Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca
It occurs from 600 m altitude in the north of the range, up to 3,000 m, rarely 3,200 m, in the south. Further west towards the Pacific coast, it is replaced by the related coast Douglas-fir, some botanists have grouped Mexican Douglas-fir with P. menziesii var. glauca, but genetic and morphological evidence suggest that Mexican populations should be considered a different variety. Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir is most commonly treated as a variety, but has called a subspecies or more rarely a distinct species. The strong ecological and genetic differentiation with intergradation limited primarily to postglacial contact zones in British Columbia supports infraspecific groupings, some botanists have further split Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir into two varieties, but these are not widely acknowledged and have only limited support from genetic testing. Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir is a tree, typically reaching 35–45 m in height and 1 m in diameter, with exceptional specimens known to 67 m tall. It commonly lives more than 500 years and occasionally more than 1,200 years, the bark on young trees is thin, smooth and covered with resin blisters.
On mature trees, it is thick and corky though much less so than coast Douglas-fir. The shoots are brown to gray-brown, though not as smooth as fir shoots, the buds are a distinctive narrow conic shape, 3–6 mm long, with red-brown bud scales. The male cones are 2–3 cm long, and are restricted to or more abundant on lower branches. Pollen cones develop over 1 year and wind-dispersed pollen is released for weeks in the spring. The mature female seed cones are pendent, 4–7 cm long,2 cm broad when closed and they are produced in spring, purple at first, maturing orange-brown in the autumn 5–7 months later. The seeds are 5–6 mm long and 3–4 mm broad, with a 12–15 mm wing, both coast Douglas-fir and Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir produce abundant crops of seed approximately every 2–11 years. Seed is produced annually except for about 1 year in any 4-to-5-year period, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir grows more slowly than coast Douglas-fir and is much more cold tolerant. Tolerance of different environmental conditions varies among populations of Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, even nearby populations can differ in cold hardiness.
Root morphology is variable, but when unimpeded, a taproot forms within several years, platelike root morphologies occur where growth is impeded. The most prominent lateral roots begin in the 1st or 2nd year of growth, most roots in surface soil are long ropelike laterals of secondary and tertiary origin. Fine-root production is episodic in response to changing conditions, the average lifespan of fine roots is usually between several days and several weeks. Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir reaches reproductive maturity at 12–15 years and it has winged seeds that are dispersed primarily by wind and gravity
Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water. They are characterized by steep slopes, minimal vegetation, lack of a substantial regolith and they can resemble malpaís, a terrain of volcanic rock. Canyons, gullies, mesas and they are often difficult to navigate by foot. Badlands often have a color display that alternates from dark black/blue coal stria to be bright clays to red scoria. Badlands are partially characterized by their thin to nonexistent regolith layers, the regolith profiles of badlands in arid climates are likely to resemble one another. In these regions, the layer is typically composed of silt, shale. This layer can form either a compact crust or a looser, Badlands such as those found in the Mancos Shale, the Brule Formation, the Chadron Formation, and the Dinosaur Provincial Park can be generally said to fit this profile. In less arid regions, the regolith profile can vary considerably, some badlands have no regolith layer whatsoever, capping instead in bare rock such as sandstone.
Others have a regolith with a clay veneer, and still others have a biological crust of algae or lichens, in addition to lacking significant regolith, they lack much vegetation. The lack of vegetation could very well be a result of the lack of a substantial regolith, the formation of badlands is a result of two processes and erosion. The process of deposition describes the accumulation, over time, of layers of mineral material, different environments such as seas, rivers, or tropical zones, deposit different sorts of clays and sand. Once the deposited sediments have solidified, the material becomes subject to erosion. It is sometimes taught that badlands erode at a steady rate of about 1 inch per year. In actuality, the processes by which the erosion responses take place vary depending on the precise interbedding of the sedimentary material. In 2010, researchers at Badlands National Park initiated a 3-year project to learn more about the erosion rate of the specific badlands found in that park.
Some of the best-known badland formations can be found in Canada, in the U. S. Makoshika State Park in Montana and Badlands National Park in South Dakota together form a series of extensive badland formations. Among the Henry Mountains area, about 1500m above sea level, another popular area of badland formations is Toadstool Geologic Park in the Oglala National Grassland of northwestern Nebraska. Dinosaur National Monument in Colorado and Utah are badlands settings, a small badland called Hells Half-Acre is present in Natrona County, Wyoming
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Lava is the molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption. The resulting rock after solidification and cooling is called lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of planets, including Earth. The source of the heat melts the rock within the earth is geothermal energy. When first erupted from a vent, lava is a liquid usually at temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C. A lava flow is an outpouring of lava, which is created during a non-explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies to form igneous rock, the term lava flow is commonly shortened to lava. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying because of its thixotropic, explosive eruptions produce a mixture of volcanic ash and other fragments called tephra, rather than lava flows. The word lava comes from Italian, and is derived from the Latin word labes which means a fall or slide. The first use in connection with extruded magma was apparently in an account written by Francesco Serao on the eruption of Vesuvius between May 14 and June 4,1737.
