rail line for each; the railroads would jointly own the A&P railroad west of Albuquerque. In 1883 A&P reached Needles, where it connected with an SP line. A&P built a line between Tulsa, Oklahoma and St. Louis, Missouri for the Frisco, but the Tulsa-Albuquerque portion remained unbuilt; the Santa Fe began to expand: a line from Barstow, California, to San Diego in 1885 and to Los Angeles in 1887. By January 1890, the entire system consisted of some 7,500 miles of track; the Panic of 1893 had the same effect on the AT&SF. In 1895 AT&SF sold the Frisco and the Colorado Midland and wrote off the losses, but it still retained control of the A&P.
The Santa Fe Railway still wanted to reach California on its own rails, the state of California eagerly courted the railroad to break SP's monopoly. In 1897 the railroad traded the Sonora Railway of Mexico to SP for their line between Needles and Barstow, giving AT&SF its own line from Chicago to the Pac
Francis W. Wilson
Francis W. Wilson was an American architect, his practice in Santa Barbara, California included work for the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and its associated Fred Harvey Company hotels, as well as many residences. Wilson was born in Massachusetts and arrived in California at the age of 17 to visit his sister, a schoolteacher in Placerville. There, he worked as a log-driver on the American River and as a surveyor for the Southern Pacific Railroad, he moved to San Francisco in the early 1890s, becoming a draftsman for the firm of Pissis and Moore, where he was instructed by architect Albert Pissis. Wilson studied at the San Francisco chapter of the American Institute of Architects and took a grand tour of Europe before establishing his own firm in Santa Barbara in 1895. Shortly after arriving in Santa Barbara, Wilson designed homes for Dr. C. C. Park and General Henry J. Strong, he built up a practice designing homes for the wealthy, as well as designing and selling speculative houses. His connections with the wealthy led to an interest in polo and amateur horse racing, to commissions for the Santa Barbara Club, the Central Savings Bank, the Santa Barbara library, post office, railroad station.
A friendship with Edward Payson Ripley, president of the Santa Fe Railway, led to commissions for the railway and for the Fred Harvey Company, as well as a commission to design Ripley's winter home. His most extravagant residential commission, Las Tejas in the suburb of Montecito, was built in 1917 for Oakleigh Thorne. Wilson married Julia Redington, sister of Wilson's friend and fellow Santa Barbara Polo Club member Lawrence Redington, in 1905. In 1920, Wilson purchased a forty-five acre ranch in Tuolumne County, California, as well as a nearby mining company. Shortly thereafter, he divorced Redington. During the 1930s, Wilson designed several houses near Sonoma, California. During World War II, he took a position as a designer for at Lockheed Aircraft's plant in Burbank, California. Charles H. Hopkins Home, Santa Barbara, California Santa Barbara Club, Santa Barbara, California Bellosguardo, the Graham home in Santa Barbara, demolished 1933 and replaced by a new Bellosguardo, the estate of.
Santa Barbara Railway Station, Santa Barbara, commissioned by Southern Pacific Railroad, listed on the NRHP Alexander House, Santa Barbara, California Peter H. Murphy Home, Santa Barbara, now Kerrwood Hall, Westmont College Potter Theater, Santa Barbara, destroyed in 1925 earthquake El Garces Hotel, a Harvey House hotel in Needles, listed on the NRHP Seth Cook Rees Home, California Santa Barbara Country Club, Santa Barbara, rebuilt 1913, altered 1915 by Reginald D. Johnson) now the Music Academy of the West Bright Angel Camp, Grand Canyon, Arizona, a conversion of the Bright Angel Hotel and the Buckey O'Neill Cabin for the Fred Harvey Company, now part of the Bright Angel Lodge complex designed by Mary Colter Grand Canyon Depot, Arizona, a National Historic Landmark Barstow Train Depot, a Harvey House located at 685 North First Street, California Central Savings Bank, Corner of State and de la Guerre, Santa Barbara, destroyed in 1925 earthquake Santa Barbara Post Office, Santa Barbara, now the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, remodeled 1941 by David Adler Santa Barbara Public Library, Santa Barbara, California Oakleigh Thorne House, California, redesign/remodel of estate built in 1868) Grand Canyon Depot, Architecture in the Parks, A National Historic Landmark Theme Study
Mojave is a census-designated place in Kern County, United States. Mojave is located 50 miles east at an elevation of 2,762 feet; the town is located in the southwestern region of the Mojave Desert and east of Oak Creek Pass and the Tehachapi Mountains. The population was 4,238 at the 2010 census, up from 3,836 at the 2000 census. Telephone numbers in Mojave follow the format 824-xxxx and the area includes three postal ZIP Codes; the town of Mojave began in 1876 as a construction camp on the Southern Pacific Railroad. From 1884 to 1889, the town was the western terminus of the 165-mile, twenty-mule team borax wagon route originating at Harmony Borax Works in Death Valley, it served as headquarters for construction of the Los Angeles Aqueduct. Located near Edwards Air Force Base, Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, Palmdale Regional Airport, Mojave has a rich aerospace history as well. Besides being a general-use public airport, Mojave has three main areas of activity: flight testing, space industry development, aircraft heavy maintenance and storage.