Serao described a flow of lava as an analogy to the flow of water. The composition of almost all lava of the Earths crust is dominated by silicate minerals, mostly feldspars, pyroxenes, micas, igneous rocks, which form lava flows when erupted, can be classified into three chemical types, felsic and mafic. These classes are primarily chemical, the chemistry of lava tends to correlate with the temperature, its viscosity. Felsic or silicic lavas such as rhyolite and dacite typically form lava spines, most silicic lava flows are extremely viscous, and typically fragment as they extrude, producing blocky autobreccias. Felsic magmas can erupt at temperatures as low as 650 to 750 °C, unusually hot rhyolite lavas, may flow for distances of many tens of kilometres, such as in the Snake River Plain of the northwestern United States. Intermediate or andesitic lavas are lower in aluminium and silica, and usually somewhat richer in magnesium, intermediate lavas form andesite domes and block lavas, and may occur on steep composite volcanoes, such as in the Andes.
Poorer in aluminium and silica than felsic lavas, and commonly hotter, greater temperatures tend to destroy polymerized bonds within the magma, promoting more fluid behaviour and a greater tendency to form phenocrysts. Higher iron and magnesium tends to manifest as a darker groundmass, mafic or basaltic lavas are typified by their high ferromagnesian content, and generally erupt at temperatures in excess of 950 °C
Oasisamerica is a term used by some scholars, primarily Mexican anthropologists, for the broad cultural area defining pre-Columbian southwestern North America. It extends from modern-day Utah down to southern Chihuahua, and from the coast on the Gulf of California eastward to the Río Bravo river valley and its name comes from its position in relationship with the similar regions of Mesoamerica and mostly nomadic Aridoamerica. The term Greater Southwest is often used to describe this region by American anthropologists, as opposed to their nomadic Aridoamerican neighbors, the Oasisamericans primarily had agricultural societies. The term Oasisamerica is derived from a combination of the terms oasis and it refers to a wild land dominated by the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Madre Occidental. To the east and west of these mountain ranges stretch the grand arid plains of the Sonora, Chihuahua. Despite being a dry land, Oasisamerica contains several bodies of water like rivers, Rio Grande, Conchos.
The presence of these rivers, combined with a climate that was much milder that eastern Aridoamerica, the story of the origins of the cultural superarea of Mesoamerica takes place some 2000 years after the separation of Mesoamerica and Aridoamerica. Some of the Aridoamerican communities farmed as a complement to their hunter-gatherer economy and those communities, among whom one finds adherents to the Desert Tradition, would become more truly agricultural and form Oasisamerica. Based on maize remnants found in Bat Cave, Arizona, it appears that agriculture practices date back to at least 3500 BCE. Given that the oldest traces of maize in North America date back to the year 5000 BCE and it is less certain who brought the agricultural technology and what role they played in the development of the high cultures of Oasisamerica. At least three hypotheses have proposed to explain the birth of the cultures of Oasisamerica. One, a model, posits an independent cultural development whose roots lie deep in antiquity.
From this point of view, thanks to a superior climate, a second hypothesis presupposes that the nomads of the Mesoamerican culture slowly moved northward over time. Thus, the Oasisamericans would be an offshoot of their neighbors to the south, there are many indications of a close relationship between the two great cultural regions of North America. For one, the turquoise that the Mesoamericans prized so dearly came almost exclusively from southern New Mexico, demand for this mineral alone may have played a large part in establishing trade relationships between the two cultural areas. The area encompassed by Oasisamerica fostered the growth of major cultural groups, the Ancestral Pueblo people, Mogollon, Pataya. Smaller cultures within this region include the Sinagua, Ancestral Pueblo cultures flourished in the region currently known as the Four Corners. The Ancestral Pueblo society is one of the most complex to be found in Oasisamerica, the Ancestral Pueblo is considered to be the most intensely studied Pre-Columbian culture in the United States
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A habitat is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of animal, plant, or other type of organism. The term typically refers to the zone in which the organism lives and it is the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the physical environment that surrounds a species population. Every organism has certain habitat needs for the conditions in which it will thrive, habitat types include polar, temperate and tropical. The terrestrial vegetation type may be forest, grassland, the word habitat has been in use since about 1755 and derives from the Latin third-person singular present indicative of habitāre, to inhabit, from habēre, to have or to hold. Habitat can be defined as the environment of an organism. It is similar in meaning to a biotope, an area of environmental conditions associated with a particular community of plants. Generally speaking, animal communities are reliant on specific types of plant communities, some plants and animals are generalists, and their habitat requirements are met in a wide range of locations.