The closest airfield to the city known as the Mojave Airport, is now part of the Mojave Air and Space Port. In 1935, Kern County established the Mojave Airport 0.5 miles east of town to serve the gold and silver mining industry in the area. The airport consisted of two dirt runways, one of, oiled, but it lacked any fueling or servicing facilities. In 1941, the Civil Aeronautics Board began improvements to the airport for national defense purposes that included two 4,500 by 150 foot asphalt runways and adjacent taxiway. Kern County agreed. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, the U. S. Marine Corps took over the airport and expanded it into Marine Corps Auxiliary Air Station Mojave; the two existing runways were extended and a third one added. Barracks were constructed to house 2,734 376 female military personnel. Civilian employment at the base would peak at 176; the Marines would spend more than $7 million on the base, which totaled 2,312 acres. Many of the Corps' World War II aces received their gunnery training at Mojave.
During World War II, Mojave hosted 29 aircraft squadrons, four Carrier Aircraft Service Detachments, three Air Warning Squadrons. At its peak, the air station had other aircraft. Mojave had a 75 by 156 foot swimming pool, used to train aviators in emergency water egress and for recreation; the base's 900-seat auditorium hosted several USO shows that featured Bob Hope, Frances Langford and Marilyn Maxwell. With the end of WWII, MCAAS was dis-established on February 7, 1946. S. Navy Air Station was established the same day; the Navy used the airport for drone operations for less than a year, closing it on January 1, 1947. The base remained closed for four years until the outbreak of the Korean War. Mojave was reactivated as an auxiliary landing field to MCAS El Toro; the airport was recommissioned as a MCAAS on December 31, 1953. Squadrons used Mojave for ordnance training. Marine Corps reserve units were temporarily deployed to Mojave for two week periods. MCAAS Mojave personnel peaked at 200 civilians during this period.
In 1961, after the USMC transferred operations to MCAS El Centro, Kern County obtained title to the airport. In February 1972, the East Kern Airport District was formed to administer the airport. To a great extent EKAD was the brainchild of Dan Sabovich who lobbied the state for the airport district's creation and ran EKAD until 2002. During the 1970s, Mojave Airport was served by commuter air carrier Golden West Airlines with scheduled passenger flights operated with de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprops direct to Los Angeles. On November 20, 2012, the EKAD Board of Directors voted to change the name of the district to the Mojave Air and Space Port. Officials said that the spaceport name is well known around the world; the change took effect on January 1, 2013. The airport is now the home of various aerospace companies and institutions such as Scaled Composites and the civilian National Test Pilot School; the town was home to the Rutan Voyager, the first aircraft to fly around the world nonstop and unrefueled.
The airport is the first inland spaceport in the United States, was the location of the first private spaceflight, the launch of SpaceShipOne on June 21, 2004. Mojave has a Mojave Transportation Museum. Mojave is located at 35°03′09″N 118°10′26″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 58.4 square miles, over 99% of it land. Mojave has a desert climate (Köppen: BWk, cold desert for using an isotherm of mean annual temperature of less than 18 °C or hot desert for using an isotherm of less than 0 °C for the mean temperature of the coldest month, it has cool winters. Average January temperatures are a maximum of 57.8 °F and a minimum of 34.3 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 97.7 °F and a minimum of 69.8 °F. There are an average of 98 days with highs of 90 °F and an average of 45.7 days with lows of 32 °F. The record high temperature was 118 °F on August 5, 1914; the record low temperature was 8 °F on December 23, 1990. Average annual rainfall is 5.96 inches.
There are an average of 22 days with measurable precipitation. The wettest year was 1983 with 15.51 inches and the driest year was 1942 with 0.85 inches. The most rainfall in one month