The small white butterfly for example is found on all the continents of the world apart from Antarctica and its larvae feed on a wide range of Brassicas and various other plant species, and it thrives in any open location with diverse plant associations. Disturbance is important in the creation of biodiverse habitats, in the absence of disturbance, a climax vegetation cover develops that prevents the establishment of other species. Lightning strikes and toppled trees in tropical forests allow species richness to be maintained as pioneering species move in to fill the gaps created. Similarly coastal habitats can become dominated by kelp until the seabed is disturbed by a storm, another cause of disturbance is when an area may be overwhelmed by an invasive introduced species which is not kept under control by natural enemies in its new habitat. Terrestrial habitat types include forests, grasslands and deserts, within these broad biomes are more specific habitats with varying climate types, temperature regimes, soils and vegetation types.
Many of these habitats grade into each other and each one has its own communities of plants. A habitat may suit a particular species well, but its presence or absence at any particular location depends to some extent on chance, on its dispersal abilities, freshwater habitats include rivers, lakes, ponds and bogs. Although some organisms are found across most of these habitats, the majority have more specific requirements, aquatic plants can be floating, semi-submerged, submerged or grow in permanently or temporarily saturated soils besides bodies of water. Marine habitats include brackish water, bays, the sea, the intertidal zone. Further variations include rock pools, sand banks, brackish lagoons and pebbly beaches, the benthic zone or seabed provides a home for both static organisms, anchored to the substrate, and for a large range of organisms crawling on or burrowing into the surface. A desert is not the kind of habitat that favours the presence of amphibians, with their requirement for water to keep their skins moist, some frogs live in deserts, creating moist habitats underground and hibernating while conditions are adverse
Cibola National Forest
The Cibola National Forest is a 1,633,783 acre United States National Forest in New Mexico, USA. The name Cibola is thought to be the original Zuni Indian name for their pueblos or tribal lands, the name was interpreted by the Spanish to mean, buffalo. The forest is disjointed with lands spread across central and northern New Mexico, west Texas, the Cibola National Forest is divided into four Ranger Districts, the Sandia, Mountainair, Mt. Taylor, and Magdalena. The Forest includes the San Mateo, Datil, Gallina, Sandia, Mt. Taylor, the Forest manages four National Grasslands that stretch from northeastern New Mexico eastward into the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma. The Cibola National Forest and Grassland is administered by Region 3 of the United States Forest Service from offices in Albuquerque, elevation ranges from 5,000 ft to 11,301 ft. The Cibola National Forest currently has 137,701 acres designated as Wilderness, in addition to these acres, it has 246,000 acres classified as Inventoried Roadless Areas pursuant to the Roadless Area Conservation Rule.
The Cibola National Forest is organized into several divisions over three states, the combined Cibola National Grasslands are 262,141 acres in size. New Mexico is home to much of the Forest, including the Kiowa National Grassland 136,417 acres in Harding, Union and Colfax counties, New Mexico. The Cibola National Forests Sandia Ranger District is just east of Albuquerque in Central New Mexico, the Sandia District includes national forest land in eastern Bernalillo and southeastern Sandoval counties, and includes the Sandia Peak Tram and the Sandia Crest National Scenic Byway. The Sandia Mountains lie in the portion of the District. It is here where Congress designated the Sandia Mountain Wilderness in 1978, the Cibolas Sandia Ranger District includes the Manzanita Mountains, which stretch south, between the Sandia and the Manzano Mountains. The Manzano Mountains are managed by the Cibola National Forests Mountainair Ranger District, the Mountainair Ranger District manages national forestland in Torrance, northwestern Lincoln, and eastern Valencia counties, which are in central New Mexico.
Within the Mountainair District are the Gallinas Mountains and the Manzano Mountains, Congress designated the Manzano Wilderness in 1978. The Mount Taylor Ranger District manages land in northern Cibola, southern McKinley, Mount Taylor and Zuni Mountains are within the Mount Taylor District. Overseeing approximately 800,000 acres, the Magdalena Ranger District is the largest of the Cibola National Forests four mountain districts, the Cibola’s Magdalena District manages land in south central New Mexico in western Socorro, northeastern Catron, and northern Sierra counties. The Bear Mountains, Datil Mountains, Magdalena Mountains and San Mateo Mountains are all within the Magdalena District, there are two Wilderness areas in this District - the Apache Kid and the Withington Wilderness areas, both of which are in the San Mateo Mountains. In addition to the designated Wilderness, the Magdalena Ranger District has 205,972 acres of Inventoried Roadless Areas, the Magdalena Ranger Districts officers are stationed in the Village of Magdalena.
The District has roots in the Gila Forest Reserve, created by President William McKinley in 1899, making the U. S. Forest Service the “oldest continuous business in Magdalena. ”Cibola biomes range from Chihuahuan desert to short grass prairie to piñon-juniper to sub-alpine spruce and fir
Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer, novelist and prominent member of the Huxley family. He graduated from Balliol College at the University of Oxford with an honours in English literature. Early in his career Huxley edited the magazine Oxford Poetry and published short stories, mid career and later, he published travel writing, film stories, and scripts. He spent the part of his life in the U. S. living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death. In 1962, a year before his death, he was elected Companion of Literature by the Royal Society of Literature, Huxley was a humanist and satirist. He became interested in subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism. By the end of his life, Huxley was widely acknowledged as one of the pre-eminent intellectuals of his time and he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in seven different years. Huxley was born in Godalming, England, in 1894 and he was the third son of the writer and schoolmaster Leonard Huxley, who edited Cornhill Magazine, and his first wife, Julia Arnold, who founded Priors Field School.
Julia was the niece of poet and critic Matthew Arnold and the sister of Mrs. Humphrey Ward, Aldous was the grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, the zoologist and controversialist. His brother Julian Huxley and half-brother Andrew Huxley became outstanding biologists, Aldous had another brother, Noel Trevelyan Huxley, who committed suicide after a period of clinical depression. As a child, Huxleys nickname was Ogie, short for Ogre and he was described by his brother, Julian, as someone who frequently the strangeness of things. According to his cousin and contemporary, Gervas Huxley, he had an early interest in drawing, Huxleys education began in his fathers well-equipped botanical laboratory, after which he enrolled at Hillside School near Godalming. He was taught there by his own mother for years until she became terminally ill. After Hillside, he went on to Eton College and his mother died in 1908 when he was 14. In 1911 he contracted the eye disease which left practically blind for two to three years and this ended his early dreams of becoming a doctor.
In October 1913, Huxley went up to Balliol College, Oxford, in January 1916, he volunteered to join the British Army in the Great War, but was rejected on health grounds, being half-blind in one eye. In 1916 he edited Oxford Poetry and in June of that year graduated BA with First Class honours and his brother Julian wrote, I believe his blindness was a blessing in disguise. For one thing, it put paid to his idea of taking up medicine as a career and his uniqueness lay in his universalism
Southwestern United States
The population of the area is around 11 million people, with over half that in Arizona, the most populous cities are Phoenix, El Paso, Las Vegas and Tucson. Most of the area was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain in the Spanish Empire before becoming part of Mexico and it became part of the United States through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the Gadsden Purchase. The deserts dominate the southern and western reaches of the area, the two major rivers of the region are the Colorado River, running in the northern and western areas, and the Rio Grande, running in the south. Formed approximately 8000 years ago, the Chihuahuan Desert is a dry desert. The Chihuahuan Desert spreads across the portion of the region, covering from southeastern Arizona, across southern New Mexico. While it is the second largest desert in the United States, only a third of the desert is within the United States, El Paso is the major city in this desert, with other smaller cities being Las Cruces and Roswell in New Mexico.
The Chihuahuan is a rain shadow desert, formed two mountain ranges which block oceanic precipitation from reaching the area. The most prolific plants in this region are agave and creosote bushes, when people think of the desert southwest, the landscape of the Sonoran Desert is what mostly comes to mind. Rainfall averages between 4–12 inches per year, and the deserts most widely known inhabitant is the saguaro cactus and it is bounded on the northwest by the Mojave Desert, to the north by the Colorado Plateau and to the east by the Arizona Mountains forests and the Chihuahuan Desert. The portion of the Sonora Desert which lies in the Southwestern United States is the most populated area within the region. Six of the top ten major population centers of the region are found within its borders, Tucson, Chandler, within its borders are Yuma and Prescott Arizona. The most northwest portion of the American Southwest is covered by the Mojave Desert, bordered on the south by the Sonoran Desert and the east by the Colorado Plateau, its range within the region makes up the southeast tip of Nevada, and the northwestern corner of Arizona.
In terms of topography, the Mojave is very similar to the Great Basin Desert, the Mojave is the smallest and hottest desert within the United States. The Mojave gets less than six inches of rain annually, the most prolific vegetation is the tall Joshua tree, which grow as tall as 40 feet, and are thought to live almost 1000 years. Other major vegetation includes the Parry saltbush and the Mojave sage, the Colorado Plateau varies from the large stands of forests in the west, including the largest stand of ponderosa pine trees in the world, to the Mesas to the east. Although not called a desert, the Colorado Plateau is mostly made up of high desert, the Plateau is characterized by a series of plateaus and mesas, interspersed with canyons. The most dramatic example is the Grand Canyon, but that is one of many dramatic vistas included within the Plateau, which includes spectacular lava formations, painted deserts, sand dunes, and badlands. One of the most distinctive features of the Plateau is its longevity, the Plateau can be divided into six sections, three of which fall into the Southwest region
El Morro National Monument
El Morro National Monument is located on an ancient east-west trail in western New Mexico. The main feature of this National Monument is a sandstone promontory with a pool of water at its base. As a shaded oasis in the western U. S. desert, the remains of a mesa top pueblo are atop the promontory where between about 1275 to 1350 AD, up to 1500 people lived in this 875 room pueblo. The Spaniard explorers called it El Morro, the Zuni Indians call it Atsina. Travelers left signatures, names and stories of their treks, while some of the inscriptions are fading, there are still many that can be seen today, some dating to the 17th century. Among the Anglo-American emigrants who left their names there in 1858 were several members of the Rose-Baley Party, including Leonard Rose, some petroglyphs and carvings were made by the Ancestral Puebloan centuries before Europeans started making their mark. In 1906, U. S. federal law prohibited further carving, the many inscriptions, water pool, pueblo ruins, and top of the promontory are all accessible via park trails.
It is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways, National Register of Historic Places listings in Cibola County, New Mexico List of National Monuments of the United States United States Government Printing Office. GPO 387-038/00173 Official National Park Service site American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Acoma Pueblo is a Native American pueblo approximately 60 miles west of Albuquerque, New Mexico in the United States. Three villages make up Acoma Pueblo, Sky City, the Acoma Pueblo tribe is a federally recognized tribal entity. The historical land of Acoma Pueblo totaled roughly 5,000,000 acres, the community retains only 10% of this land, making up the Acoma Indian Reservation. Acoma Pueblo is a National Historic Landmark, according to the 2010 United States Census,4,989 people identified as Acoma. The Acoma have continuously occupied the area for more than 800 years, Acoma tribal traditions estimate that they have lived in the village for more than two thousand years. The English name Acoma was borrowed from Spanish Ácoma or Acóma, the Spanish name was borrowed from the Acoma word ʔáák’u̓u̓m̓é meaning person from Acoma Pueblo. ʔáák’u̓u̓m̓é itself is derived from ʔáák’u, the name does not have any meaning in the modern Acoma language. Some tribal authorities connect it to the similar word háák’u preparedness, place of preparedness, the name does not mean sky city.
Other tribal elders assert that it means place that always was while outsiders say it means people of the white rock, Acoma has been spelled in various other ways in historical documents. ákuma, ákomage, Acux, Hacús, Vsacus, Acco, Acogiya, Coco, Akome, Ako, the Spanish mission name was San Esteban de Acoma. Pueblo is the Spanish word for ‘village’ or ‘small town. ’ In general usage, the Acoma language is classified in the western division of the Keresan language family. In contemporary Acoma Pueblo culture, most people speak both Acoma and English, Pueblo people are believed to have descended from the Anasazi and other ancient peoples. These influences are seen in the architecture, farming style, in the 13th century, the Anasazi abandoned their canyon homelands due to climate change and social upheaval. For upwards of two centuries, migrations occurred in the area, the Acoma Pueblo emerged by the thirteenth century. This early founding date makes Acoma Pueblo one of the earliest continuously inhabited communities in the United States, the Pueblo is situated on a 365 feet mesa, about 60 miles west of Albuquerque, New Mexico.
The isolation and location of the Pueblo has sheltered the community for more than 1,200 years and they sought to avoid conflict with the neighboring Navajo and Apache peoples. The first mention of Acoma was in 1539, the slave Estevanico was the first non-Indian to visit Acoma and reported it to Fray Marcos de Niza who related the information to the viceroy of New Spain after the end of his expedition. Acoma was called the independent Kingdom of Hacus and he called the Acoma people encaconados, which meant that they had turquoise hanging from their ears and noses